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O'hAinlighe of Kinel Dobhtha
County Roscommon,
Province of Connacht,

ANCIENT HANLEY HISTORY

The following history is extracted, occasionally verbatim, from the works listed in the bibliography at the end of this document. It is a compilation of records, not an original document. In some instances more than one source was relied upon for a given historical event or period. Spellings vary but can be easily discerned. Dates are not always consistent due to the multiple sources. This will be an ongoing attempt to gather all recorded information on the Hanley lineage especially prior to the year 1900. It will be updated regularly as new information becomes available.

The mighty Gaels of Ireland
The men whom God made mad
For all their wars were merry
And all their songs are sad.

Early Legends:

The history of Eirinn, and the Irish Celts, is among the most ancient in the world, extending farther back than most other nations in Europe. Evidence of this lies in the fact that the "Irish" language (or Gaellic) is the third oldest in the western world behind Latin and Greek.

Although many historians challenge the legends of Ireland, there is evidence that, while perhaps embellished and possibly Christianized, these legends provide a foundation for the true history of the nation and it's people. Ancient written records no longer exist but their tone and texture have influenced later writings and provide shadow remnants of the most distant past. Many of the writers are obscure and the dates when the epic events of Irish mythology took place are vague. The poems of Maelmura (died 884), Cinaed Uah Artacain (died 975), Eochaid Ua Flainn (died 984), Flann Mainistrech (died 1056), and Gilla Coemgin (died 1072) give intriguing glimpses into the subterranean wealth of Irish legend. Very significant is the Lebor Gabala or Book of Invasions, which first appeared in a twelfth century manuscript. It is chronological and in order as if the author is determined to make sense of a conflicting body of oral evidence.

The earliest inhabitants of Ireland, according to legend, was a colony established by Cesara, niece of Noah, who arrived some weeks before the Flood. Their timing was not the best, however, as the colony was soon washed away in the deluge.

Ireland then remained in a wild state for three centuries until Partholan, of the family of Japhet, arrived, having begun his voyage in Migdonia in the middle of Greece. Partholan was the ninth in descent from Noah. During his reign he had the misfortune of having his wife commit adultery with a lowly house servant. He lived thirty years in Ireland and, after his death, the island was divided among his four sons. This race lasted three hundred years and was then destroyed by a plague, at the hill of Hoath, which ravaged the people.

Thirty years later Nemedius, also of the family of Japhet, and eleventh in descent from Noah, settled on the shores of Ireland. Some historians believe Nemedius descended from Adhla, a son of Partholan. This was a Celtic race which became known as the Nemedians. They were constantly harassed by African sea-rovers, known as Fomorians, who eventually defeated and enslaved them. The Fomorians had established a stronghold for themselves on Tory Island in the northwest. They were reportedly the descendants of Cham, son of Noah. A large party of Nemedians led by Simon Breac, grandson of Nemedius, did escape to Greece where they were reduced to a worse slavery than those who had been left behind. Here they became known as the Fir-bolgs or bagmen after the leather bags they were required to carry.

Five thousand Fir-bolgs eventually escaped from Greece in stolen ships and returned to Ireland to liberate their brethern. Their leader, Dela, divided the Island among his five sons. Their reign lasted a mere forty years when another colony of Nemedians from Greece, the Tuatha-da-Danaan, arrrived. This was a highly civilized race with great skills in the arts and crafts.

Legend says that these three groups came together at the battle of Moytura on the Mayo-Galway border, the Fir-bolgs and the Fomorians on one side and the Tuatha-De-Danaans on the other. The Tuatha-De-Danaans were victorious after a battle that raged for four days. The noted King Eochaid of the Firbolgs was killed during the battle but the De-Danaan king, Nuada (Nuadha Airgiodlamb), lost a hand and was deposed as a result of this deformity. Succeeding him was the De-Danaan warrior champion, Breas, whose father was a Fomorian. He assumed the throne and ruled for seven years until driven from power by his people for bad behavior. Nuada, meanwhile, had replaced his amputated limb with a silver hand (Airgead Lam) and returned to reign over his people. The Fir-bolgs were allowed to retain their territories in Connacht.

Other Legendary and Archealogical dates:

7500 B.C. First settlers of Ireland arrive, probably from Scotland, perhaps even as early as 10,000 B.C.

3500 B.C. Neolithic (New Stone Age) people arrive bringing agriculture and marking the beginning of civilized Ireland.

3200 B.C. Newgrange is built by a wealthy New Stone Age farming community in the Boyne Valley in County Meath. It served as a passage-tomb but also as a link between the living community and its deities; a focal point for ritual and celebration. A monument to the antiquity of Irish history, Newgrange predates the pyramids by 500 years and Stonehenge by more than a 1000.

2000 B.C. The Bronze Age begins in Ireland with the arrival of a people who were prospectors and metalworkers. At the same time, reportedly, a tribe came to Tara bringing white cattle with red ears.

1700 B.C. Legend says that the early Irish Celts descended from the Scythians who had established themselves, in remote ages, on the Red Sea. There is corresponding Hebrew and Spanish historical evidence to support this theory including Rabbi Simon (who wrote in 200 B.C.), Josephus and Herodotus. And, the roots of modern Irish (Gaellic) lie ultimately in a language, known as Indo-European, which was spoken some 5000 years ago in the area between the Baltic and the Black Sea. By 1000 B.C. the Celtic group of languages emerged from the parent Indo-European tongue and three distinct dialects appeared...Gaulish, Brythonic and Goidelic.

