Current Virginia Counties & Independent Cities

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Current Virginia Counties & Independent Cities

(See below for:
History of County Formations in Text
Discontinued Virginia Counties

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Current Virginia Counties & Independent Cities


(NOTE on Virginia CITIES:  The Commonwealth of Virginia has a unique system of local government in that independent CITIES are politically and administratively separate from the county or counties in which they are geographically situated.  Independent CITIES operate their own court systems and other governmental systems.  Virginia's TOWNS exercise only limited functions of self-government and are subordinate, in most respects, to the counties in which they are located.  There are currently 40 independent CITIES in the Commonwealth.  Note, also, that some independent CITIES comprise areas that are located in more than one county, and, in some cases, and independent CITY may be the entire county.

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County Formation Chronology in Text

(Where there is one date, that is the date the county was formed, and the
 date it became effective; where there are two dates, the first is the
 "pending" formation date, and the second is the legally "effective" date.)


(The counties in blue color are WV counties originally in VA, or that were
 formed after WV became a state.)

Four Original "Incorporations"-----------------------------------------1617
Eight Original "Shires", Immediately Referred to as "Counties"---------1634
  Accawmack formed-----------------------------------------------------1634
  Charles City formed--------------------------------------------------1634
  Charles River formed-------------------------------------------------1634
  Elizabeth City formed------------------------------------------------1634
  Henrico formed-------------------------------------------------------1634
  James City formed----------------------------------------------------1634
  Warrosquoyacke formed------------------------------------------------1634
  Warwick River formed-------------------------------------------------1634

