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OLD GERMAN PROFESSIONS and TRADE NAMES

(translated from German into English)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

  • Abbauer - tenant on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm 
  • Abdecker - skinner
  • Abendmahlgast - communicant
  • Abenteurer - jeweler; adventurer (also "Abentuerer)
  • Ablader - longshoreman
  • Abnahmemann - retired farmer on life estate
  • Abnehmer - photographer
  • Abschiedsmann - Man retired on life estate
  • Abstreifer - renderer; knacker; flayer; roof-uncoverer
  • Accisenschreiber - tax clerk
  • Achatschleifer - agate polisher
  • Achtbuerger - one of eight citizen representatives; citizen ( bourgeoisie, not a guild member)
  • Achtelbauer - farmer on 1/8 of a full-sized farm
  • Achtelhufner - farmer on 1/8 of a full-sized farm
  • Achter - Juryman
  • Achtermann - farmer on farm behind ones's own
  • Achtmann - lay juryman; spokesman
  • Ackerbauer - farmer; tiller of he soil
  • Ackerbuerger - citizen farmer
  • Ackerer - farmer; tiller of the soil
  • Ackerknecht - farmhand
  • Ackersmann - farmer; tiller of the soil
  • Ackerwirt(h) - farmer; tiller of the soil
  • Aderlasser - bloodletter
  • Adjunkt - deputy; vice-; deputy mayor (of a village other than where the mayor himself resides in a multi-village community)
  • Adjutant - (mil.) warrant officer
  • Adjuvant - auxiliary teacher
  • Adlerwirt(h) - proprietor of the Eagle Inn (at the sign of the eagle)
  • Adlige(r) - noble person
  • Administrator - administrator
  • Advokat - lawyer
  • Aebtissin - abbess
  • Aeltermann - master of a guild; head of chamber of commerce
  • Aeltester - (church) elder; member of the church council
  • Aescherer - ash-burner (in glass or soap factory)
  • Affengiesser - brass founder; bronze founder; pewterer
  • Affidat - vassal; tenant
  • Afkaat - lawyer (from Advokat)
  • Afstoeter - tanner
  • Afteiber - apothecary; pharmacist
  • Agsteinfischer - 'fisher' for amber
  • Agtschleifer - amber polisher; amber cutter
  • Aicher - surveyor; measurer; calibrator; supervisor of weights and measurers
  • Aichmeister - master surveyor
  • Akesbaas - barge shipper
  • Aksiseher(r) - (excise) tax overseer (on council)
  • Aktuar - accountant; statistician
  • Aldermann - alderman; councilman
  • Allmendherr, Allmendsherr - administrator of common lands
  • Allmendsvogt - free farmer elected to oversee common lands
  • Almosenpfleger - almoner; welfare supervisor (of church congregation)
  • Alpleiter, Alpmeister, Alpvogt - elected leader of an Alpine community
  • Altarist - church sexton
  • Altarmann - assistant to pastor; sexton
  • Altbauer - old established farmer, possibly on life estate
  • Altbuerger - old citizen with full rights
  • Altbuergermeister - former mayor
  • Altbuesser, Altbutzer - cobbler; shoe repairman
  • Altenteiler - retired man, on life estate
  • Altenteilerin - retired woman on life estate
  • Altflicker - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
  • Altfrau - female overseer over the maids
  • Altfuehrer - co-leader of a journeyman's association
  • Altgeselle - senior journeyman
  • Altgewander - repairer of old clothes
  • Althaendler - second-hand dealer
  • Altherr - oldest man of an organization; senior
  • Althufner - old farmer who has retired
  • Altjungfer - old maid; spinster
  • Altlapper, Altlepper - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
  • Altmagd - head female servant
  • Altreiss - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
  • Altschneider - repairer of old clothes
  • Altschuster - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
  • Altsitzer(in) - person on life estate
  • Altwalker - clothes repairer
  • Altwander, Altwendter - clothes repairer; dealer in used clothing
  • Ambachtkind - child of a guild member
  • Ambachtknecht - servant or apprentice of a tradesman
  • Ambachtsluede - craftsman
  • Ambacht(s)note - handworker; craftsman; guild member
  • Ambachtschriver - official clerk
  • Amer - admiral
  • Ammann - official; bailiff
  • Ammeister - master of a guild
  • Amtleute - officials
  • Amtmann - district judge; magistrate; bailiff