The Scythians, under their leader Feniusa Farsa (Feinius Farsaid), were a noble and honorable people of modest behavior who built a great university of learning to study the languages created after the Tower of Babel. Although a peaceful nation, they would not tolerate injustice, and were never known to have lost a battle with an enemy. Niul (Nel), son of Feniusa Farsa, inherited responsibility for the schools and was invited to Egypt by Pharoah Cingeris to instruct the youth of that country. He so delighted the Pharoah that he bestowed his daughter Scota upon him as a wife.

These early Celts, under Niul, reportedly gave provisions to the Israelites when they were fleeing Egypt. Ancient legend says that Niul's son Gadelas was bitten by a serpent and was near death. Moses prayed to God and laid his rod upon the wound and the young prince was healed. Moses then predicted that whatever land the Scythians or their posterity should inhabit, no venemous creature would exist.

Because they had provided food to the Israelites, the Scythians were pursued by the army of the Pharoah an Tuir, son of Cingeris. They fled under the leadership of Niul's great grandson Sru and returned to Scythia. Sru's son Heber Scot killed a rival for the kingship of Scythia and, in revenge, they were driven from the country. They settled in the Macotic Marshes on the Black Sea where the Scots (as they became known from Scota, wife of Niul) remained for nearly three hundred years. Finally, a descendant, Brath, led them out of the Marshes and, after a long sea voyage, settled them on the coast of Spain. This reportedly occured in 764 A.M. (Anno Mundi) or 4400 B.C. where they became known as Milesians. This date of arrival is recorded in the Hispania Illustrata, a rare work written by over sixty scholars.

"Milesians" is the name by which the ancient Irish are generally distinguished from those of later periods. In the native Irish the Milesians are called Clana Miledh or the posterity of Milesius, the Hero. His real name was Gollamh but, as a mark of pre-eminence, he was called Miledh-Espaine, or the Hero of Spain, hence Milesians. He was the father of Heber and Heremon, who conquered all Ireland in the year of the world (according to the Hebrews) A.M. 2736.

The O'hAinlighe lineage descended from Milesius, king of Spain. Milesius' wife was named Scota and they had the following children:

Donn and Aireach born in Phoenicia
Heber-fionn and Amhergin born in Egypt
Ir, Colpa, Aranann and Heremon born in Spain

Ith, grandson of Brath and uncle of Milesius (or Gallamh), King of Spain, was the first of the Milesians to visit Ireland. On landing in Ireland they battled with the Tuatha de Danaans and Ith was killed. When his body was returned to Spain and exposed to the people, King Milesius, outraged at the death of his uncle, sent his nine sons with a great fleet to revenge his death. Legend says that the fleet was so large that it extended all the way from Spain to Ireland.

According to the Four Masters, the Milesian Celts arrived in Ireland in 1694 B.C. (3500 A.M.) and encountered and made friends with the Firbolgs at Boyle. The Firbolgs warned the Milesians of the ruling Tuatha de Danaans who had their capital at Tara. They created an alliance with the Firbolgs and eventually defeated the Tuatha de Danaans who, thereafter, are absorbed into the Irish character and mysteriously disappear from Irish history. Only three sons of Milesius survived to have issue: Heber, Ir and Heremon (from whom the O'hAinlighe's trace their line of descent.

As a result of their loyalty, the Firbolgs were allowed to retain their lands in the area now known as Roscommon, in the territories later to be known as Cenel Dobhtha or Hanly's country. Firbolg traits and characteristics, especially dark hair, were evident in Kilglass Parish, Roscommon even into the 19th century and are still visible today.

The Tuatha de Danaans were believed to be the origin of the myth of the Irish Leprechaun. This race reportedly had magical powers which they used to great advantage in war. After they were defeated by the Milesians and Firbolgs they retreated to the hills of Ireland where, seen at a distance, they were mistaken to be "magical little people" (leprechauns).

Scotia was one of the earliest names of Ireland, so named, it was said, from Scota, the daughter of the Pharoah and "queen mother" and ancient ancestor of the Milesians. The Irish were then known as the Scotti or Scots. Other names for Ireland include Ogygia (Plutarch), Hibernia (Caesar), Ierna (Orpheus), Iuverna (Pomponius Mela), Juverna (Solinus) and Insula Sacre (Rufus Festus Avienus). Ireland's own inhabitants called their nation Eire (Eirinn). The modern name is also attributed to the Northmen who called it Ir or Ire, hence Ir-land or Ireland. Scotland, at first, was known as Alba. In the third century, during a famine in Scotia (Ireland), it was colonized by an Irish tribe led by Carbi Riada, grandson of Conn of the Hundred Battles. This was the first important colony of Scots (i.e. Irish) to settle in Alba and would eventually lead to the country being renamed Scotland or land of the Irish.

The first name of Ireland, which we meet with, was Inis na bhfiodhbhuidhe, which signifies a woody isle, and was so called by a messenger, that was sent thither by Nion, the son of Pelus. 2. Ireland was also called Crioch na bhfuineadhach, which is to say, the neighbouring country. 3. The third name was Inis Alga, the noble island, in the time of the Firbolgs. 4. The next name was Eire from the word Aeria, a name by which Crete was called. Others believe the name Eire was taken from the queen of the Tuatha de Danans. 5. Fodhal was the fifth name taken from another queen, the wife of Mac Ceacht. 6. Then Banba, the name of the third queen of the same colony, wife of Mac Coill. 7. From the Tuatha de Danans it was named Inis fail, from a stone, called Lia fail, brought by them to the isle. All the kings of Ireland were crowned on this stone until it was loaned to Fergus, the first of the Scythian race to be crowned king of Scotland. The kings of that country were then crowned on the Lia fail until Edward I removed it to Westminster Abbey where it remains today under the coronation chair. 8. When the Milesians were attempting to invade Ireland, the Tuatha de Danans magically made the island appear no larger than a hogs back and the island was called Muicinis or hog's isle. 9. The Milesians called the isle Scotia after their mother's name Scota, daughter of the Pharoah Nectonebus, king of Egypt. This name was subsequently transferred to Alba which became known as Scotland, land of the Irish (Scots). 10. The Milesians also called Ireland Hibernia after the river in Spain, Iberus. Others say it was named for Heber, the son of Milesius or from the Greek Hiber which signifies Insula Occidentalis or Western Island. 11. Ptolemeus calls this isle Juernia, Solinus names it Juerna, Claudian styles it Jerna and Eustathius refers to it as Verna. All of these names are presumably from the same meaning. 12. Diordorus Siculus gives it a twelfth name, Irin. 13. It was likewise called Fonn no fearon Ir, that is Irlandia, the land of Ir; from Ir, who was the first of the sons of Milesius that was buried in the isle. Thus it was also called Ireo, which is to say, the grave of Ir. 14. Plutarch calls it Ogygia, which in Latin signifies the most ancient Isle.