New Norfolk formed from Elizabeth City---------------------------------1636
Lower Norfolk formed from New Norfolk----------------------------------1637
Upper Norfolk formed from New Norfolk----------------------------------1637
  New Norfolk ceases to exist------------------------------------------1637
Isle of Wight (name changed from Warrosquyoake)------------------------1637
  Warrosquyoake ceases to exist----------------------------------------1637
Northampton (name changed from Accawmack)------------------------------1643
  Accawmack ceases to exist--------------------------------------------1643
York (name changed from Charles River)---------------------------------1643
  Charles River ceases to exist----------------------------------------1643
Warwick (name changed from Warwick River)------------------------------1643
  Warwick River ceases to exist----------------------------------------1643
Northumberland formed from Indian District of Chickacoan---------------1645
Nansemond (name changed from Upper Norfolk)----------------------------1645
  Upper Norfolk ceases to exist----------------------------------------1645
Gloucester formed from York--------------------------------------------1651
Lancaster formed from Northumberland-----------------------------------1651
Surry formed from James City-------------------------------------------1652
Westmoreland formed from Northumberland--------------------------------1653
New Kent formed from York----------------------------------------------1654
Rappahannock (Old) formed from Lancaster-------------------------------1656
Accomack formed from Northampton---------------------------------------1661
Stafford formed from Westmoreland--------------------------------------1664
Middlesex formed from Lancaster----------------------------------------1669
King and Queen formed from New Kent------------------------------------1691
Norfolk formed from Lower Norfolk--------------------------------------1691
Princess Anne formed from Lower Norfolk--------------------------------1691
  Lower Norfolk ceases to exist----------------------------------------1691
Essex formed from Rappahannock (Old)-----------------------------------1692
Richmond formed from Rappahannock (Old)--------------------------------1692
  Rappahannock (Old) ceases to exist-----------------------------------1692
King William formed from King and Queen---------------------------1701-1702
Prince George formed from Charles City----------------------------1702-1703
Hanover formed from New Kent--------------------------------------1720-1721
King George formed from Richmond----------------------------------1720-1721
Spotsylvania formed from Essex, King & Queen, and King William----1720-1721
Caroline formed from Essex, King & Queen, and King William-------------1728
Goochland formed from Henrico------------------------------------------1728
Prince William formed from King George and Stafford---------------1730-1731
Brunswick formed from Prince George-------------------------------1720-1732
Brunswick gained from Isle of Wight and Surry--------------------------1732
Orange formed from Spotsylvania----------------------------------------1734
Amelia formed from Brunswick and Prince George--------------------1734-1735
Fairfax formed from Prince William-------------------------------------1742
Louisa formed from Hanover---------------------------------------------1742
Frederick formed from Orange--------------------------------------1738-1743
Albemarle formed from Goochland----------------------------------------1744
Augusta formed from Orange----------------------------------------1738-1745
Lunenburg formed from Brunswick----------------------------------------1746
Culpeper formed from Orange--------------------------------------------1749
Chesterfield formed from Henrico---------------------------------------1749
Cumberland formed from Goochland---------------------------------------1749
Southampton formed from Isle of Wight----------------------------------1749
Dinwiddie formed from Prince George------------------------------------1752
Halifax formed from Lunenburg------------------------------------------1752
Bedford formed from Albemarle and Lunenburg-----------------------1753-1754
Prince Edward formed from Amelia----------------------------------1753-1754
Hampshire formed from Frederick-----------------------------------1753-1754
Sussex formed from Surry------------------------------------------1753-1754
Loudon formed from Fairfax---------------------------------------------1757
Fauquier formed from Prince William------------------------------------1759
Albemarle gained from Louisa-------------------------------------------1761
Amherst formed from Albemarle------------------------------------------1761
Buckingham formed from Albemarle---------------------------------------1761
Charlotte formed from Lunenburg-----------------------------------1764-1765
Mecklenburg formed from Lunenburg---------------------------------1764-1765
Yohogania formed from Augusta------------------------------------------1766
Monongalia formed from Augusta-----------------------------------------1766
Ohio formed from Augusta-----------------------------------------------1776
Pittsylvania formed from Halifax----------------------------------1766-1767
Botetourt formed from Augusta-------------------------------------1769-1770
Fincastle formed from Botetourt----------------------------------------1772
Dunmore formed from Frederick------------------------------------------1772
Berkeley formed from Frederick-----------------------------------------1772
Powhaten formed from Cumberland and Chesterfield-----------------------1777
Fluvanna formed from Albemarle-----------------------------------------1777
Henry formed from Pittsylvania------------------------------------1776-1777
Kentucky formed from Fincastle------------------------------------1776-1777
Montgomery formed from Fincastle----------------------------------1776-1777
Washington formed from Fincastle----------------------------------1776-1777
  Fincastle ceases to exist---------------------------------------1776-1777
King George exchanged with Westmoreland (overlap)----------------------1777
Greenbrier formed from Botetourt and Montgomery-------------------1777-1778
Illinois formed from Augusta-------------------------------------------1778
Rockbridge formed from Augusta and Botetourt---------------------------1778
Rockingham formed from Augusta-----------------------------------------1778
Shenandoah (name changed from Dunmore)---------------------------------1778
King George exchanged with Westmoreland (overlap resolved)-------------1779
Kentucky divided into Fayette, Jefferson, & Lincoln--------------------1780
Fayette formed from Kentucky-------------------------------------------1780
Jefferson formed from Kentucky-----------------------------------------1780
Lincoln formed from Kentucky-------------------------------------------1780
  Kentucky ceases to exist---------------------------------------------1780
Greensville formed from Brunswick and Sussex----------------------1780-1781
Campbell formed from Bedford--------------------------------------1781-1782
Harrison formed from Monongalia----------------------------------------1784
  Illinois discontinued------------------------------------------------1784
Nelson (KY) formed from Jefferson---------------------------------1784-1785
Franklin formed from Bedford and Henry----------------------------1785-1786
Hardy formed from Hampshire---------------------------------------1785-1786
Madison (KY) formed from Lincoln----------------------------------1785-1786
Mercer (KY) formed from Lincoln-----------------------------------1785-1786
Bourbon (KY) formed from Fayette----------------------------------1785-1786
Russell formed from Washington-----------------------------------------1786
  Yohogania discontinured----------------------------------------------1786
Randolph formed from Harrison-------------------------------------1786-1787
Pendleton formed from Augusta, Hardy, and Rockingham--------------1787-1788
Nottoway formed from Amelia---------------------------------------1788-1789
> Kanawha formed from Greenbrier and Montgomery---------------------1788-1789
Mason (KY) formed from Bourbon (KY)-------------------------------1788-1789
Woodford (KY) formed from Fayette (KY)----------------------------1788-1789
Wythe formed from Montgomery--------------------------------------1789-1790
Bath formed from Augusta, Botetourt, and Greenbrier---------------1790-1791
Mathews formed from Gloucester------------------------------------1790-1791
Patrick formed from Henry-----------------------------------------1790-1791
Part of Fairfax ceded to Fed. Gov. for District of Columbia------------1791