  • Amtsanwalt - prosecuting attorney
  • Amtsasse - appointed office holder in the provincial assembly who sends a deputy
  • Amtsbruder - colleague, especially religious
  • Amtsbuettel - government servant, also police man
  • Amtsdiener - servant
  • Amtsfreier - free farmer
  • Amtsgerichtsrat - local court judge
  • Amtshauptmann - district administrative official
  • Amtsinhaber(in) - officeholder
  • Amtskeller - local tax administrator and collector of natural revenues; steward
  • Amtsknecht - court servant
  • Amtsmeier - major farmer with special rights
  • Amtsmeister - chief guildmaster; official
  • Amtsmueller - miller who pays rent to government office
  • Amtsrat(h) - senior local judge
  • Amtsrichter - local judge
  • Amtsschreiber - local court clerk
  • Amtsschoesser - tax collector of a jurisdiction
  • Amtsstoerer - craftsman operating outside a guild
  • Amtsverwalter - administrator
  • Amtsverweser - deputy; regent
  • Amtsvogt - district judge
  • Amtsvormund - official guardian
  • Anbauer - small farmer (on land cleared in the early 19th century); peasant; free villager with small farm
  • Angstmann - executioner; torturer
  • Anlieger - person on adjoining property
  • Anrainer - person on adjoining property
  • Anreisser - salesman; recruiter; machinist
  • Ansager(in) - announcer
  • Anschaffer - mayor
  • Anspaenner - farmer of a full-sized farm; horse groom on an estate
  • Anspinner - textile piecer
  • Ansteker - shoemaker
  • Anstreicher - painter
  • Antecessor - predecessor in office
  • Antistes - Chief minister of a Reformed city church; church administrator
  • Anvald - attorney; lawyer (checks contracts, deeds, etc.)
  • Anwalt - attorney; lawyer (checks contracts, deeds, etc., appointed by owner of village)
  • Anwerber - recruiter for military or emigration
  • Anwiser - teacher; advisor
  • Apengeter, Apengiesser - pewterer, can maker
  • Apfelmann, Apfler - Apple picker, seller
  • Apologete - advocate
  • Apotheker - pharmacist
  • Appelmann - apple picker, seller
  • Arbeiter(in) - worker, male (female)
  • Arbeitsfrau - working woman
  • Arbeitsmann - working man
  • Architekt(in) - Architect male (female)
  • Archivangestellte - archive employee
  • Archivar(in) - archivist male(female)
  • Arcier - (mil.) member of a bodyguard
  • Armendeche - almoner
  • Armendiener - deacon charged with care of the poor
  • Armknecht - serf
  • Aroeder - new settler on lands belonging to and estate
  • Artmann, Artmeier - farmer
  • Arzt - physician; doctor
  • Aschenbrenner, Aescherer - maker of wood-ash for soap-making purposes
  • Asega - judge elected by the people, sworn to the Emperor
  • Asenmacher - axle-maker;( vehicle) frame-maker
  • Assemaker, Assenmacher, Assenmaker - axle-maker;( vehicle) frame-maker
  • Assessor - juryman; judge; counselor (not limited to legal advice); legal assistant
  • Asshauer - axle-maker
  • Atten - judge in farming community; juryman
  • Aubergist - innkeeper
  • Auditeur - advocate general
  • Auenhaeusler - free villager with small house and garden and some livestock who usually works as a day laborer; cottager
  • Auermacher - clockmaker
  • Aufdinger - loader or assistant in marketplace; minor customs official overseeing loading of ships
  • Aufermann, Auffermann - sexton
  • Aufpasser - lookout; spy
  • Aufschlaeger - loader; one who levied excise tax
  • Aufschwemmer - raftsman
  • Aufseher - guard; foreman
  • Aufspieler - musician
  • Aufwarter - waiter
  • Aulenbaecker - potter
  • Auler - potter
  • Ausbreiter - one who beats the bushes for game; coppersmith
  • Ausbuerger - citizen of a town living out in the countryside who had to pay taxes and provide military service for his place of citizenship; citizen of a town who lived in another town but pays taxes to keep his citizenship alive
  • Ausdinger(in) - person on a life estate
  • Ausfaut(h) - notary; court clerk
  • Ausgeberin - female household overseer
  • Ausgedinger(in) - person on a life estate
  • Ausklinger, Ausklingler - servant or messenger of council
  • Amtskultator - probationary attorney; one who sits in on a court without voting rights.