600 B.C. New waves of Celts arrive in Ireland from Europe, different tribal groups arriving at intervals over centuries. These Celts had established a stronghold in Europe where they subjegated Germania and sacked Rome. The earliest reportedly arrived in Eirinn circa 600 B.C. The last of this Celtic group to arrive was the Gaeil who landed first in the southeast and gradually conquered the whole island. By A.D. 400, the Gaelic conquest was complete.

The Priteni Celts, also known as the Picts, (Pritenic tribes by the Greeks and the Picti by the Romans) arrived about 600 B.C. and settled in both England and Ireland. Their descendants became known as the Cruitin tribes living alongside the powerful Dal Riadas (Belgae) in northeastern Ulster.

The second wave, known as the Firbolgs (also Euerni, Erainn, Menapii, Bolgi and Belgae) arrived after 500 B.C. probably from north Gaul (Belgium). They survived into modern times (1800's) and are referred to as the earliest aboriginal inhabitants of Connacht and Cenel Dobtha (Hanley's Country).

The third wave, known as the Tuatha de Dananns or Laginians, arrived about 300 B.C. from northwest Gaul or Normandy They first settled in Leinster but eventually extended into Connacht.

The last major Celtic settlement, about 150 B.C., were the Milesians or Gaodhail (Goidels) who fled Roman incursions into Iberia (Spain). The ancient manuscript Leabar Gabala has them landing in Kerry in the south and the Boyne esturary in the east.

The Irish are a true race of Celts or Gaels. Four major tribes of Celts (Greek Keltoi) journeyed from their ancient lands in the Middle East and took separate paths through Europe and Africa. They eventually reunited in Eirinn where they coexisted and intermarried and once again became a single genetic stream. The Picts, Firbolgs and Tuatha de Dananns belonged to the linguistic P-Celtic family while the Milesians belonged to the family of Q-Celts.

387 B.C. July 18. The battle of Allia was fought on the left bank of the Tiber and the Roman forces were defeated by hordes of fearsome barbarians who the Roman historian Livy described as Gauls or, more specifically, as members of the Gaulish tribe known as the Senones. Led by Brennus, these Celts had poured southwards across the Alps from central Europe and, following the battle, marched triumphantly through the open and unguarded gates of Rome itself. Cato the Elder wrote that the Celts had only two main passions: "war and Loquacity". According to Strabo, "the whole race is madly fond of war, high spirited and quick to battle". They were recklessly brave and impetuous, often running naked into combat. Personal honor and individual valor were of paramount importance. Celtic women, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, were every bit as ferocious as their menfolk.

Ca. 300 B.C. Macha Mong Ruad (the Red-haired) becomes queen of Ireland after the death of her father (Aod Ruath). He had ruled as part of a triumvirate and on his death, she chose to rule in his place. To do so she had to fight her father's former partners, Dithorba, who she killed, and Cimbaoth, who she defeated and then married. Cimbaoth was made king. Macha's foster son, Uganmi Mor succeeded him as king and was the common father of the royalties of all three provinces...Ulster, Leinster and Connaught. All the leading families of these areas trace their descent from him. Many scholars believe that Cimbaoth marks the beginning of reliable Irish history. The eleventh century historian Tighernach states that Irish records before him are uncertain.

NOTES ON THE ANCIENT HANLEYS (ORIGINALLY O'hAinlighe, Ainle or O'hainle or O'hAinlidhe) TAKEN FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES (SEE BIBLIOGRAPHY) WHICH RECORDED THE HISTORY OF THE HANLY'S IN THE PROVINCE OF CONNACHT, COUNTY OF ROSCOMMON AND THE HANLEY TERRITORIES KNOWN AS KINEL DOBHTHA (OR, CENEL DOFA, CONEAL DOFFA) WHICH COMPRISE THE PARISHES OF KILGLASS, TERMONBARRY AND CLOONTUSKERT AND THE EASTERN PART OF LISONUFFY, ABOUT 22,000 ACRES, PROTECTED BY MOUNTAIN, WOOD AND WATER. LATER KNOWN AS DOOHYHANLY MEANING HANLY'S COUNTRY.

Kinel-Dofa, called in latter ages Doohy-Hanly, extended along the Shannon from Cara na d-Tuath (Carranadoe Br) to Drumdaff in the southern extremity of the parish of Kilgefin. It was divided from Corcachlann by the ridge of Slieve Baane, the west face of which belonged to Mac Brannan and the east face to O'Hanly. Crosses on the top pointed out the meres. The following townlands all belonged to Kinel-Dofa: Corrameen; Aghamuck; Mullanashee--Fairymount, a conspicuous hill where the "good people" have Tady Hanly yet; Cooltacker (Tacair); Gortaline; Cloonageeragh; Drumdaff; Carracrin. Here Slieve Baane ends at the S.W. All the parish of Lissonuffy, nearly into equal parts, of which the east belonged to Kinel-Dofa and the west to Corachlann. Kinel-Dofa, or Doohy-Hanly, comprised only the one townland of Brumlin, called North Yard, the east half of Lissonuffy (as already particularized), all the parish of Kilglass, all Termonbarry, Cloontooskert, and all Kilgefin.

