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Blanchard Family DNA Project

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Introduction

This is an all-volunteer project dedicated to the advancement of genealogical research on Blanchard and similar surnames, using DNA testing as the main research tool. This is meant to supplement, rather than replace, the more traditional forms of genealogy research.

DNA-assisted genealogy is rapidly becoming a standard tool for investigating family trees. The testing procedure has become simple and affordable, and a whole host of sticky questions can now be addressed in a new way. You have all heard those traditions in families that claim there were originally "three brothers" who all settled in the American colonies, with one brother going to each of the regions: north, middle, and south. Sometimes, there is a foundation of truth to these traditions, but there is seldom any proof. The Blanchards have the same sort of thing, but on a smaller scale. There is an oft-repeated assertion that two early Massachusetts immigrants Thomas and Joseph Blanchard were brothers, and another claim that a grandson of Joseph migrated to North Carolina to found a Blanchard line there. Neither claim has been substantiated. In the past, such stories have remained indefinitely in a kind of genealogical limbo, since lack of evidence is not evidence of a lack. The fact that there is no known record of the birth or baptism of either Thomas or Joseph Blanchard, nor even any indication of Joseph's original home, means that conventional genealogy must remain silent on the questions of whether and how these two men might be related. DNA testing offers a new approach to family history research.

Because the human Y chromosome is passed virtually unchanged from father to son (the same way that surnames are passed in our society), it should be possible to test a select group of male Blanchards descended from each of these two lines and determine whether the two are closely related or not at all or somewhere in between. In principle, one person from each side could be tested, but we would need to make allowances for "surprises" in the genealogy (e.g., previously unsuspected adoptions or other breaks in the line of descent). As a minimum test project, we need about three from each side. We would hope that the DNA results for all three come out very nearly the same (occasional mutations do occur), but a "surprise" in one of the three would still leave us with a consensus from the remaining two. If we can make sure that one testee descends from each of three sons of the family patriarch, then the agreement of any two of the three would be convincing proof that we have a valid result. It is then a simple matter to compare one Blanchard line with the other to see if they agree. Now, Thomas1 had three sons, and so that line works out very neatly: George2, Samuel2, and Nathaniel2. (Actually, there was also a son Thomas2, but he died without male issue.) On the other hand, Joseph1 is thought to have had only two sons, and his elder son William's male line of descent apparently died out, so the revised target is a test of three branches descended from the younger son John2 ("Deacon John"): James3, Thomas3, and Joseph3. Additional test subjects from these lines can add redundancy and make the project more robust in the event of "surprises", but the basic six should suffice in theory. This scheme is outlined in Table 1, including the extra testees. For the resolution of this genealogical puzzle, read on.
 


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Expansion

Needless to say, other lines of Blanchards can be added to the study, and we do so as the occasion arises (see below). All male Blanchards (and those with similar surnames) are welcome to join. Comparison with the Blanchards of New York, Acadia, and Louisiana, as well as those of England, France, and the Low Countries may (or may not) reveal links between American and European branches of the various families. Also, anyone who wonders if he may be a male-line descendant of one of the lines covered in the study can perhaps identify his line by comparing his DNA signature (called a "haplotype") with the tabulated results. Eventually, the previously unconnected Blanchards may be able to link up and identify new lines not yet documented. At present, we have ten test subjects whose results show a genetic connection (not yet documented genalogically) to Group 1, and two of those even have a hint of which sub-branch is theirs (see below). Other testees are associated in the same way with Groups 2, 4, 7, and 9. Having established kinship genetically, they can now proceed to look for evidence of the exact connection. Such research may ultimately reveal that some of these subjects are not descendants of the currently known common ancestors of their respective affiliated groups, but instead share ancestry further back. Thus, the test results will help to focus research on areas that will extend the known lineages. In particular, descendants of modern emigrants (19th and 20th centuries) may find connections to those of earlier emigrants and bridge centuries via DNA testing.

Because some test subjects (perhaps many) cannot be assigned to one or another of the lineage groups, each participant may submit the name and dates of his earliest confirmed Blanchard ancestor. These are shown in Table 2.
 


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How It Works

For an introduction to the field of DNA-assisted genealogy, view Thomas Roderick's write-up. In case you want just the shortest possible description, here it is: the test measures the lengths of 12 (or however many) specific sequences on the Y chromosome. By comparing these lengths for different test subjects, it can reveal approximately how closely the testees are related.

Note: these sequences are not found within genes and have no known genetic function. Thus, the test is not designed to reveal any physical characteristics or innate tendencies. The reason it works for genealogical purposes is that the observed changes in sequence length are neither harmful nor helpful; they simply happen now and then, and they persist because the body doesn't notice the difference. These persistent-yet-changeable variations are the markers that allow us to tell families apart.

We have arranged with FamilyTree DNA (FTDNA) to offer a reduced, group rate of $99 (plus shipping) per 12-locus DNA test to members of our project. A group discount is also available for the 25-, 37-, and 67-locus tests. The test kit is very simple and comes in the mail with complete instructions: basically, it contains three little swabs to be rubbed on the inside of the mouth to collect some loose cells. Each swab is then popped into a container, and the kit is mailed back to the lab. The kit comes with an optional release form that requests FTDNA to give your email address to any present or future FTDNA testee who matches you closely on the DNA test. If you decide not to sign the release form, your privacy will be absolutely protected, and FTDNA will not notify you or anyone else about matches with your DNA. There is also a space where you can write down the country of origin of your ultimate ancestor -- this is optional and has no bearing on the present study (but it may be of interest to some future population geneticist).

Note: each FTDNA test kit has a unique identifying number. As you can see from the accompanying graph, these numbers have been assigned in essentially monotonically increasing order from the beginning. The graph shows the kit number vs. the date each kit was ordered from the company, with all Blanchard kits (starting in May of 2002) and some kits from other projects to extend the curve back in time and to fill out the coverage.

We have also arranged for testing with DNA Heritage, which does not offer a 12-locus test, but does offer the same 25-locus test as FTDNA and 32 of the 37 and 34 of the 67, plus 9 other loci not available in the ordinary FTDNA test options.

Those who wish to get in touch with other participants with not-quite-exact matches may do so by joining our "enhanced communication plan". Members of the plan are notified periodically of the e-mail addresses of all the other plan members, keyed to the ID numbers from Table 1 and Table 2.

For more detailed information, write to our project administrator: John Chandler, or (for general information) write to a co-administrator: Allen Blancett
 


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Blanchard DNA Fund

FTDNA has established a fund to be used within our project to help defray the costs of DNA testing. The company matched the first $200 of contributions to this fund, but we are on our own now. The intent of this fund is to secure the participation of potential testees who seem likely to contribute to the success of the project as a whole and who otherwise could not (or would not) join. If you would like to make a donation, please visit this site:

http://www.familytreedna.com/group-general-fund-contribution.aspx?g=Blanchard

Note that donations can be made either on line (by credit card or PayPal) or by mail. It is important to specify the Blanchard project on the form, so that the donation is properly credited. In the on-line form, this entails choosing the initial letter "B" and then clicking on Blanchard in the menu. The above link performs this task automatically. You may also specify how the donation is to be used and/or that it is a memorial, by selecting a "donation type" and/or entering a note about the donation. For example, you might select the "Memory of" type and enter a note saying "in memory of John Smith - For testing Blancetts in Oklahoma." If your restriction is more complicated, it would be helpful to send an email to the project administrator, spelling out the details. If you wish to contribute by mail, you fill out the form on-line and print it for sending in.

Thank you for your help.
 


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Project News


 
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Notes and Discussion

In Table 1, 4-, 5-, or 6-digit ID's refer to FTDNA results; a row beginning with a name is the inferred haplotype of the family patriarch. Each person in Groups 1, 2, and 3 is also identified by a letter code for the corresponding son of the patriarch. In Group 1, these are G, S, N, for George2, Samuel2, and Nathaniel2, the sons of Thomas1 In Group 2, these are J, T, J (in that order), for James3, Thomas3, and Joseph3, the sons of John2. In Group 3, these are B, E, A, for Benjamin2, Ephraim2, and Aaron2. Slots that need to be filled are indicated by asterisks. If other groups grow to include multiple branches, similar designations will be added there, as well.