  • Ausmaerker - one living outside boundaries of a village but with right to common pasture and commons
  • Ausmann - citizen living in another town but pays a sum to keep his citizenship current; one who lives elsewhere
  • Ausmiener - auctioneer
  • Ausnehmer - person on a pension; one with life estate
  • Ausreuter - riding messenger for a city
  • Ausrufer - town crier
  • Ausschuss - committee; court assistants
  • Aussenbuerger - citizen living outside the city wall in the new part of the city
  • Austraegler(in) - person on pension or life estate
  • Auswanderer(in) - emigrant
  • Auswartmann - one who lives elsewhere but keeps his citizenship current
  • Ausweisser - whitewasher; painter
  • Auswohner - one who lives elsewhere but keeps his citizenship current
  • Auszahler - paymaster
  • Auszuegler(in) - person on pension or life estate
  • Axmann, Axtmann - carpenter; ax-smith
  • Ayer, Ayrer - egg merchant

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  • Baader - Barber, also surgeon, dentist - a "quack"
  • Baar - Ship's carpenter; ship maintenance man
  • Baas - Innkeeper; ship's agent; overseer; boss
  • Baecker - baker alternative spelling: Beck
  • Baeckergesell(e) - apprentice baker
  • Baeckermeister - master baker
  • Backhausmann - cottager
  • Backmann - baker
  • Baedeker - cooper
  • Bademoem, Bademutter - midwife
  • Badener - same as Baader
  • Bader - same as Baader
  • Badewaerter(in) - lifeguard
  • Badgiesser - man who brings bathwater
  • Baerenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Bear Inn (at he sign of the bear)
  • Baerschneider - pig castrator
  • Baetjer - cooper
  • Bauerle, Bauerli - farmer; peasant (swiss)
  • Bahnbeamter - railroad official
  • Balbeeder - same as baader
  • Balestermacher - crossbow maker
  • Ballenbinder - packer
  • Ballettierer - ringmaster; master of ceremonies
  • Ballierer - polisher
  • Ballmacher - (leather) ball manufacturer
  • Ballonnenmacher - (leather) ball manufacturer
  • Bamutter - midwife
  • Bandhauer,-reisser, -schlaeger, -schneider - cooper; maker of barrel staves
  • Bankier - banker
  • Banquier - Banker
  • Bannere - bailiff for services to the lord
  • Bannerherr - administrator of the district of a city;
  • Bannertraeger - standard-bearer
  • Bannherr - lord of the manor
  • Banning - court messenger
  • Banittker - police or market clerk
  • Bannleute - free citizens under the jurisdiction of a noble
  • Bannrichter - criminal court judge
  • Banzenmacher - cooper; maker of beer-vats
  • Barbier - barber
  • Barbknecht - barber's helper
  • Barchenmeister - master of seals
  • Barchetweber - weaver with a loom at home
  • Bareler - cooper
  • Barettmacher - bonnetmaker
  • Barfknecht - barber's helper
  • Barfuesser - barefooted friar
  • Barsemeester - skipper of as boat without a mast
  • Bartscher(er) - barber
  • Bassist - (mil.) bass player
  • Bassuner - trombonist
  • Bastoever - bathhouse operator; barber
  • Baterleinmacher - rosary maker
  • Bauconducteur - contractor for rural construction
