IN SEARCH OF “ADAM:”
BEATTY FAMILIES IN SCOTLAND AND NORTHERN ENGLAND
By John D. Beatty
The Beatty/Baty/Batison families that lived in Dumfriesshire are among the best documented of the Scottish Baties who lived before 1600. They were centered in two distinct areas. The most prominent branch settled along the Esk River in Eskdale and was allied with the powerful riding clan of Armstrong of Liddesdale. The other group was centered in the town of Dumfries and does not appear to have had close ties to the Eskdale group.
Andrew Betty [Baty] is the earliest individual of the surname documented in the Eskdale region, at least from the sources this compiler has consulted. On 20 March 1352/3, he appears on a military list with Thomas Bridger in connection with William de Douglas of Liddesdale:
Salvus conductus pro mercatoribus Willelm de Douglas de Liddisdale, r. omibus ballwis & fidelib fais ad orios Willi de Douglas militis suscepin Andream Bette & Thoman Bridgr in catores ejusdar Wilm as Alexm faulege …
The family of Batisoun or Beattison was well established in Eskdale by the fifteenth century. Clearly the name evolved as a patronym of Baty, but when and how precisely it emerged remains unclear. Perhaps the Eskdale clan was descended from the Battisons in Berwick (see below), or perhaps they descended from Andrew Bette of Eskdale. In any case, John Hyslop, in his book Langholm As It Was, uses the two names interchangeably to refer to the same family.
The family first came to prominence on 1 May 1455 at the Battle of Arkinholme. The battle pitted the Earl of Douglas, known as “Black Douglas,” against forces loyal to the Scottish king James II. John, Nicholas, and Robert Battison or Batisoun, all brothers, sought revenge against Douglas for slaying a fourth Battison brother, whose name is not recorded. In the course of the battle, Archibald and Hugh Douglas were captured by the Battisons and executed. In gratitude for their loyalty and service, the king granted the brothers large tracts of land in and around Dalbeth in the barony of Westerker in Eskdale, near Roxburgh.
The first of these grants was made to John Battisoun/Beattison on 20 October 1458 for two and a half of the merk-lands of Dalbeth:
Rex consessit Johanni Batisoun et heredibus ejus, pro singulari favore quam gessit erga ipsum pro eo quod interfuit in conflictu de Arkinholm in occisione et captione quondam Arcchibaldi et Hugonis de Douglas olim comitum Moravie et de Ormonde, et aliorum rebellium Regis in eorum comitiva existentium ibidem captorum et infectorum, 2 mercatas cum dimedia mercata terre terrarum de Dawech in baronia Westir Ker.
[Charter by King Jems the Second in favour of his beloved and faithful John Batisoun, granting to him, on account of his presence in the conflict of Arkinholme at the slaying and taking of our rebels the late Archibald and Hugh of Douglas, formerly Earls of Moray and Ormonde, and of others our rebels being in their company, there captured and slain, two merklands, with a half merk land of the lands of Dalbeth, lying in the barony of Wester Kir, within the sheriffdom of Roxburgh; To be held the said lands by the said John and his heirs, of the King and his heirs and successors, in fee and heritage for ever, freely and quietly, etc., performing the services due and wont from the said lands …]
The grant to Nicholas Batisoun was dated the same day and also included land at Dalbeth, also in Westerker. The third brother, Robert, received land in Whitshiels (called “Quihitscheles” on the grant). Nicholas died in 1477 and left a sasine, a kind of Scottish will, which was registered that year, but the text of this document is not known.
In the ensuing decades, the Batisouns acquired additional land in Eskdalemuir. Hyslop notes they controlled Enzieholm, Lyneholm, and Ershewood, while the chief on the land lived at the Score (or Skoire). In 1504, King James IV held a criminal court in Eskdale and called out Nicholas Batisoun for his land in Dalbeth, but he failed to appear and was fined £10. This Nicholas would appear to be a son of one of the previous grantees, John or Nicholas, but the relationship is not clear. The Laird of “Lymin” [Lyneholm] was also a Beattison and was fined at the same time. [See the reference to the sasine of John Baty of Linholme, below.]