Journey into Kilglass--The Garr Barry, Character of the People, &c., &c.

Bi Coimhshearc Um Chridhe
Ar Oireacht O'n-Ainlighe.--Shane O'Dugan

Se Oireacht O'n-Ainlighe
An t-Oireacht Naomhtha Ainglidhe.--S. O'D

Next let me visit that proud chief, O'Hanly,
Who, with a voice so warlike, fierce and manly,
Commands the Kinel-Dofa; brave Mac Shanly,
The lion-hearted, raven-haired O'Branly,
The bloody-handed, fiery eyed O'Ganly,
The stately statured, bright-black-eyed O'Manly,
With many others, Cranly, Conlh and Lee--
These range the glens and lofty hills of Ban-lie Ban-Shliabh
Revere St. Berach and support O'Hanly,
The heir of Dofa and enemy of Stanly!

(The Stanlys were a very ancient English family who were sent to Ireland at an early period against Connacht). (The Heart of Ireland, 317)

Duthaigh Do'n Fheadhain Airgher
Fir Na Nduithchedh Ndluthaimhreidh
Bi Coimhshearc Um Chridhe
Doohy--Ar Oireacht O n-Ainlighe. Shane O'Dugan, Bard
Hanly--of Hy-Many.

Between Corcachland and the Shannon lies the land of Dofa's race (Kinel-Dofa), where mountains rise with dark blue aspects o'er Connacia's plain (i.e. the Maghery)

"O'er these O'Hanly long is known to reign,
A chief in whom my heart and soul rejoice;
Long may he reign; long may his warlike voice
Awake the echo in the dark deep vales
Of Baghna's Mount. Till Barach's blessing fails,
Till Barach's crosier (i.e. the Garr Barry) cease (never)
To make his tribe confess the truth, and dread to steal or bribe.
May Dofa's (i.e. O'Hanly) heir retain this ancient land,
Support his Clan, and wield supreme command."
Shane O'Dugan paraphrase
(The Heart of Ireland, 313)

"Of all the parishes (countries) in which the mass
Is read and sung; of all in which the glass
Is drank and broken (smashed) in which each lad and lass
Can swear and swill. And many of them-alas!
In Erin's Isle, are wicked; none surpass
That Hanly's cursed country (parish) of Kilglass."
-The Bard of Ruadh
(The Heart of Ireland, 321)

ANCIENT LINES OF DESCENT OF THE HANLY'S

1. FENIUSA FARSA (FEINIUS FARSAID), KING OF SCYTHIA. FOURTH IN DESCENT FROM NOAH.

2. NIUL (NEL), HIS SON, WHO MARRIED SCOTA, DAUGHTER OF THE PHAROAH CINGERIS.

3. GAEDEL GLAS (GADELAS), HIS SON, WHO WAS BITTEN BY A SERPENT AND CURED BY MOSES.

4. ESRU, HIS SON.

5. SRU, HIS SON, WHO FLED EGYPT FOR FEAR OF PERSECUTION FOR HAVING FED THE ISRAELITES AND WHO RETURNED TO SCYTHIA. IT IS BELIEVED THAT PARTHOLAN AND NEMEDIUS DESCENDED FROM SRU AND THAT BOTH THE FIR-BOLGS AND TUATHA-DE-DANAAN DESCENDED FROM HIS SON SEARA WHICH WOULD MAKE SRU THE COMMON ANCESTOR OF ALL THE MAJOR TRIBES OF IRELAND.

6. HEBER SCOT, HIS SON.

7. BOAMAIN, HIS SON.

8. OGAMAIN, HIS SON.

9. TAT (TAIT), HIS SON.

10. AGNOMAIN, HIS SON, WHO KILLED A RIVAL FOR THE KINGSHIP AND WAS DRIVEN FROM SCYTHIA AND SETTLED IN THE MACOTIC MARSHES OF THE BLACK SEA. WHERE THEY REMAINED FOR NEARLY 300 YEARS.

11. LAMFHIND, HIS SON.

12. EBER GLUNFHIND, HIS SON.

13. AGNI, HIS SON.

14. FEBRI GLAS, HIS SON.

15. NENUAL, HIS SON.

16. NUADA, HIS SON.

17. ALLOT, HIS SON.

18. ERCHA, HIS SON.

19. DEATH, HIS SON.

20. BRATH, HIS SON, WHO LED THE SCYTHIANS OUT OF THE MACOTIC MARSHES INTO SPAIN.

21. BREOGAIN, HIS SON, WHO BUILT THE FIRST SCYTHIAN CITY OF BRIGANTIA, IN SPAIN.

22. BILLE, FATHER OF MILESIUS. IT WAS HIS BROTHER ITH WHO FIRST SAILED TO IRELAND LANDING IN THE NORTH AND DOING BATTLE WITH THE TUATHA-DE-DANAANS.

23. MILESIUS, HIS SON, KING OF SPAIN.

24. HEREMON, SEVENTH SON OF MILESIUS, FIRST KING OF IRELAND, WHO GAVE THE IRISH WIDOWS OF THOSE WHO DIED IN BATTLE TO THE PICTS, AND SENT THEM TO ALBA, LATER KNOWN AS SCOTLAND. THE LINE OF HEBER, OR THE HOUSE OF MUNSTER, BEING DESCENDED FROM THE ELDEST SON OF MILESIUS, CLAIMED A PRESCRIPTIVE RIGHT TO THE MONARCHY; YET THE HERMONIANS, THROUGH THE YOUNGEST BRANCH, GAVE FAR MORE MONARCHS TO IRELAND.