9 Counties separated as State of Kentucky (Bourbon, Fayette,
Jefferson, Lincoln, Madison, Mason, Mercer, Nelson, & Woodford)--------1792

Grayson formed from Patrick and Wythe-----------------------------1792-1793
Lee formed from Russell-------------------------------------------1792-1793
Madison formed from Culpeper--------------------------------------1792-1793
Brooke formed from Ohio-------------------------------------------1796-1797
Wood formed from Harrison----------------------------------------------1798
Monroe formed from Greenbrier------------------------------------------1799
Tazewell formed from Russell and Wythe----------------------------1799-1800
Jefferson formed from Berkeley-----------------------------------------1801
Mason formed from Kanawha----------------------------------------------1804
Giles formed from Monroe, Montgomery, and Tazewell---------------------1806
Nelson formed from Amherst----------------------------------------1807-1808
Cabell formed from Kanawha---------------------------------------------1809

(Boundary changes 1800-1810:)
Grayson gained from Patrick---------------------------------------1800-1810
Tazewell gained from Russell--------------------------------------1800-1810
Harrison gained from Ohio-----------------------------------------1800-1810

Tyler formed from Ohio-------------------------------------------------1814
Scott formed from Lee, Russell, and Washington-------------------------1814
Lewis formed from Harrison---------------------------------------------1816
Nicholas formed from Greenbrier and Kanawha----------------------------1818
Preston formed from Monongalia-----------------------------------------1818
Morgan formed from Berkeley and Hampshire------------------------------1820
Pocahantas formed from Bath, Pendleton, and Randolph-------------------1821
Alleghany formed from Bath, Botetourt, and Monroe----------------------1822
Logan formed from Cabell, Giles, and Kanawha---------------------------1824

(Boundary changes 1820-1830:)
Nicholas gained from Kanawha and Lewis----------------------------1820-1830
Lee gained from Scott---------------------------------------------1820-1830
Giles gained from Monroe and Tazewell-----------------------------1820-1830
Tazewell gained from Washington and Wythe-------------------------1820-1830
Preston gained from Randolph--------------------------------------1820-1830

Floyd formed from Montgomery-------------------------------------------1831
Fayette formed from Greenbrier, Kanawha, and Logan---------------------1831
Page formed from Rockingham and Shenandoah-----------------------------1831
Jackson formed from Kanawha, Mason, and Wood---------------------------1831
Smyth formed from Washington and Wythe---------------------------------1832
Rappahannock formed from Culpeper--------------------------------------1833
Marshall formed from Ohio----------------------------------------------1835
Clarke formed from Frederick-------------------------------------------1836
Warren formed from Frederick and Shenandoah----------------------------1836
Braxton formed from Kanawha, Lewis, and Nicholas-----------------------1836
Mercer formed from Giles and Tazewell----------------------------------1837
Greene formed from Orange----------------------------------------------1838
Roanoke formed from Botetourt------------------------------------------1838
Pulaski formed from Montgomery and Wythe-------------------------------1839

(Boundary changes 1830-1840:)
Preston gained from Randolph--------------------------------------1830-1840
Tazewell gained from Russell--------------------------------------1830-1840

Carroll formed from Grayson--------------------------------------------1842
Marion formed from Harrison and Monongalia-----------------------------1842
Wayne formed from Cabell-----------------------------------------------1842
Barbour formed from Harrison, Lewis, and Randolph----------------------1843
Ritchie formed from Harrison, Lewis, and Wood--------------------------1843
Taylor formed from Barbour, Harrison, Marion, and Preston--------------1844
Appomattox formed from Buckingham, Campbell,
  Charlotte, and Prince Edward-----------------------------------------1845
Doddridge formed from Harrison, Lewis, Ritchie, and Tyler--------------1845
Gilmer formed from Kanawha and Lewis-----------------------------------1845