By 1532, strain had begun to develop between the Batisouns/Beattisons, descendants of John (above) and Lord Maxwell, who had received charters for other Eskdale lands between 1532 and 1537. Hyslop writes:
There was an old tradition that when Maxwell came up into Eskdale to take effective possession of his lands, the Beattisons did not take kindly to the arrangement, and forcibly resisted his action. Things were looking very threatening for the Lord Maxwell, when one of the Beattisons, Rolland of Watt-Carrick, urged him to escape, and offered him the loan of his white mare. Maxwell, it is said, was wise enough to recognize the golden moment, and sped with all haste to Branxholme. There he offered to sell his rights in Eskdale to [Walter] Scott ‘for a cast of hawks and a purse of gold.’ Scott closed with the bargain and speedily mustering his retainers proceeded to Eskdalemuir to take forcible possession of his purchase. He expelled the Beattisons, but on Maxwell’s appeal granted to Rolland Beattison the perpetual tenant-right of Wat-Carrick, for a consideration.
Hyslop goes on to say that the legend, while possibly having some grounding in truth, should not be viewed as accurate in every aspect. “It scarcely requires to be pointed out that the Beattisons were not in such an easy manner ‘scattered’ from Eskdale. They remained a fairly compact clan until the dawn of the seventeenth century.”
Between 1540 and 1550, the Beattisons participated in their most active period of raiding. Lord Wharton included the family a number of reports about the lawlessness of the era:
The Batysons and Thomsons of Eskdaill have burnt a town called Grange, with all the corn there and brought away nolt and other goods amounting to eche of them in their dividing 8s. [3 Oct. 1544]
The Batysons, Thomsons, and Lytles of Esshdayle, Ewesdaill and Wacopdale burnt a town on the Water of Dryff called Blendallbusg and brought away 16 oxen and keyne, some nags with all the insight of the town.
The Batysons, Thomsons and Litles, Scottishmen, burnt a town upon the Water of Lyne and brought away as muche boutie as was to eche of them 10s.
The Batysouns reid a toun near Pebles and burnt a town called Blendallbush.
Beattisons and Scottishmen of Eskdaile wane a tower of the captains of Edinburgh Castle, called Burdlands, burnt all the roofs within the walls and coming home took many oxen and shepe besides 1 Scott slayn.
Wharton responded by invading Eskdale and the Debatable Lands in 1544. He recruited the Beattisons to turn against their fellow Scots and begin a series of raids in Scotland. They agreed, and then began a series of attacks on Wharton’s orders “with as much dash and daring as they had exhibited at the Water of Lyne, showing indeed quite as much ardour under their new allegiance as they had under the old.”
In 1569, the Crown launched a crackdown on the riding clans in Liddesdale and Eskdale. The most prominent of these so-called “broken-men” were the Armstrongs of Liddesdale, but others included the Elliots, Littles, Beattisons, and Irvings, all of whom had been powerful Border barons in Eskdale.
The Batesons were associated stronglky with Eskdale in 1583, when a writer noted (in Scottish dialect): “Eske is a fayre river and cometh throughe Esdall and is Scottishe, inhabited with Battesons of Esdell, until it come neare a place called the Langhalme castill and meateth with the water called Use, which waters and dales are bothe my Lorde Maxwells until it come to Canonby kyrke, and then the Armestrongs and Scottishe Graymes have it . . .”
In 1599, the clan was finally broken up and dispersed. Significantly, many Batisons, who had been ambivalent about the spelling of the surname, began using the Batie and Baty at this time. Hyslop writes:
On the break up of the Beattison clan in 1599 many of its name migrated into Kirkcudbright, and others into different parts of Scotland and England. With these migrations there came modifications of the name Beattison. In Eskdale it changed to Beattie, in other places to Bateson, Baty, and other forms.
John Baty of Linholme, Dumfriesshire, left a sasine dated 1493. His children and the contents of the sasine are not known and not transcribed. His heir was likely known as the Laird of Linholme, who was fined in 1504.
Adam Baty was born about 1470, possibly earlier. His relationship to the Batisons remains unclear. He may have been a lineal descendant or a collateral relative. In 1504, he was convicted of being a thief and executed in Dumfries:
Adam Baty, convicted of art and part with the king’s rebels at the horn, being of Eskdale, in their thefts and treasonable deeds, and for favouring, supplying, and assisting them in their thefts, and of common treason of new, hanged.