25. IRIAL FAIDH, HIS SON, KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN IN THE CONTINUED WARS WITH THE DESCENDANTS OF HEBER AND IR.

26. EITREOL, HIS SON, KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN BY CONMAOL A.M. 2786.

27. FOLLACH, HIS SON.

28. TIGHEARNMHAS, HIS SON, 13TH KING OF IRELAND. THE FIRST TO FIND AND USE GOLD MINES IN IRELAND.

29. EANBHOTH, HIS SON.

30. SMIONGHALL, HIS SON.

31. FIACHAIDH LABHRAINNE, HIS SON, 18TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF BELGADAIN, A.M. 2954.

32. AONGHUS OLMUCAIDH, HIS SON, 21ST KING OF IRELAND, WHO WENT INTO ALBA (SCOTLAND) TO SUBDUE THE REBELLIOUS PICTS.

33. MAON, HIS SON.

34. ROTHEACHTAIGH, HIS SON, 22ND KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF RATH CROGHAN, A.M. 3025.

35. DIAN, HIS SON.

36. SIORNA SAOGHLACH, HIS SON, 34TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF AILINN, A.M. 3155.

37. OILILL OLCHAOIN, HIS SON.

38. GIALLCHADH, HIS SON, 37TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF MAGH MUADH, A.M. 3250.

39. NUADA FIONN FAIL, HIS SON, 39TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN A.M. 3293.

40. AODHAN GLAS, HIS SON.

41. SIMEON BREAC, HIS SON, 44TH KING OF IRELAND, WHO DEFEATED THE HIBERNIAN MONARCH AND HAD HIS LIMBS TORN APART BY WILD HORSES. AFTER SIX YEARS HE WAS DEFEATED AND SLAIN IN THE SAME MANNER BY HIS PREDECESSOR'S SON, A.M. 3345.

42. MUIREADHACH BOLGRACH, HIS SON, 46TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN BY HIS HIBERNIAN SUCCESSOR, EADHNA DEARG, A.M. 3307.

43. FIACHAIDH TOLGRACH, HIS SON, 55TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF BORIN, A.M. 3441.

44. DUACH LADHGHRACH, HIS SON, 64th KING OF IRELAND, SLAIN BY HIS SUCCESSOR A.M. 3490.

45. EOCHAIDH BUADHACH, HIS SON. 46. UGHAINE MOR, HIS SON, 66TH KING OF IRELAND. HE HAD 22 SONS AND THREE DAUGHTERS BY CESSAIR, DAUGHTER OF THE KING OF FRANCE. MURDERED BY HIS BROTHER A.M. 3646.

47. COBTHACH COEL BREAG, HIS SON, 69TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE REGAL CITY OF TEAMHAIR, A.M. 3648, BY HIS BROTHER'S SECOND SON IN REVENGE FOR HIS FATHER'S AND GRANDFATHER'S MURDER.

48. MEILGE MOLBHTACH, HIS SON, 71ST KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF CLARE BY MAOIB A.M. 3643.

49. IARRAINGLEO FATHACH, HIS SON, 74TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN IN BATTLE A.M. 3705.

50. CONNLA CRUIAIDHCHEALGACH, HIS SON, 76TH KING OF IRELAND. DIED A NATURAL DEATH, (A RARE THING FOR A KING OF IRELAND).

51. AILILL CAISFHIACHLACH, HIS SON, 77TH KING OF IRELAND, SLAIN BY HIS SUCCESSOR.

52, EOCHAIDH AILTLEATHAIR, HIS SON, 79TH KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN A.M. 3750 BY HIS SUCCESSOR.

53. AONGHUS TUIRBHEACH TEAMHRACH, HIS SON, WHO SLEW HIS FATHER'S ASSASSIN FERGUS AND BECAME THE 81ST KING OF IRELAND. WHO HAD INCESTUOUS RELATIONS AND BORE A SON, FIACHU FIRMARA, WITH HIS DAUGHTER. AND FROM WHO DESCENDED FERGUS THE GREAT, BEGOTTEN WITH HIS MOTHER EARCA, FIRST KING OF SCOTLAND.

54. EANNA AIGHNEACH (AIRGHTHEACH), HIS SON, KING OF IRELAND. SLAIN IN BATTLE BY HIS SUCCESSOR, A.M. 3863.

55. LABHRAID LORC, HIS SON.

56. BEOTHACHTACH, HIS SON.

57. BLATHACHTACH, HIS SON.

58. EASOMAN OF EAMHAIN, HIS SON.

59. ROIGHEN RUADH, HIS SON.

60. FIONNLOGH, HIS SON.

61. FIONN, HIS SON. FROM THE DEATH OF EANNA AIGHNEACH, THE MONARCHY WAS HELD BY THE SEPTS OF HEBER AND IR FOR 160 YEARS. EOCHAIDH FEIDLIOCH, SON OF FIONN, SLEW THE LAST OF THESE (TACHNA TATHLIOCH) AND REGAINED THE MONARCHY.

62. EOCHAIDH FEIDHLIOCH, SON OF FIONN, 93RD KING OF IRELAND, A.M. 3940. DIED AT THE ROYAL CITY OF TEAMHAIR, A.M. 3966. WHO RESTORED THE FIVE DIVISIONS OF IRELAND PREVIOUSLY ESTABLISHED BY THE FIR-BOLGS. WHO HAD THREE SONS BY ONE BIRTH (BRESS, NAR AND LOTHAR) WHO SUCCEEDED HIM AND WHO THE CHRONICLES SAY "TO HAVE BEEN ON THEIR OWN SISTER BEGOT".