  • Bauer - farmer on a full-sized farm, owned, or as a tenant; peasant
  • Bauermeister - leader of a farm community
  • Bauerngelde - free farm owner subject to tax on land
  • Bauernrichter - justice of peace in a farm community
  • Bauernschulze - appointed village mayor of a farm community
  • Bauernknecht - farmhand
  • Bauherr - overseer of city buildings
  • Bauknecht - farmhand; construction worker
  • Baumann - farmer of a full-sized farm; worker in building trades
  • Baumeister - overseer of city buildings; building contractor
  • Baumgartner, Baumgaertner - tree nurseryman; forester
  • Baumhauer - woodcutter
  • Baumschliesser - toll collector on turnpike
  • Baumsiedemacher - cotton weaver
  • Baumwollenweber - cotton weaver
  • Baumwollenspinner - cotton spinner
  • Baumzuechter - tree nurseryman
  • Baur, Baeurle, Baeurli(n) - farmer; peasant
  • Bauunternehmer - building contractor
  • Bauverwalter - farm administrator
  • Bauwerker - construction worker
  • Beamte, Beamter, Beamtin - public official
  • Beauftragter - agent; delegate
  • Becherer - turner
  • Becherwirt(h) - tavern keeper
  • Bechler - pitch burner
  • Beck, Becker - baker
  • Bechdrechsel, Beckdrechsler - coppersmith
  • Beckenwerchte,-werte - foundry worker
  • Bederknecht - bathhouse worker
  • Bedermann - established citizen with inherited property
  • Bedesetzer - tax assessor
  • Bedienstete - servant of an important person
  • Bediente(r) - servant of an important person
  • Beflissener - student; student assistant
  • Begiener - pig castrator
  • Begine - lay female nurse
  • Behandinge - feudal tenure of a farm
  • Behelfer, Behelver - tutor
  • Beibauer - farmer on a new farm, officially recognized but with few privileges
  • Beiermann -sexton; bellringer
  • Beigeordneter - assistant; deputy mayor; assemblyman
  • Beikramer - peddler; merchant
  • Beinberger - maker of iron rims
  • Beindreher - turner of artistic materials such as ivory
  • Beingewender - maker of iron rims
  • Beinhauer - butcher
  • Beinknopfmacher - bone button-maker
  • Beisass(e) - rental inhabitant without citizenship
  • Beischer - whipmaker
  • Beisitzer - Junior lawyer; juryman; inhabitant without land (e.g. a son living with his parents) and without citizenship rights or duties
  • Beitler - leather purse and glove maker
  • Beiwohner - non-citizen in village
  • Bekemacher, Bekemaker - cooper
  • Bellenmacher - (cow) bell maker
  • Belter - beltmaker
  • Bender - cooper
  • Bendhack - barrel seller
  • Bendheuer, Bendschweicher - cooper
  • Bendsnider - wheelmaker
  • Bennemacher - wagoner
  • Bennenfuehrer - coachman
  • Benner - cooper
  • Bentmaker, Bentsnider - cooper; maker of barrel staves
  • Bereitknecht - forester's helper
  • Berenstecher - pig castrator
  • Berghauer - miner
  • Bergholde - vineyard owner
  • Bergknappe - miner
  • Bergler - small farmer
  • Bergmann - miner
  • Bergschreiber - mine clerk
  • Bergwerkbesitzer - mine owner
  • Berichterstatter - reporter; announcer
  • Berker - tanner
  • Bermenter(er) - parchment maker
  • Bernschneider - pig castrator