The children of Adam are unknown, but considering that the name appears later in the century among other Baty groups in Eskdale, he was possibly an (father, grandfather, uncle, or great-uncle). Note Adam Batie of the Shield and Adam Batie of Yetbyre, below.
The Shield and Yetbyre were strongholds of the Baty family in Eskdale. Several different names are associated with these fortresses. In a charter dated 27 July 1532 are the names of Adam Batie of “Scheill,” Adam Batie of Yetbyre, and John Batie of Moffet, who appear together with Robert Maxwell. The deed suggests a close relationship of the three men. Adam of Yetbyte is apparently heir of John Batie; the other Adam of Shield is perhaps the brother of John:
Rex concessit Roberto Domino Maxwell, heredibus ejus et assignatis terrarum 6 marcat: de Eynze (clamat : per Adam Batie et ejus heredes, 20 solidat : de Lymholm clamat : per Johannem Batie, in Moffet. 3 marcat : de Erschewode clamat : per Adam Batie in Scheill, Adam Batie in Yetbyre et Heredes quondam John Batie). 5 marcat : de Harparquhat et Appilquhat clamat : per John Glendinning de Belhome ….
(witnesses) ADAM BATIE in Scheill. ADAM BATIE in Yettbyre, etc.
Likely these two Adam Batys and John Baty were closely related to the Adam Baty who was hanged at Dumfries in 1504, but the precise relationship is not known. Perhaps one of the Adams and John were sons of the earlier Adam.
Nicholl Batie of the Shield, possibly a son of Adam of Shield, appears in later documents in 1569, and perhaps is identical to the Nicol Batie who was nicknamed “Bullman Ryddin” (see below). He appears to have had at least three sons: John, Archie, and David. This group is almost certainly related to Hew Batie, the Baties of the Yards, and the Baties of Mungos (see below). In 1569, Nicholl Batie of the Schield appears on a list of pledges, together with David Batie, brother of Hew, Mungois Arthour Batie, Nickoll Batie of Carnisgill, Johnne Batie in the Yardis [Yards], and John Batie, son of Wat Batie “in the Corse.”
About 1569, a list of outlaws in the West March of Scotland was delivered to Lord Maxwell as Warden of the West March. They were listed as “common thevis, tratouris and rebellis, quhilkis dayly stelis, rydis, and gydis, and convoys uderis thevis and brokin men, brigand thame in apon our trew lieges.” The list includes Nichol Baty “callit Bullman Ryddin.” His relationship to other Eskdale Batys is not known, but he could be identical to Nicholas Batie of the Shield or any one of a number of Nicholas Baties.
Awlie Batie appears on an undated list from the first half of the 1500s (ca 1540), listed as a “principal” of the clan in Eskdale. His relationship to others is not known.
John Batie “of the Yards” offered a pledge of loyalty in 1569 and was connected to the Baties of the Shield, of Carnisgill, and of the Corse. Here years later on 18 Aug. 1573, he and Andrew Batie, called a “Borderer,” came before the Privy Council, where they “plegis and gif thai failyeit [fealty?] thairin.” In 1598, Adam Batie of the Yards (perhaps John’s son) was among those declared as outlaws for refusing to pay a tax to Lord Maxwell.
On 26 June 1542, Ady Baty of Crury was murdered at night in Westerkir in Eskdale. His assailants are identified as Robene Frostar, Ade Frostar, Dande Tailryeour, Dandl Ellot of Baggott, and others. Perhaps “Ady” is a nickname of Adam.
In October 1569, the Lord Regent visited the Borders and obtained the following pledge of loyalty:
Hew Batie callit Johnne the Braid enterit plegis to my Lord Regentis Grace for thame selffis, thair sonnies, men tenentis, servandis and haill surname Batesonis and als in name and on behalf of the surnames of Thomsonm and Glendonyng, thair men, tenentis and sevandis; that they sall redresse all attemptattis agains England for tymes bigane and to cum, and all Scottismen offendit to sen the Kingis coronation at thair utter power.
This document was co-signed by David Batie, brother of Hew, Mungois Arthour Batie, Nicholl Batie of the Schield, Nickoll Batie of Carnisgill, Johnne Batie in the Yardis, Johnne Batie, son to Wat in the Corse. Significant is the fact that the document calls them Batisons, though they signed their names as Batie. On 13 July 1590, Andro Batye, nicknamed “Hew’s Andro,” was named on a list for the Warden of the West March. He could be a son of the above Hew or Hugh, and he may be the same Andro who was nicknamed “Steenie Home” (see below)..