63. LUGHAIDH RIABHDEARG (SRIABH nDEARG), SON OF FINEAMHNAS, SON OF EOCHAIDH FEIDHLIOCH, 98TH KING OF IRELAND, A.M. 4000.

64. CRIOMHTHAN NIADHNAR (NIADH NAR), SON OF LUGHAIDH RIABHDEARG, 100TH KING OF IRELAND, A.M. 4020.

65. FEARAIDHACH FIONFACHTNACH, SON OF CRIOMHTHAN NIADHNAR, 102ND KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 4-24. WHO WAS KNOWN TO BE A TRULY JUST AND TRUTHFUL PRINCE.

66. FIACHADH FIONOLUIDH, SON OF FEARAIDHACH FIONFACHTNACH, 104TH KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 27-54. EITHNE, DAUGHTER OF THE KING OF SCOTLAND (ALBA) WAS HIS WIFE.

67. TUATHAL TEACHTMHAR, SON OF FIACHADH FIONOLUIDH, BORN IN SCOTLAND, KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 79-109.

68. CONN CEADCHATHACH (CONN OF THE HUNDRED BATTLES), SON OF TUATHAL TEACHTMHAR, KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 125-145.

69. ART AONFHIR, SON OF CONN CEADCHATHACH, 113TH KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 152-182

. 70. CORMAC ULFADA, OR LONG BEARD, SON OF ART AONFHIR, 115TH KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 213-253.

71. CAIRBRE LIFFEACHAIR (CABRE), SON OF CORMAC, 117TH KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 254-281. KILLED AT THE BATTLE OF GABHRA.

72. FIACHADH SREABHTHUINE, SON OF CAIRBRE LIFFEACHAIR, 120TH KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 282- 312. SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF DUBHORMAR.

73. MUIREADHACH TIREACH, SON OF FIACHADH SREABHTHUINE, 123RD KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 319-352. WHO DEFEATED THE COLLAS AND BANISHED THEM INTO SCOTLAND.

74. EOCHAIDH MOIGHMEODHIN (XII), SON OF MUIREADHACH TIREACH, 124TH ARD RIGH, KING OF IRELAND, A.D. 353-360. WHEN HE WAS THE KING OF CONNAUGHT, HE MARRIED MUNIG, CALLED FION, THE FAIR, DAUGHTER OF FIADHACH, KING OF LEATH-MOGHA, OF THE LINE OF HEBER AND THE RACE OF EOGANACHTS. HE HAD FOUR SONS, BRIAN (BRYEN), FIACHRE, FERGUS AND OLIOLL. FROM THE FIRST TWO ARE DESCENDED THE KINGS OF CONNAUGHT AND THEIR POSTERITY ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THE NAMES HY-BRUNES AND HY-FIACHRES FROM THE TWO LEADERS, CIRCA 359 A.D. LATER HE MARRIED CARINNA, A PRINCESS OF THE SAXON NATION, ALLIES OF IRELAND. WITH CARINNA HE HAD A SON NIALL, THE RENOWNED HERO CALLED THE "NINE HOSTAGES". EOCHAIDH DIED PEACEABLY AT TARA, THE HOME OF THE MONARCHS, AND WAS FOLLOWED BY CRIOMHTHAN SON OF FIACHADH, SON OF DAIRE-CEARB OF THE RACE OF HEBER. HE WAS THE BROTHER OF MUNIG WHO POISONED HIM AND DIED HERSELF WHILE TASTING THE LIQUOR TO DECEIVE HIM.

75. BRYEN, SON OF EOCHAIDH MOIGHMEODHIN, KING OF CONNAUGHT, A.D. 366-388. (MAC FIRBIS SAYS "BROTHER OF").

76. ERC THE RED, EARCA DEARG, SON OF BRYEN, FROM WHO SPRANG O HANLY.

77. AENGUS, SON OF ERC THE RED.

78. DUBHTHACH (DOFA), SON OF AENGUS, CHIEF OF KINEL-DOFA OR HANLY'S COUNTRY.

79. AENGUS, HIS SON.

80. UBHTHACH, HIS SON.

81. UAN, HIS SON.

82. CHITECAR (CHIHECAR), HIS SON.

83. MAOLDUIN, HIS SON.

84. MURTILE, HIS SON.

85. AINLE, HIS SON.

86. MUIRCEARTAC, HIS SON.

87. TEIGE, HIS SON.

88. DONAL (DONNELL), HIS SON.

89. TIEGE, HIS SON.

90. MURROUGH, HIS SON.

91. RAGHNALL, HIS SON, SLAIN AT CLONTARF, FIOGHTING WITH BRIAN BORU, WHERE THE VIKINGS WERE FINALLY DEFEATED IN IRELAND. 1014 A.D.

92. MURTAGH, HIS SON, 1030.

93. IOMAHR MOR, HIS SON.

96. AINLE, HIS SON.

97. DONAL, HIS SON.

98. IOMAHR, HIS SON.

99. DONAL O'hAINLIGE OR O'HANLEY, HIS SON. CHIEF OF CINEL DUBHTHACH (KINEL DOFA), OR DOOHY HANLEY.

THE FOLLOWING RECORDS ARE EXTRACTED FROM THE SOURCES INDICATED IN PARENTHESIS.

A.D. 326 The fourth year of Colla Uais, in the sovereignty of Ireland, when Muireadhach Tireach expelled him and his brothers into Alba (Scotland) with three hundred along with him. (Kingdom I, 123).