Lower-case letters signify test results that came to our project indirectly, such as "sm01" (discovered in the SMGF database) and "n4479" (joined from the National Geographic's Genographic Project). The prefixes "sm" and "n" denote these two sources, respectively. Another source is the YSEARCH database, which identifies entries by 5-character alphanumeric strings. Most project members in YSEARCH tested with FTDNA and thus have unique kit numbers based on a single system, but those who tested at the alternate lab (DNAH) are designated by their YSEARCH identifiers. Similarly, when we discover other entries in YSEARCH with surnames relevant to our project, these are included here with their YSEARCH identifiers. We assume, without proof, that YSEARCH strings will never be accidentally duplicated by any of the other types of IDs we use.

Note: some of our results combine information from more than one source, such as 3362 (from FTDNA, DNAH, and Biotix/DNAFP), 8814 (from FTDNA, Biotix, and SMGF), and 4513, 12320, 12733, and 27651 (from FTDNA and SMGF). In such cases, we use the FTDNA kit number for identification. So far, all of the reports from different labs for the same person have agreed (after proper conversion), with just one (double) exception: the reports of DYS391 for 8814 and 12733 from FTDNA and SMGF differ by one step. See Group 6 for further discussion of this discrepancy.

Historical note: the testing company Biotix changed its name to DNA FingerPrint (DNAFP for short) and later was acquired by FTDNA. We still use the old names in referring to results obtained before the merger.

In a sense, there is a second discrepancy, but it involves only the number of duplicate copies of markers, rather than the lengths of the markers. See Group 3 for a discussion of the differing reports for member 3362.

At present, we have 127 test results back from the lab, including those from the Gengraphic Project, the Web, and the alternate lab. These results include thirteen from Group 1 (plus fifteen genetically related), four from Group 2 (plus three genetically related), four from Group 3 (plus one genetically related), two from Group 4 (plus one genetically related), two from Group 5, seventeen from Group 6, three from Group 7 (plus seven genetically related), two from Group 8, two from Group 9 (plus one genetically related), four from Group 10 (plus four genetically related), and two from Group 11. We can thus reconstruct the haplotypes of the progenitors Thomas1, John2, the father of Benjamin2, Charles, John, and William, Andrew, Stephen, Pierre, and Jean-Baptiste, as well as the as-yet-unidentified ancestor of Group 6.

Note: unlike most other surname-based DNA projects, we have established a protocol that requires both genetic and conventional evidence for creating a group (the sole exception being Group 6, which has a mostly distinctive set of variants of the surname in addition to the distinctive haplotype). For this reason, there are persons who match the DNA of Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, or 10, but who are not (yet) placed in those groups for lack of conventional evidence. These are displayed as separate, but presumably related, lists following the main lists of members of the conventionally linked groups and color-coded to match the groups they match genetically.

We have a WEB LOG of discussion about this project, giving the viewpoints of the participants and other interested parties. Also, see below for a top-down discussion.

Groups 1 and 2

CONCLUSION: These two Blanchard lines differ by 14 steps in the first 12 loci, so many that the two lines cannot be related within genealogical time. (The seeming difference by 2 at locus DYS389ii is already included in the difference noted for DYS389i and must not be counted again.) More quantitatively, we must recognize that DNA mutations cause two lines to diverge in a "random walk" which grows as the square-root of elapsed time. For that reason, the operative difference between the two lines is the sum of squares of the differences, locus by locus, i.e., 24 (0 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 4 + 1 + 1 + 4 + 1 + 4 + 4 + 0). Taking the usually accepted mutation rate of 0.002 mutation per locus per generation and an average generation length of 30 years, this difference indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the two lines should be around 14,000 years ago. The same sort of analysis shows that Group 3 is separated from the first two groups by thousands of years as well. (One caveat: any random process can generate unlikely results. However, it is extremely unlikely that lines with such different DNA patterns would be related after all.)

Note: for haplotypes with small differences, this simple calculation does not work, for two reasons:

  1. If only a short time has elapsed since the common ancestor, any two-step difference is likely to be the result of a two-step mutation, rather than two one-step mutations, and
  2. in such a short time, it is very unlikely that any locus has "walked" more than two steps apart and then reconverged.
Therefore, it is best to estimate the time from a much more detailed model. Even so, these estimates are very crude because we are dealing with the statistics of small numbers.

Because of the difficulties in recruiting additional test subjects in Group 2, we took the expedient of testing the first two subjects twice as thoroughly. The testing company offers an "upgrade" test that extends the basic test from 12 to 25 markers, reusing the same DNA sample. This allowed us to be doubly sure that the two subjects are indeed related and that their one-off discrepancy at DYS439 is just a simple mutation that occurred in subject 3288, also confirmed by the agreement among the others at that locus. If the near-agreement between the two had been just a lucky accident, we would expect to see more (perhaps many more) discrepancies among the additional 13 markers, but the results show that the two agree exactly in the extension. We also extended several of the testees of Group 1 (at least one from each branch) to 25 markers, and indeed both groups have now been extended to 37, and two things are readily apparent: first, each group continues to be consistent within itself and, second, the striking difference between the two groups is continued in the additional markers.

Comparison of the results within the project reveals a number of participants who match, or nearly match, Group 1 or Group 2, even though they have no genealogical trail linking them in. It seems likely that they are indeed related. Indeed, three affiliates of Group 1 have now extended the testing to 67 markers, and the consistency among them provides additional support for the belief that they are closely related. They are therefore color-coded in Tables 1 and 2 to match the corresponding group, even though they are listed separately for want of a proven lineage back to Thomas1 or Deacon John2. Two of them (3340 and 19224) differ slightly from Group 1 on the first 12 markers (differences shaded in gray in Table 1), but the differences are only one step each and are therefore easily explainable in terms of occasional random mutations. Most of these matching affiliates live in North America, but, even so, we cannot rule out the possibility that they descend from a common ancestor further back than Thomas1 and not directly from Thomas1 himself. Indeed, two affiliates of Group 1 (IDs dtump and 114551) live in England, and one of Group 2 (ID sm01) lives in Australia, while another (ID 132660) lives in England, and we presume they are not descended from their respective group "patriarchs". However, the obvious next step of tracing them all back to the more remote common ancestors will require considerable research (and luck). Part of this effort would be to identify and test living male-line descendants of Blanchards contemporary to Thomas1 and compare their results to his reconstructed haplotype. For this reason, it would be useful to expand the test by including more Blanchards, either with or without documented lineages. For example, Blanchard families were found early on in Acadia. If we could include male-line descendants of these families in the testing, it would be possible to determine whether they are related to any of the groups already established. That would increase our confidence in the tentative identification of an undocumented Blanchard's progenitor solely by the DNA test results.

There is one notable coincidence which is presumably more than a coincidence: the mutation seen in sample 3216 is matched in 3340 and 19224. The pedigrees supplied by the Group 1 test subjects show 3216 as Thomas1 - Samuel2 - Samuel3, 3343 as Thomas1 - Samuel2 - Jonathan3, and 4613 as Thomas1 - Samuel2 - John3. Since mutations are infrequent, the mutation from 11 to 10 at locus DYS391 suggests that 3340 and 19224 share common ancestry with 3216 at least as far as the point where 3216 separates from the other known members of the Thomas1 - Samuel2 subgroup.

NOTE: 3340 has now been extended to 25 loci, and another mutation is evident in DYS364d. On average, we would expect such a mutation to have occurred about halfway between Thomas1 and the present time and therefore not be shared with either 19224 or 3216. However, the average expectation is often very different from the actuality. In any case, 19224 has also been extended to 25 loci and does not share the mutation. It would still be interesting to extend 3216 to compare.