The Score or Scoir was a fortress in Eskdale. John Batisoun/Batie of the Score formed an alliance with John Armstrong, called the Laird’s Jock, in 1588. Raising an army of 500 men they launched a foray into England and “carried off 660 kye, 600 sheep, 35 prisoners and insight worth £40 sterling.”
A subsequent document, dated about 1590, gives more genealogical detail about this family. John Batison had a son Nickie and two brothers, David and Archibald Batison, all of Eskdale. They were all accused of stealing livestock, including 26 cows and oxen, two horses, and one stag from Meineinchald, and ten cows and oxen and one mare from Mowbray. Sir Walter Scott complained that they had committed “divers herships and oppressions upon him and his servants for which there is a deadly feud now new standing more especially between the said Sir Walter and the Beattisons of whom John Batieson of the Scoir, etc. are principals.”
Eight years later, John and Archie “Batie” of the Score appear on a list of broken men from the Border, refusing to pay a tax to Lord Maxwell, for which they were declared outlaws. Several, including John, were hanged. Also on the same list are John Batie of Tanlaw Hill, David Batie his brother, Alic Batie of Black Esk, Rowie Batie, Andro Batie alias “Steenie Home,” Adam Batie of the Yards, Johnne Batie of Rennelburn, and Cristie Batie of Bankhead.
A small group of Baties is associated with the nickname Mungos or Mungois. Mungos is not identified as a place, and its precise origin is obscure. Mungo was a Scottish saint, and there was a St. Mungo’s Altar in St. Giles Church. The name may represent the nickname of a particular Batie, and the later persons affiliated with it could represent Mungo’s children. This group includes Arthur Batie, called Mungois Arthour Batie, who signed a pledge to the Lord Regent in 1569, together with Hugh Batie (see above). In 1584, Mungoes Jame Batie appears on a list together with David Batie of Black Esk, Nichollas Johne Batie, John Batie of the Crose and Nycoll Batie of Whisgyll. In 1590, John Batye of Warrik was called “Mungo’s Johnne,” and together with Andro Batye, called Hew’s Andro, appear on a list with various Armstrongs as being ordered to appear before the Warden of the West March. Perhaps James and Johnne were sons of the earlier Arthur, or all three were sons of an earlier Mungo Batie, who is not otherwise identified.
In 1583, Richard Grame, brother of Fergus Grame, married an unnamed daughter of Allen Bayte of “Esdall” or Eskdale.
Black Esk was another fortress in Eskdlae held by Baties. In 1584, David Batie of Black Esk gave an assurance of support to Liddesdale. He had at least one brother, Alic Batie, also of Black Esk.
Yet another small fortress held in Eskdale was known as the Cross or Corse. Wat or Walter Batie was a resident in the early 1500s; his son John, called John of the Corse, pledged his support to the Lord Regent in 1569. This was perhaps the same John Batie of the “Crose,” who, in 1586, pledged his support of Liddesdale. He was probably closely related to the Baties of Black Esk and those of Mungos, who appear on the same list.
In 1584, Nycoll Batie of “Whysgyll” was an ally of the Armstrongs of Liddesdale. No other references to this fortress could be found.
Batteye of Lowther, in Dumfries
In 1580-1581, Richard Batteye appears on a list of footmen with “billes,” a kind of muster roll, on the estate of Richard Lowther. He does not appear to be closely connected to the Eskdale Baties.
The Baties who lived in the town of Dumfries are distinct from those in Eskdale. There may have been some relationship, but they had different associations than their marauding cousins. Many of them served as burgess, a position of honor, similar to that of a town councilman. They made decisions affecting taxes and rights in the town, and they seem to have been particularly close to the families of Cunningham, Marshall, Kirkpatrick, and Ray, none of which had association with the riding clans in the Debateable Lands.
John Bate and David Newall were granted tenancies to the quarter fishing in the Nith, near Dumfries in April 1524. The record reflects the earliest documented evidence of the family being resident in the burgh of Dumfries, but any relationship to subsequent references to the name cannot be confirmed.