Part of District of Columbia ceded by Fed. Gov. back to Fairfax--------1846

Wetzel formed from Tyler-----------------------------------------------1846
Alexandria formed from Fairfax-----------------------------------------1847
Highland formed from Bath and Pendleton--------------------------------1847
Boone formed from Cabell, Kanawha, and Logan---------------------------1847
Hancock formed from Brooke---------------------------------------------1848
Putnam formed from Cabell, Kanawha, and Mason--------------------------1848
Wirt formed from Jackson and Wood--------------------------------------1848

(Boundary changes 1840-1850:)
Mercer and Giles gained from Monroe-------------------------------1840-1850
Braxton gained from Kanawha and Lewis-----------------------------1840-1850
Preston gained from Monongalia------------------------------------1840-1850
Powhaten gained from Chesterfield---------------------------------1840-1850
Roane gained from Montgomery--------------------------------------1840-1850
Franklin gained from Patrick--------------------------------------1840-1850

Raleigh formed from Fayette--------------------------------------------1850
Wyoming formed from Logan----------------------------------------------1850
Craig formed from Botetourt, Giles, Monroe, and Roanoke----------------1851
Pleasants formed from Ritchie, Tyler, and Wood-------------------------1851
Upshur formed from Barbour and Lewis-----------------------------------1851
Calhoun formed from Gilmer---------------------------------------------1856
Roane formed from Gilmer, Jackson, Kanawha, and Wirt-------------------1856
Tucker formed from Randolph--------------------------------------------1856
Wise formed from Lee, Russell, and Scott-------------------------------1856
Taylor gained from Marion----------------------------------------------1856
Carroll and Henry gained from Patrick----------------------------------1856
Buchanan formed from Russell and Tazewell------------------------------1858
McDowell formed from Tazewell------------------------------------------1858
Clay formed from Braxton and Nicholas----------------------------------1858
Webster formed from Braxton, Nicholas, and Randolph--------------------1860
Bland formed from Giles, Tazewell, and Wythe---------------------------1861

50 Counties separated as State of West Virginia------------------------1863

Grant (WV) formed from Hardy (WV)--------------------------------------1866
Mineral (WV) formed from Hampshire (WV)--------------------------------1866
Lincoln (WV) formed from Boone (WV), Cabell (WV),
  Kanawha (WV), and Logan (WV)-----------------------------------------1867

(Boundary changes 1860-1870:)
Upshur (WV) gained from Randolph (WV)-----------------------------1860-1870
Wirt (WV) gained from Wood (WV)-----------------------------------1860-1870
Jackson (WV) gained from Mason (WV)-------------------------------1860-1870

Summers (WV) from Fayette (WV), Greenbrier (WV), and Mercer (WV)-------1871

(Boundary changes 1870-1880:)
Floyd gained from Franklin----------------------------------------1870-1880
Hampshire (WV) gained from Mineral (WV)---------------------------1870-1880
Raleigh (WV) gained from Wyoming (WV)-----------------------------1870-1880
Wayne (WV) gained from Lincoln (WV)-------------------------------1870-1880
Tucker (WV) gained from Barbour (WV)------------------------------1870-1880

Dickenson formed from Buchanan, Russell, and Wise----------------------1880
Warwick gained from Elizabeth City-------------------------------------1882
Webster (WV) gained from Greenbrier (WV) and Nicholas (WV)-------------1882
Rockbridge gained from Botetourt---------------------------------------1887
Mingo (WV) formed from Logan (WV)--------------------------------------1895
Bland gained from Giles------------------------------------------------1900
Arlington (name changed from Alexandria Co.)---------------------------1920
Elizabeth City Co. abolished, merged into Hampton City-----------------1952
Warwick Co. abolished, incorporated as Warwick City--------------------1952
Princess Anne Co. abolished, merged into Virginia Beach City-----------1963

The original 18 Virginia incorporated cities were first recognized as
independent of counties in the 1900 U.S. Census.  The formalization of the
independent status of Virginia cities evolved in stages by legislative acts
and court decisions, starting in 1887, and concluding with the Virginia
Constitution of 1902.