Three entries in our results tables have been gleaned from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy database, which holds the Y DNA test results of an ongoing worldwide project. The Sorenson data are anonymous, but each testee provides a four-generation pedigree along with the DNA sample, and the names of pre-1900 ancestors are listed for each. What's more, in many cases, these brief pedigrees match up with information submitted to the LDS Ancestral File, perhaps by the testees themselves. The first such member (dubbed "sm01") was found by a laborious search for matches to the haplotypes in our project. The exact match, plus the Blanchard surname, was stunning evidence of a relationship. From the submitted pedigree, we know that sm01 comes from a line of Blanchards in Australia who apparently emigrated from Sunderland, England. Because of the exact match with Group 2, we had, for the first time, a concrete clue to the origins of Deacon John2, albeit a remote clue. That clue has now been reinforced by an English Blanchard traced back to 17th-century Lincolnshire who also matches Group 2. Thus, we now have matching results on three continents.

Group 3

Group 3 has the unusual property of having its most recent common ancestor known but not his name. We have matching results from descendants of two different progenitors who are known to be brothers, but whose father is the subject of controversy. Three of the members descend from Benjamin2, and one from his brother Ephraim2. Their superscript "2" indicates that they are thought to be of the second generation in the New World.

Benjamin2, in particular, has generated controversy over his parentage. Some have tried to identify him with a son of Deacon John2. The Massachusetts Benjamin was born in 1665 and is known to have been living in 1693, when John2 made his will, but nothing further is definitely known. In particular, nothing is known that would rule out the hypothesis of his moving to North Carolina. However, there is no corresponding Ephraim from Massachusetts to fill the role of brother, and that lack creates a problem for the proponents of this connection. Moreover, the DNA evidence now comes into play and gives us a second CONCLUSION: in terms of male lines, the North Carolina Blanchards are not descended from, or even related to, Deacon John2 or Thomas1. Although Group 3 is much more similar to Group 2 than Group 1 is, the difference is still enormous in terms of the estimated time elapsed since any common ancestor. With five or six one-step discrepancies among the first 12 loci, and about five more among the next 13 loci, the most likely separation is 3,000 years or more.

Subject 3362 has also taken the 43-marker test through DNA Heritage as well as some tests through DNA Fingerprint. The results for all 25 loci shown in Table 1a, plus the seven shared loci in Table 1b, agree between FTDNA and DNAH (aside from a small difference in reporting conventions). Also, there is agreement on four of five more loci in Table 1b tested by both FTDNA and DNAFP. However, the additional testing by DNAFP indicates that the multi-copy loci DYS459, DYS464, and CDY (all on the same Y palindrome) have half the usual number of copies, and we accept that finding because DNAFP is better able to distinguish between duplicate and missing copies. The combination of FTDNA, DNAH, and DNAFP fills up the entry for 3362 in Table 1b and in Table 1c. Note that these values are fairly close to those of sm01 and 8814 in the same way that Group 3 is fairly close to Group 2 and Group 7.

Group 4

The surname for this group, traced back to the 1700s, is Blackard: close to Blanchard but not quite the same. The origins of the founder Charles Blackard are not known. There has in fact been speculation, based on the similarity, that this line could be connected to some Blanchard line or other. It may yet turn out to be connected, but apparently not to any of the Blanchard lines covered so far in this study. The haplotype for this group is notably distinct from the others, with sum-squared differences of 15, 29, 40, 27, and 30 from Groups 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. See the discussion below under Global Comparisons for more about the differences among these groups. We now have one match to another project participant, 58969, whose connection to the group is not yet proven, but whose surname is Blackard. He is listed for now in the separate-but-apparently-related group after Group 4, but it seems likely that the connection will be found.

Group 5

Like Groups 3 and 4, this group has few results but perfect agreement so far. In addition, the members of this group are quite different from all the others in the study. The sum-squared distances from Groups 1, 2, and 3 are 20, 13, and 19, respectively. Again, these distances indicate that the common ancestor must have lived thousands of years ago, at least.

Table 1 shows the earliest known ancestor of the group, but the most recent common ancestor is three generations later, about halfway between the progenitor and the two test subjects. Like Group 3, then, this group could benefit from identifying and testing more distant relatives of the existing members.

Group 6

This group shows yet another variant of the name. The family name in this case is Blancett or Blansett, close enough to Blanchard to suggest a likely link. Nonetheless, until recently there were no matches with anyone surnamed Blanchard. It remains to be seen whether the addition of a Blanchard to this group will lead to genealogical discoveries identifying the relationships. Unlike the other groups, this one does not have a well-established common ancestor, despite the DNA agreement. The earliest confirmed ancestors of the members were mostly contemporaries (see Table 2) and may have been closely related, but the evidence is sketchy.

This group now has all extended to 37 markers, and these results confirm the close relationship among the members. Five members, in fact, match each other 37/37. At present, their shared haplotype is the best guess at the group's ancestral haplotype, but we cannot confirm that guess without more testing or knowledge of the exact relationships.

One result worthy of note is that of 35929, who appears to have a 3-step mutation in one of the DYS464 markers. The interpretation of this result is ambiguous, however, because the four copies of DYS464 are distinguished only by their lengths. Another possible interpretation would be a combination of two mutations, one 1-step and one 2-step, but this would be very astonishing given how closely the other markers agree with the rest of Group 6. Therefore, the result in Table 1 is color-coded as a single mutation in default of information to the contrary. The 3-step mutation can be explained as a special type of change, representing the outright replacement of an entire marker with a copy of the corresponding marker on the other arm of the palindrome which contains all of DYS464. (As with most other multi-copy markers, DYS464 normally has an even number of copies because of near-exact duplication on the two arms of a palindrome on the Y chromosome.)

One member of this group has broken new ground in two respects. n4479 is the first to join our project from the Genographic Project, and he is also the first to belong simultaneously to our project and another surname project at FTDNA. His surname is Black, which bears an obvious similarity to the common denominator of our project, although its origin is said to be the English translation of the German name Schwartz. More importantly, his haplotype is a 12/12 match to Group 6, and this agreement was a major factor in the decision to join our project. He has upgraded to 37 loci to learn whether the match holds up under this kind of scrutiny. Revealingly, it does not. The results at 25 markers are six steps away from Group 6, and at 37 there are five additional steps, indicating only a remote chance of any link within genealogical time.

As described above, the results reported for both 8814 and 12733 from FTDNA and SMGF differed by one step for DYS391 (9 and 10, respectively). After being notified of the disagreement, both labs repeated the testing, and each lab confirmed its original report. Subsequently, FTDNA's lab conducted a detailed sequencing of the flanking region of DYS391 among the Blancetts and found a mutation with a net deletion of five bases at a spot inside the region amplified by the FTDNA primers but outside the region amplified by the SMGF primers. By direct count, this sequencing has confirmed the presence of 10 repeats of the four-base motif of DYS391, but the deletion results in a PCR product that, when rounded off to the nearest whole repeat, indicates a "length" of 9. Since the standard test involves only measuring the length, and not the detailed sequence, we must conclude that "9" is the "correct" result for FTDNA, even though "10" is the correct result for SMGF. FTDNA has indicated that the reported lengths will be left "as is" for the Blancetts. (If and when FTDNA adopts a policy of reporting partial repeats, the indicated length will be "8.3".) The non-Blancett member, n4479, was not sequenced in this investigation. Since the 25- and 37-marker comparisons indicate he is not closely related after all, we surmise that the deletion is not present in his DNA, and his apparent 12/12 match was "really" only 11/12 all along. Again, reporting of partial repeats could confirm this belief.

Group 7

Group 7 represents the Blanchards of Rhode Island, traced back as far as one William Blanchard who was evidently born c1670. It is not known whether he was an immigrant or was born in New England, but there is now some evidence from this DNA project that he had brothers or cousins in the area. There is one participant (11906) whose DNA matches Group 7, but whose lineage has been traced back to an ancestor who was contemporary with William's sons and was clearly not a son of William. Even more striking is the match with three English participants whose ancestry has been traced to Northumberland and Yorkshire. As in the case of Group 2, this intercontinental link gives a hint at the original home of a colonial family.