In the 1560s, Sir John Baty or Batie appears several times in the Dumfries records. In 1564, a John Baty witnessed the sasine of John Maxwell, son of the late Robert Maxwell of Conhaith. In 1567, “Schirr” John Batie’s land was described as being on the east side of a tract belonging of John Wrychtis, Robert Davidson, and William Lawsonis. Herbert Rayning is also mentioned in the document.
In September 1567, Andrew Batie and William Batie were co-burgesses in Dumfries, together with William Paterson, Robert Vlesche, David Raa, Nicholl Martin, Andrew McBrwin, Thomas Newall, John Kirkpatrick, and John Marchell. William Cunygham signed as a witness. In November of the same year, William and Andrew condoned the establishment of a tollbooth in Dumfries. In 1579, Thomas Baty co-signed a document with James Wallace, Andrew Cunyngham, Mathew Dickson, John Merchell the younger, William Irving, and Robert Raning, all members of the council of Dumfries. In 1582, he was probably the John Baty, who, with Thomas Corsane, witnessed a court action by John Halyday against Andrew Cunninghame.
Sir John’s family likely appears again in a document of significant genealogical value dating from 1 December 1587. It describes a marriage contract between Robert Raa, son of the late David Raa, burgess of Dumfries and wife Helen (Edgar), to Jonet Batie, daughter of John Batie, burgess of Dumfries, and John’s wife Helen (Kirkpatrick). Thomas Batie, Jonet’s eldest brother, acted as her representative in the contract. Robert Raa “obliges himself to marry Jonet Batie before Fastem’s Even next, and endow her with body and goods as in duty became him.” John Batie agrees to pay a dowry of 515 merks in specified installments, to continue offering Jonet “for two years after marriage” and “to set out Jonet honestly in cloths and otherwise according to her degree.” The document was witnessed by Herbert Cunyngham, saddler, and Herbert Cunyngham, notary. This Thomas Batie was apparently the same one who married Katharine Cuningham, widow of Mathew Davidson, on 29 May 1563. On 9 April 1588, Michael Batie’s tenement was described as lying on the north part of John Cunyngham’s land, but his relationship to the others, if any, is not known.
In 1597, Robert Batie was burgess, together with Herbert Rayning, John Corsane, Herbert Birkmyr, John Gendainis, Francis Irving, and John Marschaell; together they were enjoined not to harm Isobell Kirpatrick, widow of Richard Kennan. Robert was probably a relative of Sir John Batie, above, possibly a son. In 1607, Harbert Baty was a burgess in Dumfries.
The Baty name was associated with Berwick-upon-Tweed, Berwickshire on the northwestern border with England from the beginning of the fourteenth century, slightly earlier than the appearance of the name in Dumfriesshire. The name does not appear to have remained there over a lengthy period of time and is not referenced in the sixteenth century sources there. The earliest reference comes from the reign of Edward I:
Rex Edwardus diittit mesuagum in Berewico, Ricardo Colle per Seipum rel. alios Anglos habitandum
…. In le Fleshewerrawe in villa de Berewico suo Twedan quod fuut Willi Bette nup iniwici ….
Robert Betteson appears on a record dated 28 June 1319:
Robs Betteson constabula ejusde nabis.
Nicholas Betteson is recorded as a tenant with Adam Skile on a list dated 10 Oct. 1335, constabula castri de Werkworth od ejus loci tenent.
David Betysoun appears on a military list of 11 June 1369:
David Betysoune m’cator sw Scot cu duobz foc equit.
BATY OF MONTROSE, FORFARSHIRE
A Baty family was present in the town of Montrose, Forfarshire, in the early sixteenth century. John Baty was bailie of Montrose in 1529-1530: “Compotur ballivorum burgi de Montrose redditum apud Linlithgw per Johannen Baty unum eouden, 5 Aug. 1530 from 29 July 1529.”
William Baty, possibly John’s son or brother, was bailie of Montrose in 1537 and rendered an account that year. He also appears on another record at the same perod: “Compostum Thome Erskin de Brechin Militis custumarris de Montros, redditour apid Edinburgh per Willelmus Baty ejus nominee, 11 August 1537.”
BATY OF FALKLAND, FIFESHIRE
The Baty family of Falkland, Fifeshire, is a remarkable one and can be documented over a long span of time in the early Scottish records. It begins with Margery Baty, evidently a wealthy widow, who made frequent appearances in the Exchequer rolls beginning as early as 1458, when she paid for an enclosure to the ward and woods of Falkland. In 1461, she had charge of the queen’s cattle, and three years later she paid for fuel for the queen’s fire. Between in 1466 and 1478, she received payment for keeping meadows and for repairing the ditches at Falkland.