The original 18 incorporated cities, the counties in which they were
located, and dates they were incorporated:


Williamsburg City (James City and York Cos.)---------------------------1722
Manchester City (Chesterfield Co.)-------------------------------------1769
Richmond City (Henrico and Chesterfield Cos.)--------------------------1782
Salem City (Roanoke Co.)-----------------------------------------------1806
Norfolk City (Norfolk Co.)---------------------------------------------1845
Petersburg City (Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, & Prince George Cos.)--------1850
Alexandria City (Arlington and Fairfax Co.)----------------------------1852
Lynchburg City (Campbell Co.)------------------------------------------1852
Portsmouth City (Norfolk Co.-------------------------------------------1858
Winchester City (Frederick Co.)----------------------------------------1874
Fredericksburg City (Spotsylvania Co.)---------------------------------1879
Roanoke City (Roanoke Co.)---------------------------------------------1884
Charlottesville City (Albemarle Co.)-----------------------------------1888
Danville City (Pittsylvania Co.)---------------------------------------1890
Bristol City (Washington Co.)------------------------------------------1890
Buena Vista City (Rockbridge Co.)--------------------------------------1892
Radford City (Montgomery Co.)------------------------------------------1892
Newport News City (orig. in Warwick Co., which was abolished in 1952)--1896

Later cities incorporated as being independent of any county, the
counties in which they were originally located, and dates of incorporation
as independent cities:


Clifton Forge City (Alleghany Co.)-------------------------------------1906
Hampton City (Elizabeth City Co.)--------------------------------------1908
Suffolk City (Nansemond Co.)-------------------------------------------1910
Manchester City (Chesterfield Co.) merged into Richmond City-----------1910
(Manchester City therefore ceased to exist.)---------------------------1910
Harrisonburg City (Rockingham Co.)-------------------------------------1916
Hopewell City (Prince George Co.)--------------------------------------1916
South Norfolk City (Norfolk Co.)---------------------------------------1921
Martinsville City (Henry Co.-------------------------------------------1928
Falls Church City (Fairfax Co.)----------------------------------------1948
Waynesboro City (Augusta Co.)------------------------------------------1948
Covington City (Alleghany Co.)-----------------------------------------1952
Virginia Beach City (in Princess Anne Co.)-----------------------------1952
Warwick City (Warwick Co., which was abolished in 1952)----------------1952
Galax City (Carroll & Grayson Cos.)------------------------------------1954
Norton City (Wise Co.)-------------------------------------------------1954
Warwick City merged into Newport News City-----------------------------1958
South Boston City (Halifax Co.)----------------------------------------1960
Stanton City (Augusta Co.)---------------------------------------------1960
Colonial Heights City (Chesterfield Co.)-------------------------------1961
Fairfax City (Fairfax Co.)---------------------------------------------1961
Franklin City (Southampton Co.)----------------------------------------1961
Chesapeake City formed from Norfolk Co. and South Norfolk City---------1963
Norfolk County no longer exists----------------------------------------1963
South Norfolk City no longer exists------------------------------------1963
Lexington (Rockbridge Co.)---------------------------------------------1965
Emporia (Greensville Co.)----------------------------------------------1967
Bedford (Bedford Co.)--------------------------------------------------1968
Salem (Roanoke Co.)----------------------------------------------------1968
Nansemond (entire Nansemond Co.)---------------------------------------1972
Nansemond Co. ceases to exist------------------------------------------1972
Nansemond City merged into Suffolk City--------------------------------1974
Manassas (Prince William Co.)------------------------------------------1975
Manassas Park (Prince William Co.)-------------------------------------1975
Poquoson (York Co.)----------------------------------------------------1976
South Boston City merged back into Halifax Co. (no longer independ.)---1995

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Virginia Discontinued Counties

Accawmack: Created in 1634.
Renamed Northampton in 1642/43
Charles River: Formed in 1634.
Renamed York County in 1642.
Dunmore: Formed in 1772 from Frederick County.
Renamed Shenandoah County in 1778
.
Elizabeth City:

Originally created in 1634 as Elizabeth River Shire, it was one of eight Shires created in the Virginia Colony by order of the King of England.  In 1636, it was subdivided, and the portion north of the harbor of Hampton Roads became known as Elizabeth City Shire.  It was renamed Elizabeth City County a short time later.  The town of Hampton, established in 1680, became the largest town in Elizabeth City County, and was the county seat.  In 1908, Hampton was incorporated as an independent city, and in 1952, the county and the former town of Phoebus in the county were merged into the independent city of Hampton.

