DNA Project Information
Welcome to the CARMACK Surname DNA Project Information site. The objective is to match up individuals or families who share a common male ancestor of the CARMACK surname (or any of the variant spellings).
Y-DNA testing is relatively new to genealogy research. Y-DNA is passed from father to son only, through the generations, with minimal (random) changes. This Y-DNA "signature" can be used to prove or disprove lineage and, when compared to the Y-DNA signature of a “cousin, to possibly trace back to a Most Recent Common Ancestor.
DNA testing gives genealogy researchers another avenue to better establish, or disprove ancestral links between individuals with a common surname. There are two types of DNA tests now available for genealogical testing: the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) test and the mitochondrial (mtDNA) test. A direct female line can be traced by testing mitochondrial DNA. Our project is an effort to trace the CARMACK surname. Since fathers pass on the DNA in their “Y” chromosome to their sons virtually unchanged from generation to generation, men with identical, or near identical, DNA factors can be genetically proven to be descendants of a common male ancestor. For this reason, our study will be limited to direct line CARMACK males. Test results will not give the degree of relationship, but they can prove a common male ancestor.
The testing laboratory will be analyzing 12-37 different markers on the participant’s Y-chromosome (depending upon which test is chosen). If the Y-chromosomes of two tested individuals match, it will indicate they both descend from a common male CARMACKancestor. This testing will not, however, identify the specific ancestor from whom a participant descends. Once enough samples have been analyzed though, a person tested who is from an unknown lineage could learn which general line he belongs to and therefore eliminate investigating CARMACKfamilies from whom he could NOT have descended.
Although more documentary evidence may still be found, traditional genealogical research may never find all the connections between the various Carmack family groups. In addition, there are undoubtedly links that have been made that are not correct. The availability of Y chromosome analysis now provides a new way to determine direct male-to-male lineage, and this is the basis of this project.
The objective is to build up a database of Carmack family Y-DNA profiles to assist Carmack's worldwide to trace their ancestral roots, and also locate possible long lost branches of their families. This project can help answer many things about the Carmack's, some of which include the following:
- Identify others who are related and how the different CARMACK family lines related.
- Prove or disprove theories regarding ancestors.
- Breakdown brick walls in your research.
- Determine a location for further research.
- Validate existing research.
- How many different common male ancestors are associated with the CARMACK surname?
- Are the Maryland CARMACKs related to the CARMACKs from Ireland and Scotland?
- Which CARMACK researchers should be collaborating because they share a common ancestor?
If your CARMACK research has hit a “wall, DNA analysis could be the breakthrough you have been looking for to push your CARMACK genealogy research back generations by finding connections to other CARMACK family Lines.
The CARMACK DNA Project invites all men with the CARMACK surname (including all variant spellings) to participate. Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), one of the most prominent research firms in this field, has been selected for our "Y" chromosome DNA project. FTDNA is a Houston, TX based company founded strictly for performing genealogical DNA testing and analysis. All work is done in the lab of Dr. Michael Hammer of the University of Arizona. Dr. Hammer is another highly respected geneticist who is actively pursuing DNA surname research. As part of the Family Tree DNA Family Reconstruction Project Program we have obtained special group prices for our project:
You may choose either the 12-Marker, 25-Marker, 37-Marker, or 67-Marker test. The 25, 37, or 67-Marker test uses the same 12 markers as the 12-Marker test plus additional ones, so results will be compatible. If you want to upgrade from the 12-marker test to a 25, 37, or 67 marker test you can do this at a later date without having to resubmit your DNA, since it is stored by FTDNA and is available for additional tests. I strongly advise the 37 or 67 marker test. However, if cost is an issue, the 12 or 25 marker test is certainly sufficient for excluding connections.
Test results will be returned to both the Family Coordinator and the test participant as they are received by FTDNA. Each participant will also receive a certificate and report containing his personal test results. The staff of FTDNA or its testing lab at the University of Arizona will help interpret the meaning of test results. In addition, information on test analysis will be published on this website and I will be happy to discuss individual results as they relate to other results from the group.
No information will be placed on the website which identifies anyone (no name, email address, etc.) Each test kit has an ID Number, this would be the only way that information is labeled on the website.
THE Y-DNA TEST
The DNA testing is easy and you don't even have to go anywhere. They mail the kit to you and you mail it back to them-- no blood, no doctors, no visits to collection specialists. The kit is a padded envelop that contains two cheek scrapers (swabs) that look like a tooth brush and their collection tubes. The test is as simple as brushing your teeth . You brush the inside of your cheek with one swab, then do the same with the other swab at least eight hours later. The swabs have nice little handles that allow you to push the soft ends off into their collection tube which is filled with soapy water. The collection tubes have caps that keep the swab tips wet and sealed while they travel to Houston in the envelope. The kit includes instructions for collecting your DNA sample and also a release form allowing for sharing of your data results with others in our project who exactly match.
Your results will be posted on your own personal web page at Family Tree DNA. You will use a kit number and passcode to see the results. You will also get printed results in the mail.
All CARMACK and other possible variants surnames are encouraged to participate in the CARMACK DNA Project. Male CARMACK's may participate directly. Females do not have the Y-chromosome. However, they can participate through a male CARMACK relative (father, grandfather, brother, uncle, cousin).
Each participant must request a test kit (described above), and return the kit to Family Tree DNA for analysis. FTDNA will provide the necessary instructions with the kit. Payment can be made by check or credit card.
Please Click Here to Sign UP for the CARMACK DNA Project. Or Click on the following icon, then click on (C), find and click on the Carmack project, then fill out form to request to Join the group.
Remember the DNA for your test must be from a male with the surname CARMACK or a known or suspected variant spelling.
Only the person providing a DNA sample and the Family Coordinator will know what his results are (unless the participant decides he would like to share that information). An ID number and password will be assigned to each sample by Family Tree DNA. This ID number will be the only identifying information anyone else sees. Only the test sample and the ID number is forwarded to the testing lab. No one other than the coordinator and a clerical person at FTDNA will know who participates in the study or which result is from which person. Test results and project information that is stored by FTDNA is kept on a dedicated computer in Houston which is not connected to the Internet.
When test results are posted on this website, no names of living people will be included. Instead there will be a code number and some brief information about testee's earliest proven ancestor and his location. Whatever the case, privacy will always be preserved.
A FINAL WORD OF CAUTION
There is always a possibility that you could get disappointing test results. Samples that vary by three or more markers from the main group may do so for a number of reasons. One possibility is that they represent distinct lines either older or younger than the currently observed most frequent line. Another is that there has been a “nonpaternal event” at an unknown past time. There are several possible types of nonpaternal events besides a maternal indiscretion. For example, a child may have been adopted and given the CARMACK name; a man may have taken the CARMACK name when he marries a CARMACK daughter; a CARMACK man may have married a pregnant widow and the child given the name CARMACK; a couple where the wife is the CARMACK may choose to give their children the CARMACK name for various reasons; clerical error in public documents may assign a CARMACK name to the wrong person, and so on.
Adoptions have been common in every age (i.e.. parents died by disease or war and a relative took in the children and raised them with their name; or young daughters had a child out of wedlock and the parents raised it as their own).
The number of surname DNA projects are growing rapidly. Family Tree DNA provides an optional matching service for people to look for matches among other surnames. In addition, there is a growing public database at www.ybase.org in which you can enter your result to try to match up with other people who share your Y chromosome signature. However, at the present time, those databases are far too small to produce magical matches to people whose DNA may have strayed from its original surname. In time, however, it even may be possible for those individuals to search a database and discover their Y chromosome DNA's original surname.