Samples 11906, 12060, 12936, 36000, twuyb, n8cp9, and 8yqu5 all match Group 7 exactly on 12 loci, and all those who have been extended to 25 also match 25/25 with 6607 and 24/25 with 89847. Thus, they are presumably all related, even though they have not yet been traced to a common ancestor. Indeed, as already noted, 11906 is evidently not descended from the known progenitor of that group. Because of this independence, we can deduce that the value CDYa=35 shared by 89847 and 11906 must be the ancestral value, rather than the CDYa=34 of 6607. Ironically, 11906 has the ancestral haplotype for all 37 markers tested but is not yet connected to any other member of the group. In any case, when and if these have all been connected, Group 7 will have an earlier progenitor. Perhaps the strongest evidence that these seven are indeed related to Group 7 is that their haplotype is very rare (see the discussion of database lookups). Pending the genealogical investigation, they are listed separately after Group 7, but are color-coded in Tables 1 and 2 to match Group 7.

This group has a distinctive pattern which comes "moderately" close to Groups 2 and 3, as well as to some of the unconnected individuals in Group 99, but still separated by thousands of years. We can therefore conclude that there is no connection between the Rhode Island/English Blanchards and any of the other groups we have tested.

Group 8

This group represents yet another version of the surname: Blanchet. Subjects 24167 and 26494 have 12-marker results three steps away from Group 1. However, the 25-marker results (which match each other exactly) show conclusively that they are not members of that group. These two share a known common ancestor, and so the group is firmly established. Another descendant of this ancestor has also signed up for a DNA test.

Group 9

This group is small, but has potential for growth. The two current members match each other 24/25 (or 41/43 by the alternate lab testing) and share a common ancestor born in 1723 near the Wiltshire/Dorset border. They have a near-match whose ancestry has been traced back to about the same time in that same area. This associate, in fact, matches 25/25 with one of the members (based on the loci shown in Table 1a). However, this match becomes 40/43 when extended to include Table 1b and only 39/43 for the comparison with the other member. Based on the closer match, the most likely time since the common ancestor of all three testees is about five centuries, give or take three centuries. In other words, the common ancestor almost surely falls within the era of surnames, and the ongoing research aimed at finding the ancestor may very well find him (but the success of that research will depend as usual on perseverance and luck).

Group 10

This group includes a variety of surnames among its members and affiliates: Blanchette, Blanchet, and Blanchard. Indeed, the surname of the most recent common ancestor was Blanchet, but the parish records of the home parish of the ancestor's father show the name as Blanquet. The latter may have been a regionalism, since the name was Blanchet when the ancestor emigrated to Quebec. Most of these lines seem to have spelled the name that way until relatively recently. All of them have been traced back to Canada, and the affiliates thus seem very likely to be descendants of the same emigrant. Research is proceeding into their ancestry.

The four members (traced back to Picardy) match each other 12/12, as do two of the affiliates, and the other two differ by only one step among the first 12 markers. Two members and two affiliates have been tested on 37 markers, and these all differ at only one or two markers from the apparent consensus. One member and one affiliate have been tested on 67 markers, and they match 63/67.

Group 11

This newest group is of French origin. The two members, 49713 and 79178, although they have only a 22/25 match, have both traced back to a common ancestor who emigrated from France to Quebec in the 17th century. The paper evidence makes up for the marginal DNA connection and establishes them as a solid group.

Group 99

As the project grows, coincidental near-matches will inevitably turn up. For example, the initial test result for sample 7523 showed a possible 11/12 match with Group 2. However, upgrading to 25 markers revealed five more differences. Thus, there is no close relationship between 7523 and Group 2 after all. Similarly, samples 10537 and n36744 reveal an 11/12 match with 7523 (note that the parallel differences in DYS389i and DYS389ii are counted as just one discrepancy). Here, again, the extension to 25 markers has revealed additional differences (four more steps from each of the other two samples), again indicating that no close relationship exists among them. Sample 12321 reveals yet another 11/12 match with 10537, but the one discrepant locus is different by three steps. Although 3-step mutations are possible, they are very rare, and it turns out that there are three additional discrepancies between 12321 and 10537 among markers 13-25 and six more among 26-37, thus confirming that no relationship exists. Sample 29358 is a further 11/12 match with 10537, and the discrepancy is just one step. However, the 25-marker results show a large genetic distance between these two. Sample 30262 adds another complication to the picture, being 11/12 with 29358 and 10/12 with 10537. If these results were considered on their own, without the extended tests, then 29358 would be considered a likely "bridge" between 10537 and 30262. However, the 25-marker results suggest otherwise. On the other hand, the 25-marker comparison suggests a link between 30262 and 54338 which is marginal at 12 markers -- there are two discrepancies among the first 12, but none among the next 13. Another near-match is 17400, who is 10/12 with 29358 and 9/12 with 10537, among others, but comparisons at 25 and 37 markers do not hold up. 17400 is interesting for another reason: his earliest known ancestor's surname is yet another variant (Blance). It is significant that these failing near-matches all involve test subjects whose DNA belongs to the most common and widespread class in Europe (see the section on global comparisons below).

Sample 5656 came tantalizingly close to matching Group 1 in the 12-marker test, but was still too far from it to share a common Blanchard ancestor, there being four steps of difference. (Of course, it is only three steps from sample 3216, but the mutation seen there for DYS391 represents an intermediate ancestor at least two generations later than Thomas1 and perhaps even later still -- not any easier to explain than the straightforward case. For further discussion, see the section on global comparisons below.) Given the average mutation rate, we would estimate the common ancestor to have lived about 2000 years ago, give or take 1000. This falls within the historical period, but before the time of surname adoption. Because of this near-match, sample 5656 has now been extended to 25 markers, and the results show more definitively that the relationship is not close. The gap is now even wider: nine one-step differences, plus a two-step and a three-step. This new result pushes the estimated time back to almost 4000 years ago.

Sample 5856 comes even closer than 5656 to matching Group 1, being only three steps away on the first 12 markers. However, now that his test has been extended to 25 markers, he has "lost ground" and is 7 steps away in this more thorough comparison. Thus, it seems likely that any common ancestor was at least 900 years ago and probably much earlier. On the basis of the 12-marker comparison, it seemed possible that sample 14459 could be a "bridge" between 5856 and Group 1 - sharing 5856's two-step difference at DYS19, but matching Group 1 at DYS391. That trend continues in the additional markers (sharing three of the four extra steps of difference), but 14459 displays a huge additional difference of his own at DYS464b. If this additional difference is not just a clerical error (we are looking into that possibility), then the "bridge" disappears. In any case, both 5856 and 14459 have apparent French origins and could be fairly closely related to each other, aside from the apparently huge discrepancy at DYS464, but investigation of that possible relationship by conventional research has yet to be done. In the end, we are left with a tantalizing glimpse of a possible connection that reaches back at least as far as the Middle Ages, but we lack proof that early recorded instances of the Blanchard name actually documented a heritable surname. We need to see more samples from French Blanchards before we can begin to draw conclusions.

Another testee, 29358, also has French origins, but does not match anyone in the project. As already mentioned, he comes close to some in the 12-marker comparison, but not with 25 markers.

One more testee of apparent French origin, 17092, bears no resemblance to those others, but does have an 11/12 near-match to a Pennsylvania Blanset, 49419. Even though these two have different spellings of the name and differ by a step, their next nearest neighbor within the project is ten steps away. Unfortunately, when the comparison is extended to 25 markers, the situation remains ambiguous: there are still no other near neighbors, but the two have only a 21/25 match. This is more distant than the 11/12 result indicated but still close enough that they might share an ancestor as recently as six centuries go (i.e., within genealogical time, but long before the earliest known ancestor of either testee).

An apparent group-in-the-making consists of 10537 and n36744, who have now been confirmed as a 65/67 match and are beginning to explore their ancestries for a connection.

There are two other members who are a close match as expected because they are closely related. One of them (ex3y4) was at first assigned tentatively to Group 10 on the basis of the DNA results, but too few markers had been tested for him to be sure of the assignment. Only 18 of his 19 tested are shared with the 37-marker panel of FTDNA. However, now a relative has been tested on 37 markers, and the results show that these two men do not belong in Group 10 after all.