Elizabeth City is one of the Commonwealth's Burned Records Counties.  Its records were damaged and/or destroyed during the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, and the Civil War.  A few early deeds, wills, orders, and guardian's accounts survive.

Fincastle:

Formed in 1772 from Botetourt County.  Fincastle County (extinct) was named either for George, Lord Fincastle, Lord Dunmore's son; for John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, Viscount of Fincastle; or, for the town of Fincastle, Virginia, which was named after Lord Botetourt's home in England.  It became extinct in 1776 when it was divided to form Montgomery, Washington, and Kentucky (now the state of Kentucky) Counties.  Some Fincastle records may be found in the Montgomery Co. Courthouse in Christiansburg.

Historic Fincastle, Inc., & James Early Cabin,
121 East Murray Street
Fincastle, VA 24090
(540) 473-3077

Kentucky: Formed in 1777 from Fincastle.
Abolished in 1780
Lower Norfolk: Formed in 1637 from New Norfolk.
Abolished in 1691.
Records are in the City of Chesapeake.
Nansemond:

Formed as Upper Norfolk in 1637 from New Norfolk County.
Renamed in 1642.
Records were destroyed in 1866.
Incorporated as the City of Nansemond in 1972.  Merged with the City of Suffolk in 1974.

All records transferred to City of Suffolk.  Records include:  Marriage from 1866, Land from 1734, Probate from 1866, and Court Records from 1774.

County Court Records were destroyed in three separate fires, the earliest of which consumed the house of the court clerk in April 1734 (where the records were kept at that time), and the last on 7 February 1866.  A few Fee Books have been found in the records of Sussex County.

New Norfolk: Formed in 1636 from Elizabeth City.
Abolished in 1637 and divided into Lower and Upper Norfolk Counties.
Norfolk: Formed in 1691 from Lower Norfolk.
Merged with the City of Chesapeake in 1963.

All record were transferred to the City of Chesapeake.  Some records may also be located in the City of Portsmouth.  Records include:  Marriage from 1866, Land from 1734, Probate from 1866, and Court Records from 1774.

Norfolk County (extinct) probably was named by Adam Thoroughgood, a local resident, for his native county in England.

The county seat was Portsmouth.

Princess Anne: Formed from Lower Norfolk County.

Merged with, and records transferred to, the City of Virginia Beach in 1963.  The records include Marriage from 1724; Death from 1853; and Land, Probate, and Court Records from 1691.

Princess Anne County (extinct) was named for Anne (daughter of James II) who became Queen of England in 1702.  The County Seat was Princess Anne.  (Now Virginia Beach.)

Old Rappahannock: Formed in 1656 from Lancaster County.

It became extinct in 1692 when it was divided in into Essex and Richmond Counties.

The records were transferred to Essex County.  Records include Land, Probate, and Court Records from 1656.

Upper Norfolk: Formed in 1637 from New Norfolk County.

In 1646, it was renamed Nansemond County for the area's Nansemond Indians.  The county seat was Suffolk.

The county became the independent city of Nansemond in 1972, and, in 1974, Nansemond merged with the city of Suffolk.  The entire area is now known as Suffolk.

Warrosquyoake: Formed in in 1634 as one of the original eight Shires.

Renamed Isle of Wight County in 1637.  Records were transferred there.

Warrosquyoake County was named for the Warrosquyoake Indian tribe.

Warwick River:

Formed in 1634 as one of 8 original Shires.
Renamed Warwick County in 1643.

It was named either for Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, a prominent member of the London Company, or for the County of Warwick in England.

Warwick County became extinct in 1952, when it became the independent city of Warwick.  It was consolidated with Newport News in 1958, and took the latter's name as an independent city.  Denbigh was the county seat.

Warwick is one of the Commonwealth's Burned Records Counties.  County Court Records were destroyed several times, with the most destruction occurring during the Civil War.  A Seventeenth Century Livestock Registry, one Order Book, and one Minute Book from the Eighteenth Century survive.  It has the earliest records for Land from 1662, Probate from 1648, and Court from 1646.

(Records are missing from pre-Civil War times.  Extant records are located with the City Clerk in the City of Newport News.

Yohogania: Created from the West Augusta territory in 1776.

The county was ceded to Pennsylvania in 1785

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