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Excerpted from "The Creek War of 1813 and 1814" by H. S. Halbert and T. H. Ball

Treaty of Fort Jackson

"Articles of agreement and capitulation made August 9, 1814, between Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States and the Chiefs of the Creek Nation

"Whereas, An unprovoked, inhuman, and sanguinary war, waged by the hostile Creeks against the United States, hath been repelled in conformity with principles of national justice, be it remembered that prior to the conquest of that part of the creek nation hostile to the United States, numberless aggressions have been committed against the peace, the property, and the lives of citizens of the United States and those of the Creek nation in amity with her, at the mouth of Duck River, Fort Mims, and elsewhere, etc., etc., wherefore:

Article 1. The United States demand an equivalent for all expenses incurred in prosecuting the war to its termination by the cession of all territory belonging to the Creek nation within the territory of the United States lying west, south, and southwestwardly of a line to be run and described by persons duly authorized, etc. , beginning at a point on the easterly bank of the Coosa River where the south boundary line of the Cherokee nation crosses the same, etc., etc.

Provided friendly chiefs are entitled to their improvements, land, etc.

Article 2. The United States guarantee the Creek nation all their territory east and north of said lines.

Article 3. The United States demand the Creeks to abandon all communication with British or Spanish posts, etc.

Article 4. The United States demand right to establish military posts, roads, and free navigation of waters in territory guaranteed the Creeks.

Article 5. The United States demand a surrender of all persons, property, friendly Creeks, and other Indians, etc., taken.

Article 6. The United States demand the capture and surrender of all the prophets and instigators of the war, whether foreign or native, who have not submitted to the United States, if any shall be found in territory guaranteed the Creeks.

Article 7. The Creeks being reduced to extreme want, etc., the United States, from motives of humanity, will continue to furnish the necessities of life until crops of corn can yield the nation a supply, and will establish trading posts.

Article 8. A permanent peace shall ensue from the date of these presents forever between the Creeks and the United States and between the Creeks and the Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations.

Article 9. If in running the lines east, the settlement of the Kinnards falls within the boundaries of the ceded territory the line will be run so as to leave it out, etc.

The parties to the se presents agree to ratify and confirm the preceding articles, and do hereby solemnly bind themselves to a faithful performance. *


*The Treaty of Ghent which declared peace between Great Britain and the United States, was signed December 24, 1812; but as the Treaty of Fort Jackson did not actually terminate the war with the Creeks, so neither did this European treaty actually terminate the "War of 1812" of which the Creek War became part. Pensacola had to be captured and New Orleans to be defended.


Fort Jackson, the site of the signing, was built on the old site of Fort Toulouse. This is near Wetumpka, AL. You may visit this historic site -- now a state park -- where you may see a partially reconstructed fort and witness reenactments of colonial days. The fort stands in shadows of an ancient mound. and on a bluff near the conjunction of the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, where they meet to form the Alabama River.