A.D. 327 The first year of Muireadhach Tireach in the sovereignty of Ireland. At the end of this year the three Collas came to Ireland; and there lived not of their forces but thrice nine persons only. They then went to Muireadhach, having been instructed by a druid. (And) they scolded at him, and expressed evil words, that he might kill them, and that it might be on him (the curse of) the finghal should alight. As he did not oppose them, they tarried with him, and were faithful to him. (Kingdom I, 123).

A.D. 331 The fifth year of Muireadhach. The battle of Achadh-leithheirg, in Fearnmhagh, (was fought) by the three Collas against the Ulstermen, in which fell Fearghus Fogha, son of Fraechar Foirtriun, the last king of Ulster, (who resided) at Eamhain. (Kingdom I, 123).

A.D. 356 After Muireadhach Tireach had been thirty years in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was slain by Caelbhadh, son of Crunn, King of Uladh, at Portrigh, over Dabhall. (Kingdom I, 125).

A.D. 357-365 Eochaidh XII, Ard Righ or High King of Ireland, of the line of Heremon, son of Milesius of Spain, was the ancestor of most of the principal Gaelic families of Meath, Ulster and Connaught. (P.G.Smith).

A.D. 366-388 Brian, King of Connaught, eldest son of Eochaidh, was the father of Erc The Red from whose brother Duach Galach (the Valiant) sprung O'Connor, O'Rourke, O'Reilly, etc., and from whose brother Conall, O'Malley. Erc the Red was father of Aengus, who had two sons, namely: Onach, the Druid ancestor of Mac Brenan and Dubhthac (the dark haired), ancestor of O'Hanley. Their territories lay along the river Shannon, in the present county of Roscommon, separated by a row of pillar stones and crosses on the crest of Slieve Bawn. (P.G.Smith).

A.D. c. 400 The Kinel Mac Erca have deduced their origin from Earca Dearg (Erc the Red). Erc had by his son Aengus three grandsons, Ida, Ono and Dofa, the descendants of whom are the Kinel-Dofa, among whom was O'Hanly and O'Broenian in the district of Coraochlandain the County of Roscommon between Tir-Oilill to the north and the mountain Baghna to the south. (The Heart of Ireland, 292).

A.D. 432 St. Patrick arrives in Ireland.

A.D. 550-600 St. Berach (now called St. Barry) was descended from Ercus, and also the O'Hanlys and O'Brannans, who were formerly noble and powerful families in this tract. (The Heart of Ireland, 292).

A.D. 550-600 In these times was also St. Berach, Abbot of Cluain-Cairpthe, in the now County of Roscommon. His father was Nemnald, a descendant of Brian, formerly Prince of Connaught, and brother to Neill Neigilliach; his mother was Finmaith, sister of a celebrated priest called Froech. Berach was born at a place called Gortnaluachra, belonging to Froech, near Cluain, in the territory of Conmacnie, and when only seven years old, was sent to the school of St. Dagaeus of Iniscaoin, in the now County of Louth. Berach formed an establishment of himself at Cluain-Cairpthe, in the desert of Kinel-Dobtha. (Heart of Ireland, 315).

A.D. 800 Viking raiders begin attacking Ireland in waves lasting well into the tenth century. They plunder monasteries and contribute to the decline of the monastic tradition in Ireland. They founded most of the major towns including Dublin, Waterford and Limerick.

A.D. 916 Daniel of Cluain-Coirpthe, a celebrated historian (Shanachie), died. (Kingdom II, 593).

A.D. 999 Brian Boru defeats the Vikings and is recognized as king of all Ireland in 1002.

A.D. 1014 Raghnall, Chief of the Sept, fell, leading his battalion, at the great victory of Clontarf over the Danes (Norsemen) in 1014; sixth in descent from him was Donal O'Hanley, first of the surname, who adopted it from his ancestor Ainle (a name meaning well featured or good-looking. (P.G.Smith).

A.D. 1085-1095 Bishop Donat O'Hanley ruled the diocese of Dublin, 1085-1095. (P.G.Smith).

A.D. 1095-1121 Bishop Donat O'Hanley was succeeded by his nephew, Bishop Samuel O'Hanley. (P.G.Smith).

A.D. 1211

The country of the tribe of sharp weapons
Is Kinel-Dofa fast and uneven
There dwells affection in my heart
For the people of O'Hanly

The following pedigree, as given by Duald Mac Firbis, will show how O'Hanly descends from Dofa:

Loughlin, son of
Hugh, or Aedh, who was the son of
Conor, or Conchobhar.
Donnell, or Dromhnall.
Ivor, or Imhar.
Donnell.
Amlaff, or Amhlaoibh.
Ivor Mor.
Murtough, or Muircheartach, who found the white
steed which Teige O'Conor had, and from which he
was styled an eic gil, or, of the white steed.
Raghnall, who fought at the battle of Clontarf in 1014.
Morough, or Murchadh.
Teige, or Tadhg,
Donnell.
Teige.
Murtough, or Muircheartach.
Anly, Ainle or Ainlighe, a quo O'Hanly.
Hurly, or Murtile, Urthuile.
Muldoon, Maolduin or Maelduin.
Cluthechar.
Funis.
Dofa, or Dobhtha, the progenitror or the Kinel-Dofa, and from whom
St. Berach, or Barry, the patron saint of the district, was the fifth in
descent.
Aengus.
Erc The Red, Earca Dearg.
Brian.
Eochy Muighmhfeodhain, Ard Righ (High King) of Ireland in the fourth
century.
O'Laighenain, now anglicised Lynam.
Mac Sorley.
(Annals of the Kingdom or Ireland, III, 171).

A.D. 1128 Giolla-Crufferree Mac Scoloige Coarb of Berach of Cluain Coirpthe died. (Attributed to Kingdom in The Heart of Ireland, 322).