Global Comparisons

In population genetics, individual haplotypes are classified into broad categories called haplogroups. This classification is based on a different kind of marker than those used in our DNA study, but there is enough of a correlation that the haplogroup can usually be guessed by inspecting the haplotype. Haplogroups are so broad that they are of little direct value in genealogy, but the testing lab also offers tests to determine a person's haplogroup directly. In any case, a large majority of Europeans fall into two of these categories, formerly designated by the easy-to-remember names Haplogroup 1 and Haplogroup 2 (hg1 and hg2 for short, but known as R1b and I1 in the newer YCC nomenclature). It is not surprising, then, that most of the Blanchards tested so far belong to one or the other. Thomas1 (i.e., Group 1), Andrew Jackson Blanchet (Group 8), and some in Group 99 belong to I1, while John2 (Group 2), Benjamin2 (Group 3), John Blanchard (Group 5), the Blancetts (Group 6), William Blanchard (Group 7), Stephen Blanchard (Group 9), and some members of Group 99 belong to R1b. This common membership in the same haplogroup accounts for the much greater similarity among them than between any one of them and Thomas1; all of them remain different enough to show that they are effectively unrelated. In any case, since both R1b and I1 are widespread in Europe, the DNA results do not pin down the ethnic origins of the Blanchard lines in terms of Anglo-Saxon vs. Norman vs. French vs. "other".

Three members of Group 6 and one of Group 7 have taken the extra test to confirm the R1b (hg1) haplogroup, while two members of Group 1 have similarly confirmed their I1 (hg2) haplogroup.

The results for Group 4 suggested that the members (and their ancestor Charles Blackard) belong to haplogroup J2 (formerly known as hg9, related to, but distinct from, hg1/I1). Now, one of the members has taken the additional test to determine his haplogroup for certain and confirmed that it is indeed J2. J2 is more common in southern Europe and the Middle East than in northern Europe, but, again, it is impossible to infer a specific ethnic origin from that distribution. Indeed, the testee reports reading of a survey of haplogroups in England that turned up a pocket of relatively high J2 abundance near where some Blackards have lived. Thus, by virtue of being rare, the haplogroup assignment for the Blackards may serve as an important clue after all.

One way to get an idea of where these samples fit into the global scene is to search for matches in the databases maintained by forensic DNA researchers. The largest such database, formerly known as YSTR, but now called the YHRD database, includes anonymous samples from all over Europe. It contained 10,934 haplotypes as of August 2002, when Groups 1 and 2 in the Blanchard project were established. The YSTR database had grown to 13,035 by October 2003, and new samples are still being added. This database tabulates nine (or sometimes ten) of the twelve markers used by FTDNA. It is thus much less specific than the commercial test, but it still serves to indicate whether a given haplotype is relatively common or rare. As of August 2002, it showed three exact matches for Thomas1 (living in Moscow, Muenster, and Paris, respectively), while the variant represented by 3216, 3340, and 19224 showed 24 matches ranging from England to Poland and from Sweden to Italy. Then again, John2 showed only one match in the whole set, found in London. Benjamin2 showed nine matches, mostly in the British Isles, but also one in Berlin and one in Madeira.

In May of 2004, the YSTR database was expanded to a worldwide scope and rechristened the Y Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) with a total of 23,597 samples. At that time, Thomas1 still had just the same three matches, while the one-step-off variant had increased to 39, still scattered over the same area, plus four in the USA and one in South Africa. As of January 2007, the database stood at 46,831 samples, and still only the same three matches were found for Thomas1, while the one-step-off variant had grown to 66, including the same range, plus two new samples from Argentina. This nearly proportional expansion of the one-off haplotype at slightly under 0.2% of the whole database stems from the continuing predominance of European samples, despite the increasing coverage worldwide. It also demonstrates how widespread the one-off haplotype is.

John2 still had only the one match as of 2004, but in 2007 that one had disappeared, only to be replaced by three new matches in northern Europe, one in Spain, and one in Argentina.

Benjamin2 had the same nine matches as of 2004, but had 28 in 2007, still many in the British Isles, but now also an equal number in the USA. The Blackards (Group 4) had no matches at all until 2007, but then one appeared in Italy. John Blanchard (Group 5) has two matches, one in Germany and one in Virginia. The Blancetts (Group 6) had six matches in 2004 (one in Spain and five in Latin America), and the number had increased to 11 in 2007, still limited to the same area. Group 7 has no matches at all, while Group 8 has an astonishing 274, spread all over the world, from Greenland to Vladivostok to the Indian Ocean (but mainly in Europe). Group 9 also has a considerable number of matches: 89, lacking examples in Greenland and Vladivostock, but including all the other locales found for Group 8.

Another publicly accessible database with DNA test results is YSEARCH, sponsored by FTDNA. This database contains DNA results and genealogical data uploaded by thousands of people around the world and is searchable by surname, locality, and haplotype. Participants in our project can upload their results directly to YSEARCH from their personal results pages at the FTDNA web site by clicking on the upload box in the Y-DNA Matches tab and then adding the genealogical details requested on the database entry form.

The disparity in frequency between the ancestral haplotype of Group 1 and the variant seen in samples 3216, 3340, and 19224 illustrates the fact that mutations can occur independently on the same marker and in either direction. As it happens, the value 10 at DYS391 is typical of I1, to which our Group 1 belongs. Therefore, the value 11 seen in Group 1 represents a mutation (possibly very ancient) from the ancestral I1 stock, and the value 10 seen in 3216, 3340, and 19224 stems from a separate, modern mutation that just happens to cancel out the other one. This cancellation provides some context for the close-but-not-quite-matches of samples 5656 and 5856. Both of these display the typical I1 value of 10, suggesting they are both unrelated to Group 1 and simply come close to it by coincidence.

Even before the advent of the expanded YHRD database, there was a small database of samples from the USA, split ethnically into African-American, European-American, and Hispanic subsets, each with about 500 samples. It is maintained by the same forensic DNA research consortium, includes the same nine markers, and is now folded into the worldwide database. For a sample which is not matched at all in Europe, an American match is the next best thing. Sample 5794 is such a case. However, the one match found in the US is in the European-American subset and simply indicates that this haplotype is likely to be European after all, though evidently quite rare. Needless to say, since the databases are entirely anonymous, there is no point in trying to locate that one match, and the database's limitation to only nine markers means that the match should not be taken seriously anyhow.

5794, by the way, appears to belong to R1b, despite being so different from the pattern typical of R1b. The haplogroup database at FTDNA, containing some 6000 samples with both haplotype and haplogroup assignments, shows 28 near-matches to this sample, and all of them belong to R1b.

In fact, FTDNA maintains three databases of Y DNA results, all searchable by customers only. The haplogroup database mentioned above gives the haplogroups found for test subjects whose haplotypes come close to the customer's own haplotype. Another database gives the claimed ethnic origins of near matches. Both of these are anonymous databases containing a mixture of customers and academic test subjects. The third database is just customers and includes names and email addresses, but it reveals these only under certain circumstances. First of all, for 12-marker testees, it looks only for exact 12/12 matches or one-step-off 11/12 near-matches. For 25-marker testees, it looks first for 12-marker matches as above and then for 24/25 or 25/25 overall and finally for 23/25 (provided that the two discrepancies are no more than one step each). The scope of these searches is limited to those who have sent in a signed release form, but there is an optional limitation on top of that. By default, each customer is set up for "private" searches, i.e., limited only to members of the same surname study project. However, that setting can be changed to "public" to include matches or near-matches among all the customers who have similarly opted for "public" searches. Instructions for changing this setting can be found at the FTDNA web site.

Another online database of Y DNA results is provided by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF). As noted above, one of the members of this project was discovered by searching the SMGF database for DNA matches, two more were discovered by looking for surnames similar to Blanchard, and four other members have supplemented their test results at FTDNA by submitting samples to the SMGF project. Although the ordinary lookup procedure is tedious, we have an index of direct links to the search results for all haplotypes in our project, including the necessary translations of the incompatible markers. Before searching the SMGF database, you must log in. Opening an account is straightforward.