John Baty, who was probably Margery’s son, was a falconer in Falkland and flourished between 1491 and 1518. He received a series of payments in the exchequer rolls between 1491 and 1496, including a fee for the land of Darno. In 1502, he3 and his unnamed two children sought permission to find a hawk that had flown away. The following year John petitioned for compensation “quhen he fell and hurt him[self.]” Later that same year he received a pass to Linlithgow with one Wallas in order to “set doun thair halkis [hawks].” He also received permission to seek a hawk belonging to John de Cauponis.
BATY OF EDINBURGH
In the mid 1400s, Andrew Bette was a burgess of Edinburgh and petitioned for the safe conduct of Sir William Douglas. On 8 September 1491, John Batye, burgess of Edinburgh, received a coat of arms that was described as “A fess between three piles issuing from the chief, and a pilgrim’s water bottle [?] in base. Oblique crossing lines at top of shield.”
BATY OF FORDEL IN EDINBURGH AND DUMBARTON
The Batys associated with the town of Fordel are probably connected with those who were burgesses of Edinburgh (above). This group includes most notably Elen Batye, wife of James Henderson of Fordel, killed in 1513. She was afterwards the wife of Alan Stewart, Captain of Dumbarton and Inchgarvie in Fifeshire. Elen’s arms are similar to those issued to John Batye of Edinburgh in 1491. Issued on 6 February 1520/1, they are described as: “A fess between three piles issuing from the chief a chessman [?] in base. Oblique crossing lines at top and foliage at sides of shield.” Elen was the mother of George Henderson, who had a life rent of Fordale in 1518.
THE CASE FOR DUMFRIESSHIRE:
AN IRISH BEATTY COAT OF ARMS
None of the medieval Baties appear to have ever registered a coat of arms. Hyslop writes:
Some of the gravestones in Westerkirk, Canonby, and Ewes churchyard, and also in that of Carruthers, bear the arms of the Beattison clan, and these sculptured arms are similar to those of the different families of Beattie, or its synonyms, found in most of the churchyards of the Borders. In virtually all of the arms, the cross-keys and the “draught-board” design are found, but it does not necessarily follow that both or either of these indicates an armorial bearing. The cross-keys are found in many ecclesiastical coats, and are the emblems of St. Peter. In medieval times they were a common sign of inns attached to religious houses.
The traditional Batisoun or Battison arms is depicted in the lower left (Fig. 1). Hyslop’s dismissal of the shields lack of heraldic significance should not be taken too seriously, for it is possible that the deign served as a kind of pseudo-heraldic device. One should not attach too much importance to the fact that the design was not formally registered with the Lord Lyon. These were a warlike people living on what was then considered the frontier, and it is not surprising that the design was not registered. It is also probable that heraldic rules about the bearing of arms were not followed, and more than one person used a device of identical design, even though they were only distantly related.
The design has some significance to the study of Beatty families in Ireland. John Beatty or Beatye, who left a 1681 will at Killeshandra, County Cavan (Lineage 8 in the BP-2000 project) used a seal depicted below right (Fig. 2), as drawn by Irish genealogist Philip Crossle from the original will. The seal seems to depict a conjoined or impaled coat of arms, where a husband’s and wife’s arms are fused together. Traditionally, the left side comes from the paternal and the right from the maternal sides.
Clearly the left portion of the seal has much in common with the traditional Beattison or Battison arms of Dumfriesshire. The crossed keys are missing, but the three lozenges or diamonds and the checky fesse or middle stripe appear identical to the Scottish arms. This arms serves as evidence that the Cavan family, and probably a significant number of other Beattys in Ulster, come from the Border region in Scotland.
Fig. 1 Fig. 2
One of the principal early lists for the Beatty surname in Ulster is the 1630 muster roll in County Fermanagh. Many of the Beattys depicted on this list likely dispersed to other parts of Ulster. M. Perceval-Maxwell, in The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James I, notes the strong connection Border families had to the muster list. “If we look at the muster, we see that immigrants with names associated with a specific district of Scotland very often settled near to one another … The names occurring most frequently in the muster of this county … were Johnston, Armstrong, Elliot, and Beatty, in that order, all Border names …. It was Fermanagh’s remoteness from Scotland and the consequent immunity from Scottish justice thatit provided which rendered it particularly attractive to Borderers.”