A.D. 1133 A battle was gained by the men of Teathbha over the Sil-Muireadhaigh, wherein fell Amhlaeibh, grandson of Aireachtach Ua Roduibh, chief of Clann-Tomaltaigh, and Mac-an-leastair Ua hAinlighe, chief of Cinel-Dobhtha, was taken prisoner, and many slain. (Kingdom, II, 1045).

A.D. 1146 Gillabrighde, son of Dubhdara, chief of Muintir-Eolais, was wounded; and he afterwards died at his house, having plundered Cluain-Coirpthe some time before. (Kingdom, II,1081).

A.D. 1151 The Chief O'Hanley, Tigearna or Lord of Kinel Dofa, was one of the twelve principle officials of Connacht, with charge of the Shannon fleet. The succession of chiefs, with their various exploits, is recorded in over forty notices in the Four Masters. The O'Hanley's built the great stone church of Kilbarry, named in honor of their kinsman and patron, St. Barry (Berach) (festival...February15th). This and the chancel of Cloontuskert Abbey were their places of interment. As armorial bearings (recorded in the Irish Heraldry Office) they took the wild boar of their native forests, emblem of rugged strength and courage, on a field of green amid arrows, with the motto "The Gallant Archer Forever". (P.G.Smith).

A.D. 1151 The commencement of the erection of the daimhliag of Cluain-Coirpthe, by Cucaille, son of Mac Scolaighi, and Gillacoimhdhe, the grandson of Leastar Ua hAinlighe, chief of Cinel-Dobhtha. (Kingdom, II, 1101).

A.D. 1155 Maelruanaidh Ua hAinlighi, noble priest of Cluain-coirpthe, died. (Kingdom, II, 1115).

A.D. 1155 Pope Adrian IV, the only English Pope (original name Nicholas Brakespear), granted "hereditary possession" of Ireland to King Henry II in a papala privilege known as Laudabiliter thus beginning the political troubles that lasted 800 years. (Ireland, 116).

A.D. 1169 The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. Robert FitzStephen and Maurice de Prendergast landed at Baginbun, near Bannow and immediately routed a strong army of Irishmen and Norsemen from Waterford, inspiring the couplet "At the creek of Baginbun, Ireland was lost and won". In August, 1170 Richard Fitzgilbert de Clare, "Strongbow", stormed Waterford and within a month captured Dublin. Gaellic resistance to the Norman conquest was never wholly eliminated, and the foundations were laid for eight centuries of Anglo-Irish conflict. (History of Ireland, 11).

A.D. 1176 A ballybetagh was granted in perpetuity by Roderic O'Conor, King of Ireland, viz. the townland of Toomaghy to God and St. Berach. The following were the sureties of that perpetual gift: Keyly (Catholicus) O'Duffy, Archbishop of Tuam; Aireaghtagh O'Rodiv; Flann O'Finnaghty; Hugh O'Flynn; Rourke O'Mulrenin; Ignatius O'Monahan; Gilla-an-choimhdhe Mac-an-leastair; O'Hanly; and Conor Mac Dermot; who were to guarantee that this townland was to remain for ever the property of God and St. Berach, from O'Conor and his representative. (Kingdom, III, 27).

A.D. 1182 Gilla-an-Choimdedh, son of Inlestar O'hAinlighe, chieftain of Cenel-Doffa, mortuus est. (Lough Ce, Book I, Page 163).

A.D. 1225 A severe attack of sickness empties the towns of every living soul. (Annals of Connacht).

A.D. 1227 Famine throughout Ireland (Annals of Connacht).

A.D. 1235 The Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht.

A.D. 1262 As regards the Foreigners, however, Mac William Burc, accompanied by a great army, came from the west across Tochar-Mona-Coinnedha, to Oilfinn, and the Justiciary of Erinn and John de Verdun went westwards across Ath-Luain, to Ros-Comain; and they despatched great predatory bands into Cenel-Dobhtha-mic-Aenghusa, who on that occasion plundered all that remained in Connacht after O'Conchobhair; and they marked out the site of a castle in Ros-Comain on this expedition. Footnote: Cenel-Dobhtha-mic-Aenghusa; i.e., the Cenel (kindred or sept) of Dobhtha, son of Aenghus. The territory formerly inhabited by the Cenel-Dobhtha is now better known as O'Hanly's country, a district in the east of the county of Roscommon. (Lough Ce, I, 441).

A.D. 1262 But as for the Galls, Macwilliam Burke came from the west over Tochar Mona Conneda, leading a great host, to Elphin, while from the east came the Justiciar (Richard de la Rochelle) of Ireland and John de Verdun, who came by Athlone to Roscommon; and they sent great raiding-parties into Kinel Dofa, plundering everything that O Conchobair had left behind in Connacht at that time. And it was on this occasion that they marked out the site of a castle at Roscommon. (Annals of Connacht, 139).

A.D. 1270 Hunger and great destitution throughout Ireland this year. (Annals of Connacht).

A.D. 1275 Rory, son of Turlough O'Conor, was taken prisoner by the O'Conor (Teige, son of Turlough, his brother). Rory afterwards made his escape, and Conor O'Hanley took him with him; but they were pursued, and overtaken, and Conor O'Hanley was killed. (Kingdom, Book III, 423).

A.D. 1275 Ruardi son of Toirrdelbach O Conchobair was captured by his own brother, Tadc son of Toirrdelbach, who also plundered (all the land) of Tadc son of Cathal Mac Diarmata. Ruardi afterwards escaped from his captivity; Conchobar O hAinlide conveyed him away, but they were pursued and Conchobar was killed then. (Annals of Connacht, 165).

A.D. 1286 Domnall O hAinlige chieftain of Cenel Dobtha rested on the twenty-sixth of March. (Annals of Connacht, 179).

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