Mutation Rates

This study also has the potential to contribute to the science of genetics. One poorly known aspect of these DNA markers is the average mutation rate. This rate is of particular interest because it enters into calculations of the expected number of mutations among a given pool of testees or of the probable time elapsed since the common ancestor of two given subjects. For example, the nominal rate assumed by many geneticists is 0.002 mutations per marker per generation. Among the genealogically connected subjects in groups 1-5 as of 2007, there were five mutations, but how many would we expect to see in a group this size? The cumulative number of generations ("transmission events") connecting the test subjects to their respective common ancestors (and carefully counting the link from Thomas1 to Samuel2 only once) was 104 for the people with 12-marker tests and 58 for those with 25. (Note that, although 3362 had a 25-marker result even then, no one else in Group 3 had yet been extended to 25, and so we could not then determine whether any mutations had occurred among these additional 13 markers.) The total number of mutation opportunities was thus 104x12 + 58x25 = 2698. Nominally, then, we would expect 5.4 mutations in this group, not far from the number we actually saw (5). By combining a great many such modest-sized DNA studies, it should be possible to estimate the mutation rate with useful precision. The only problem in such an approach is the possible selection bias due to project administrators' decisions to make or not to make the combination of DNA results and genealogy available for public scrutiny depending in part on the number of mutations seen, as well as the decisions of individual participants to upgrade or not upgrade for similar reasons.
 


Go to table of contents

DNA Data

The data in the following tables have been collected primarily from the results of testing at FTDNA, but some also from the alternate lab (DNAH) and other sources. Every effort has been made to make sure these results from different labs follow a uniform reporting convention throughout. They are divided into groups/families according to the DNA comparison and according to the conventional genealogy establishing kinship. Within each group, DNA discrepancies are highlighted by shading the discrepant values with a gray background. In addition, if it can be shown that a disrepant value is a mutation (by comparison with other test results of people who are known to be related through conventional evidence), then the value is shown in red, bold-face type, to further highlight it. In cases where there are too few results to determine what the ancestral value is, or too many apparent dicrepancies, all the values within a group for the locus in question will be shaded in gray, though none will be displayed in red. Also, in the associated groups of testees who (largely) match the DNA, but who do not (yet) have a conventional genealogical connection, any discrepant values are shown on a gray background, but without the red type-face.
 
Table 1a. Blanchard Haplotypes - primary loci
(click on an arrow at the end of a row to see the continuation in Table 1b)
Note: DYS464 has been converted to new nomenclature as of 2003 May.
DYS
Locus:
3
9
3
3
9
0

1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
i
3
9
2
3
8
9
ii
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
ID
Group 1 (Thomas1 Blanchard, c1590-1654, Mass.)
THOMAS 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
11288 G 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 17 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
142285 G 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 17 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
3216 S 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
3343 S 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
4613 S 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
11803 S 13 22 14 11 13 13 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
30535 S 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
80230 S 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
3348 N 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
4683 N 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
7522 N 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
54821 N 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
92530 N 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
(genetically related to Group 1, but not yet connected genealogically)
3340 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 15
3374 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
3822 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
4513 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
5974 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
7691 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29
12320 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
19224 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
42750 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
108389 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
114551 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 19 28 12 12 14 16
129372 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16
170649 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
n12428 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
dtump 13 22 14 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 14 16 >
Group 2 (John2 Blanchard, c1620-1693, Mass.)
JOHN 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 16 16 17 17
3288 J 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 13 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 16 16 17 17
26143 J 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31
*** T
3197 J 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 16 16 17 17
31834 J 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 29 16 16 17 17 >
(genetically related to Group 2, but not yet connected genealogically)
92498 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31
132660 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 16 16 17 17 >
274498 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 16 16 17 17 >
sm01 13 24 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 16 16 17 17 >
Group 3 (father of Benjamin2 Blanchard, ?-1719, Va./N.C.)
? 13 25 14 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 - 11 11 25 15 18 15 - -
3362 B 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 - 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 16 - - >
4642 B 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 - 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 - - >
9169 B 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29
120277 E 13 25 14 10 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 - 11 11 25 15 18 31 15 15 - - >
*** A
(genetically related to Group 3, but not yet connected genealogically)
184683 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 - 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 - - >
Group 4 (Charles Blackard, c1710-c1790, NC)
CHARLES 12 24 14 10 14 16 12 15 12 13 11 30 16 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 30 11 13 15 15
5798 12 24 14 10 14 16 12 15 12 13 11 30 16 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 30 11 13 15 15 >
5882 12 24 14 10 14 16 12 15 12 13 11 30 16 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 30 11 13 15 15 >
(genetically related to Group 4, but not yet connected genealogically)
58969 12 24 14 10 14 16 12 15 12 13 11 30 16 9 9 11 11 25 14 19 30 11 13 15 15 >
Group 5 (John Blanchard, 1751 MA - 1810 NY)
JOHN 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 10 29
5794 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 10 29
7091 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 10 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 15 17 >
Group 6 (Blancett/Blanchard - see Table 2)
? 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17
8814 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
12733 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
16056 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
16371 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
17356 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
18091 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
24166 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
24664 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
25148 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
29568 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 12 24 15 19 29 14 14 15 17 >
30303 13 24 14 9 11 14 13 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
35929 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 14 15 17 >
37707 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
41108 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 14 13 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
41352 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
108450 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
238181 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 >
n4479 13 24 14 9 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 31 15 15 16 17 >
Group 7 (William Blanchard, c1670 - >1757 RI)
WILLIAM 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16
6607 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16 >
20319 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29
89847 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 20 33 15 15 16 16 >
(genetically related to Group 7, but not yet connected genealogically)
11906 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16 >
12060 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29
12936 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29
36000 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16
twuyb 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16 >
n8cp9 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16 >
8yqu5 12 25 14 10 12 15 11 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 33 15 15 16 16 >
Group 8 (Andrew Jackson Blanchet, 1827 AL - 1890 AR)
24167 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 12 12 11 28 14 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 30 12 14 15 17
26494 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 12 12 11 28 14 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 30 12 14 15 17 >
Group 9 (Stephen Blanchard, 1723 - 1809 Wilts )
STEPHEN 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 14 14 16 17
29837 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 30 14 14 16 17 >
dfdju 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 31 14 14 16 17 >
(genetically related to Group 9, but not yet connected genealogically)
kwjhs 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 31 14 14 16 17 >
Group 10 (Pierre1 Blanchet, c1642 Picardy - 1709 PQ)
PIERRE 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
104382 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 >
n19169 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
n31073 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
n40342 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 >
(genetically related to Group 10, but not yet connected genealogically)
15121 13 23 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 14 15 17 17 >
65522 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
n42685 13 25 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
n58398 13 24 13 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 >
Group 11 (Jean-Baptiste3 Raynaud dit Blanchard, 1711-1765 PQ)
J-B 15 25 14 10 11 12 12 13 14 29 14 9 11 11 23 14 18 29 15 15 16 18
49713 15 25 14 11 10 11 12 12 12 13 14 29 14 9 11 11 11 23 14 18 29 15 15 16 18
79178 15 25 14 10 10 11 12 12 11 13 14 29 14 9 10 11 11 23 14 18 29 15 15 16 18 >
Group 99 (other)
5656 12 22 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 24 15 20 30 12 15 15 15
5856 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 15 8 8 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 12 16 16
14459 13 22 16 11 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 16 16 16
87457 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 16 16 16
7523 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 31 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 20 30 14 16 17 17
12321 12 24 14 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 14 19 29 15 15 17 18 >
17092 13 24 13 10 16 18 11 12 12 13 11 30 15 9 9 11 11 25 14 20 32 14 16 17 17
49419 13 24 13 10 16 17 11 12 12 13 11 30 15 9 9 11 11 26 14 19 32 16 16 17 17 >
17400 14 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 16 18 29 15 15 17 17 >
27651 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 17 >
29358 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 30 15 16 16 18
29767 13 23 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 13 30
30262 13 25 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 18 >
54338 13 26 14 10 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 18
38749 14 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 12 29 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 18
56166 14 24 15 10 16 16 11 13 11 13 12 30 16 8 9 11 11 25 14 19 26 14 14 15 16 >
57579 14 22 15 10 15 16 11 13 11 13 12 30 18 9 9 11 11 24 15 20 27 11 13 14 15
61384 12 21 14 10 13 14 11 14 12 12 11 28
101999 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 14 18 31 15 15 17 17
108580 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 26 14 18 29 14 15 17 18 >
137971 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 26 14 18 29 14 15 17 18 >
201417 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 26 14 18 29 14 15 17 18 >
110832 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 12 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 21 29 12 14 15 15 >
124322 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17
127090 13 25 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 16 16 17 >
132696 13 23 15 10 12 15 11 15 11 14 11 30 19 8 9 11 11 26 14 18 29 11 14 14 15 >
133476 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 17 29 15 15 18 18 >
134608 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 18 18 >
133501 13 25 14 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 >
169366 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 11 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14 15 16 17 >
n40446 13 24 15 10 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29
9ws52 13 25 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 14 11 33 15 9 10 11 11 23 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
186659 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 14 15 16 17 >
ex3y4 13 24 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 15 19 >
189480 13 24 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 17 17 18 >
sm23 12 24 15 10 15 17 11 15 12 12 11 28 16 8 9 11 11 28 16 19 31 >
sm24 13 24 15 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 31 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 16 16 >
10537 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 >
n36744 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 >
133285 14 23 15 10 15 15 11 13 11 14 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 27 12 14 14 14 14 15 >
133239 14 23 15 10 15 15 11 13 11 14 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 27 12 14 14 15 >
133510 14 23 15 10 15 15 11 13 11 14 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 27 12 14 14 15 >
214225 14 23 16 10 15 15 11 13 11 14 12 30 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 28 12 14 14 15 >