 Great Britain, Record Commission, Rotuli Scotiae in Turri Londinensi et in domo Capitulari Westmonasterien si Asservati. (London: G. Eyre and A. Strahan, 1814), vol. 1,p. 758a. Cited hereafter as Rotuli Scotiae. The Latin in this source is often corrupted and abbreviated.
Register of the Great Seal of Scotland [Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum]. Reprit (Edinburgh: Scottish Record Society, 1984), 1424-1513, no. 632, p. 140.
 Translation in Armstrong, History of Liddesdale, p. xi.
 Ibid., no, 633, pp. 140-141.
 Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. (Edinburgh: General Register House, 1908), vol. 9, p. 678.
 Hyslop, Langholme As It Was, p. 297.
 Hyslop, Langholme As It Was, pp. 244-245.
 Lord Wharton’s report in ibid., p. 297.
 History of Liddesdale, p. lxviii.
 Hyslop, Langholme As It Was, p. 298.
 Hyslop, Langholme As It Was, p. 298.
 Border Papers, vol.. 1, p. 121.
 Ibid., p, 303.
 George Burnett, ed. Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. (Edinburgh: General Register House, 1886), vol. 10, p. 316.
 Armstrong, History of Liddesdale, p. 192.
 Charter, 27 July 1532 in Hyslop, Langholm As It Was, p. 226.
 Hyslop, p. 299.
 Ibid, p. 299.
 Armstrong, History of Liddesdale, p. xlviii.
 Ibid., p. cxv.
 Hyslop, p. 299.
 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, (Edinbirgh: Scottish Record Office, n. d.) 1573, n. p. see Mediaeval Batys, Nuncclose Genealogy Home Page website.
 Hyslop., p. 301.
 History of Liddesdale, p. liv.
 Hyslop, p. 299.
 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, on the Nunclose Genealogy Homepage.
 Hyslop, p. 300.
 Ibid, p. 301.
 Joseph Bain, ed., Calendar of Letters and Papers Relating to the Affairs of the Borders of England and Scotland. (Edinburgh: General Register House, 1894), vol. 1, p. 170. Hereafter cited as Border Papers.
 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, cited in the Nunclose Genealogy Home Page website.
 Border Papers, vol. 1, p. 65.
 Robert Edgar, An Introduction to the History of Dumfries. (Dumfries: J. Maxwell & Son, 1915), p. 107.
 Ibid., p. 241.
 Ibid., p. 238.
 Ibid., p. 242.
 Ibid., p. 243.
 Ibid., p. 245.
 Ibid., p. 246.
 Ibid., p. 244.
 Ibid., p. 240.
 Ibid., p. 179.
 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, 2nd Series vol. 8, p. 288.
 Rotuli Scotiae, vol. 1, p. 275a.
 Rotuli Scotiae, vol. 1, p. 199a.
 Rotuli Scotiae, vol. 1, p. 381b.
 Rotuli Scotiae, vol. 1, p. 931b.
 Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, vol. 16 (1529-36), p. 80.
 Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, vol. 17 (1537-42), p. 58
 Ibid., p. 42.
 Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, vol. 6 (1455-1460), vol. 6, p. 419, 566.
 Ibid., vol. 7, pp. 76, 244.
 Ibid., pp. 271, 336, 459, 570, 572.
 Ibid., vol. 10, pp. 258, 298, 316, 449, 483, 587.
 Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, on the Nunclose Genealogy Homepage, p. 5.
 Rotuli Scotiae, vol. 1, pp. 758, 865.
 John Horne Stevenson and Marguerite Wood, Scottish Heraldic Seals: Royal, Official, Ecclesiastical, Collegiate, Burghal, Personal.. (Glasgow: Robert Maclehose, 1940), p. 241.
 Ibid., p. 242.
 George P. McNeill, Exchequer Rolls of Scotland.(Edinburgh: General Register House, 1897), p. 604. There are numerous other references to Elen Baty in these volumes and in the Register of the Privy Seal of Scotland.
 Hyslop, p. 303.
 M. Percevel-Maxwell, The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James I. (London: Routledge and Kegan, 1973), pp. 286-287..