 
Table 1b. Blanchard Haplotypes - Other loci (FTDNA and Sorenson or other)
(click on an arrow at the end of a row to see the continuation in Table 1c)
Note: DYS461 has been converted to new nomenclature as of 2004 June.
Note: DYS452 and DYS463 have been converted to new nomenclature as of 2010 March.

Locus:
 

4
6
0

H
4
Y
C
A
II
a
Y
C
A
II
b

4
5
6

6
0
7

5
7
6

5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b

4
4
2

4
3
8
#
4
4
1
*
4
4
4
#
4
4
5
*
4
4
6
#
4
5
2
#
4
6
1
#
4
6
2
#
4
6
3
#
A
1
0
#
+
6
3
5
#
1
B
0
7
ID
3343 S 11 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 40 12 10
3374 11 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 39 12 11
4513 11 10 19 21 14 12 11 16 13 11 13 31 12 12 21 13 22 11
12320 11 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 40 12 10 16 13 11 13 31 12 12 21 13 21 11 >
19224 12 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 40 12 10 16 13 11 13 31 12 12 21 13 23 11 >
30535 S 11 10 19 21 14 12 10 16 13 11 13 31 12 12 21 13 21 11
42750 11 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 40 12 10 13 13 >
108389 11 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 40 12 10
142285 G 12 10 19 21 14 13 17 19 34 40 12 10
170649 11 10 19 21 14 13 16 20 34 39 12 10
n12428 11 10 19 21 14 13 17 20 34 40 12 10
dtump 11 10 19 21 14 12 10 16 13 11 13 32 12 12 21 13 21 11
31834 J 11 11 19 23 16 16 18 17 37 40 13 12
132660 11 11 19 23 16 16 18 17 37 40 13 12
274498 11 11 19 23 16 16 18 17 37 40 13 12
sm01 11 11 19 23 16 13 12 14 12 12 13 30 12 11 24 13 23 10
3362 B 11 11 19 23 18 16 18 19 37 - 12 12 13 12 12 13 30 12 11 24 13 23 10 >
4642 B 11 11 19 23 18 16 18 18 37 - 12 12
120277 E 11 11 19 23 19 16 18 17 37 - 12 12
184683 11 11 19 23 18 16 18 17 37 - 12 12 12 13 >
5798 9 11 19 22 15 14 18 17 37 40 10 9
5882 9 11 19 22 15 14 18 17 37 40 10 9
58969 9 11 19 22 15 14 19 17 36 40 10 9
7091 10 10 19 23 16 12 12 13 13 12 13 31 12 11 24 13 24 10
8814 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 14 12 13 12 12 13 30 13 11 24 15 23 10 >
12733 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12 13 12 12 13 30 13 11 24 15 23 10 >
16056 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 37 38 13 12
16371 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 16 38 38 13 12 12 13 >
17356 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12 12 13 >
18091 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12 12 13 >
24166 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 37 38 13 12
24664 11 11 19 23 15 14 17 17 37 38 13 12
25148 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12 12 14 >
29568 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12 13 12 12 13 30 12 11 24 15 23 10 >
30303 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12
35929 11 12 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12
37707 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12 12 13 >
41108 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 37 38 13 12 13 12 12 13 30 12 23 10 >
41352 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 14 12
108450 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12
238181 11 11 19 23 15 14 18 17 38 38 13 12
n4479 11 11 19 23 15 15 17 16 38 39 12 12
6607 10 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 34 38 12 12 13 12 12 13 30 11 11 24 13 23 10
11906 10 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 35 38 12 12
89847 10 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 35 38 12 12 12 13 >
twuyb 9 11 19 23 16 12 12 13 11 12 13 30 11 11 24 13 23 10
n8cp9 10 10 19 23 16 14 18 17 35 39 12 12 13 12 12 13 30 11 11 24 13 23 10
8yqu5 10 10 19 23 16 12 12 13 12 12 13 30 11 11 24 13 23 10
26494 10 10 19 21 14 14 16 19 35 37 12 10
29837 11 11 19 23 15 12 12 14 12 11 13 30 13 11 24 13 23 10
dfdju 10 11 19 23 15 12 12 14 12 11 13 30 13 11 24 13 23 10
kwjhs 12 11 19 23 15 13 12 14 12 11 13 30 14 11 24 13 23 10
104382 10 11 19 23 16 15 17 17 37 38 10 12 13 12 12 13 31 12 11 24 13 23 10 >
n40342 10 11 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 36 10 12
15121 10 11 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 38 10 12 12 13 >
n58398 10 11 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 37 10 12
79178 11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 37 39 12 12
133285 11 9 19 21 15 15 17 21 34 39 13 10
133239 11 9 19 21 15 15 17 20 34 40 13 10
133510 11 9 19 21 15 15 17 21 34 40 13 10
214225 11 9 19 21 15 15 17 21 34 40 13 10
10537 11 11 19 23 16 14 18 19 35 37 12 11 12 13 >
n36744 11 11 19 23 16 14 18 18 35 37 12 11 12 13 >
12321 11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 36 37 11 12 12 14 >
17400 11 11 19 22 15 15 17 17 36 39 12 12
27651 10 10 19 21 14 12 10 15 13 11 13 31 12 13 21 13 21 11
30262 10 11 19 23 16 15 17 18 36 40 12 12 12 13 >
49419 9 11 19 21 16 12 16 19 31 33 10 10
56166 11 10 19 21 14 15 17 18 35 36 12 10 14 11 >
108580 11 10 19 23 15 15 17 18 35 40 11 12
137971 11 10 19 23 15 15 17 18 35 38 11 12
201417 11 10 19 23 15 15 17 18 35 37 11 12
110832 10 10 19 21 14 14 16 18 34 35 12 10
127090 11 11 19 23 15 16 19 16 37 41 12 12 13 12 12 14 29 12 11 24 12 23 10 >
132696 10 10 21 21 14 10 17 17 34 36 12 10
133476 11 11 23 23 15 15 17 19 35 36 12 13
134608 11 11 23 23 15 15 17 19 35 35 12 13
133501 11 11 19 23 15 15 16 17 34 37 12 12
169366 11 11 19 23 15 15 17 18 35 37 13 12
186659 10 11 19 23 16 14 21 18 36 37 12 12
ex3y4 10 11 19 23 16 11
189480 11 10 19 23 16 16 17 17 36 37 11 12
sm23 12 10 19 20 13 11 9 14 12 11 12 31 10 11 22 13 20 11
sm24 10 11 19 23 14 12 12 13 12 12 13 29 13 11 24 12 25 10
+ Formerly called Y-GATA-C4
* Also displayed in Table 1c
# Also displayed in Table 1d

 
Table 1c. Blanchard Haplotypes - More loci from FTDNA
(click on an arrow at the end of a row to see the continuation in Table 1d)

Locus:
 

5
3
1

5
7
8
3
9
5
s1
a
3
9
5
s1
b

5
9
0

5
3
7

6
4
1

4
7
2

4
0
6
s1

5
1
1

4
2
5

4
1
3
a

4
1
3
b

5
5
7

5
9
4

4
3
6

4
9
0

5
3
4

4
5
0
*
4
4
4

4
8
1

5
2
0
*
4
4
6

6
1
7

5
6
8

4
8
7

5
7
2

6
4
0

4
9
2

5
6
5
ID
12320 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 9 9 12 24 25 17 10 12 12 15 8 13 25 20 13 13 11 13 11 11 12 11
19224 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 9 9 12 24 25 17 10 12 12 15 7 13 25 20 13 13 11 13 11 11 12 11 >
42750 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 9 9 12 24 25 17 10 12 12 15 8 13 25 20 13 13 11 13 11 11 12 11
3362 B 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 21 23 16 10 12 12 16 8 12 25 20 13 12 11 14 11 11 12 12
184683 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 21 23 16 10 12 12 16 8 12 25 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
8814 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12 >
12733 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 11 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
16371 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
17356 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
18091 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
25148 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 13 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
29568 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12 >
37707 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
41108 11 10 15 16 8 10 10 8 12 11 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
89847 11 9 16 16 8 10 10 8 11 9 12 23 24 16 11 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 10 11 12 12
104382 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12 >
15121 11 9 16 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
10537 11 9 15 15 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 23 16 10 12 12 14 8 12 20 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
n36744 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 23 16 10 12 12 14 8 12 20 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
12321 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 - 23 23 16 10 12 12 13 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
30262 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 12 11 11 13 12
56166 11 8 15 16 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 21 22 15 11 12 12 16 9 14 27 21 11 13 12 14 11 11 12 11
127090 11 9 15 16 9 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12 >
* Also displayed in Table 1b

 
Table 1d. Blanchard Haplotypes - More loci from FTDNA

Locus:
 

7
1
0

4
8
5

6
3
2

4
9
5

5
4
0

7
1
4

7
1
6

7
1
7

5
0
5

5
5
6

5
4
9

5
8
9

5
2
2

4
9
4

5
3
3

6
3
6

5
7
5

6
3
8
#
4
6
2
#
4
5
2
#
4
4
5
#
A
1
0
#
4
6
3
#
4
4
1
#
1
B
0
7

5
2
5

7
1
2

5
9
3

6
5
0

5
3
2

7
1
5

5
0
4

5
1
3

5
6
1

5
5
2

7
2
6
#
6
3
5

5
8
7

6
4
3

4
9
7

5
1
0

4
3
4
#
4
6
1

4
3
5
ID
19224 33 12 8 17 12 25 27 19 10 12 12 13 11 9 11 11 10 12 12 31 11 13 21 16 11 11 24 15 17 11 24 16 12 16 25 12 23 17 12 15 18 9 12 11
8814 33 15 9 16 12 27 26 19 12 11 13 12 11 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 15 24 13 10 10 19 15 18 14 25 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 13 17 9 13 11
29568 34 15 9 16 12 27 26 19 12 11 13 12 11 9 12 12 10 11 11 30 12 15 24 13 10 10 19 15 18 14 25 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 13 17 9 12 11
104382 33 15 9 14 12 27 26 18 12 11 12 12 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 31 12 13 24 13 10 10 20 15 19 14 24 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11
127090 34 15 9 16 13 26 26 18 12 11 14 12 11 9 12 12 10 12 11 29 12 12 24 13 10 10 21 15 17 14 23 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11
# Also displayed in Table 1b

 


Go to table of contents

Ancestors

Table 2. Earliest known ancestors not shown in group headings.
ID Name Birth Death
3340 Joseph Blanchard 1777, MA 1834, VT
3374 Elijah Blanchard 1817, NY/PA? 1878, MI
4513 Asahel Blanchard 1771, VT 1865, NY
5974 Robert Blanchard 1790, ME 1875, ME
7691 Nehemiah Blanchard c1780, MA/VT c1850, MA/VT
12320 William Blancher c1790, VT? 1853, VT
19224 Martin H. Blanchard c1788, NJ 1885, NJ
42750 Vivana Blanchard c1825, NY/VT c1874
114551 John Blanchard <1770, Kent? 1806, Kent
129372 A. Blanchard c1860?, NY c1930, FL
n12428 John Blanchard c1770, Hants 1847
dtump John Blanchard 1800, Kent 1846
132660 John Blanchard c1680, Lincs? <1721, Lincs
274498 Charles Blanchard c1779, NY c1818, NY
sm01 John Blanchard c1810, ENG ENG
8814 Peter Blancett c1768, VA <1840, AL
12733 Joel Blancett Sr c1802, KY/TN >1850, AL?
16056 William Blancet 1793, VA 1851, AL
16371 Francis Marion Blansett 1851, AL 1872, AL
17356 Jesse Blansett c1804, VA c1870, TN
18091 William Newton Blanchard c1811, NC AL
24166 William Blancet 1793, VA 1851, AL
25148 Josiah Blancett c1801, KY 1875, CO
29568 Thomas Blanchett c1816, GA 1900
30303 Peter Blancett c1768, VA <1840, AL
35929 Peter Blancett c1768, VA <1840, AL
37707 Peter Blancett c1768, VA <1840, AL
41108 Peter Blancett c1768, VA <1840, AL
41352 Peter Blancett c1768, VA <1840, AL
108450 William Blancett c1834, AL
n4479 John Black 1814, PA 1907, KS
11906 William Blanchard c1720, CT? c1795, CT
12060 Michael Blanchard 1786, ONT 1873, IN
12936 Rufus G. Blanchard 1826, NY/VT 1901, NY
36000 William Blanchard c1830, VT
twuyb Thomas Blanchard c1752, NBL,ENG c1820
n8cp9 William Blanchard c1768, YKS,ENG 1844
8yqu5 John Blanshard c1770, YKS,ENG
kwjhs Thomas Blanchard c1720, Wilts? 1806, Wilts
15121 Thomas L. Blanchard 1842, PQ 1909, LA
133285 Jonathan Blanchard 1762, Lincs
133510 Thomas Blancher c1670?, Lincs
10537 Edward Guy Blanchard c1810, NY 1894, NY
5656 James Milton Blanchard 1844, NH/ME/VT? 1900, CA
5856 Jean Blanchard c1570, FRA ?, CAN
17092 Peter Blanchard 1830, PQ 1914, MS
17400 John Blance c1723, Shetland
29358 Peter (Pierre) Blanchard 1739, CAN 1823, NY
30262 Samuel Blanchard c1700 1759, CT
49419 Joseph Blanset c1800, PA
49713 Jean Raynaud dit Blanchard/Planchard c1640?, FRA 1690, CAN
57579 Simon Blanchard 1756 1820, NH
101999 Edward Blanchard c1725 1784, ME
108389 Josiah Blanchard c1821, MA 1907, MA
110832 Joseph Blanchard c1865, NY 1928, NY
127090 Joseph LeBlanc 1750, NS 1805
132696 George Blanchard c1780 1837, Gr. London
133501 Peter Blanchard c1680? France? England
9ws52 Peter Blance Shetland
ex3y4 John M. Blanchard/Carlton 1802, ME? >1860, IA?
189480 Pallatiah Blanchard 1823, NC
sm23 Wheatly Blanch <1825, DMK
sm24 Gerd Blanke 1664, SAX,DEU 1741, SAX,DEU

 

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