  • Berufsbeamte - tenured civil servant
  • Berzauter - pig castrator
  • Bescheper - shipper
  • Beschlager - blacksmith
  • Besemer, Besenbinder, - broom-maker; broom seller
  • Besener, Bessener - broom-maker; broom seller
  • Besenmacher - broom-maker
  • Besserer - one who caries out sentences of small-claims court
  • Bestaender, Bestaendner - farmer of a small farm
  • Bestanderlasser - landlord of a small farm
  • Bestandwirt(h) - tenant; lessee
  • Besteder - ship forwarding agent; shipbuilder
  • Bestetter - carrier; freight forwarder
  • Besucher(in) - inspector; visitor
  • Bettelvogt - beadle
  • Bettfedernhaendler - feather mattress trader
  • Bettschart - whipmaker
  • Bettzi(e)chenweber - linenweaver
  • Beuerlein - farmer
  • Beurtmann - member of shipowner's association
  • Beutelmacher, Beutler - leather purse and glove maker
  • Beutner - beekeeper
  • Bewohner - inhabitant; dweller in a house, street, region
  • Beysass(e) - rental inhabitant without citizenship
  • Beysitzer - junior lawyer; juryman
  • Bibliothekar(in) - librarian
  • Bienhalter, Biener, Bienenwaerter, Bienenmann - beekeeper
  • Bienzeidler - beekeeper
  • Bierbrauer, Biereigen - beer-brewer
  • Bierer - fruit merchant
  • Bierschenk(er) - tavernkeeper
  • Bierschroeter - beer hauler
  • Biersieder - beer-brewer
  • Bierspuender - beer inspector
  • Biesejager - almoner; policeman
  • Bildhauer - sculptor
  • Bildschnitzer - woodcarver
  • Bildweber - picture weaver
  • Billetsherr - councilman in charge of billeting soldiers
  • Billiter, Billetierer - (mil.) quartermaster
  • Binder - cooper
  • Birmenter - parchment maker
  • Birnmenger - pear trader
  • Bisser - dentist
  • Bitschenmacher - cooper; cupmaker
  • Biwohner - rental inhabitant without citizenship
  • Blankschmidt - smith (makes shiny blades, etc.)
  • Blattbinder -combmaker
  • Blattervater - hospital administrator
  • Blattmacher - papermaker
  • Blecharbeiter, Blechler, Blechschlaeger - tinworker; plumber
  • Bleicher - bleacher
  • Bleigiesser - leadpourer; pewterer
  • Bletzer, Bletzler - cobbler
  • Blicksleger - tinworker; plumber
  • Blidenme(e)ster - master of ordnance
  • Blocker - tailor
  • Blockkdreher, Blockkdreier - turner
  • blackthner, blacktner - flower merchant
  • BM - abbr. for Buechsenmacher (gunsmith) and Buergermeisteramt (Mayor's Office)
  • bm. v. r. d. st. - abbr. for Buergermeister und Rat der Stadt (mayor and council of the city)
  • Bmstr. - abbr. for Baumeister (building contractor)
  • BO - abbr. for Bombardier (artillery man)
  • Boeck - baker
  • Boecker - cooper
  • Bockwirt(h) - innkeeper of the Ram Inn
  • Boddeker, Boeddecker, Boedeker - cooper
  • Bode - shipbuilder; government messenger
  • Bodel - beadle
  • Boedener - cottager
  • Boenhase - craftsman operating outside a guild
  • Boerger - citizen
  • Boertschiffer - shipper with regular route; member of shippers' organization
  • Boesselmaker - brushmaker
  • Boessler - cutter
  • Boeter - shipowner
  • Boettcher, Boetticher - cooper
  • Bogner - bowmaker
  • Bohrer - driller
  • Bohrerschmi(e)d(t) - drillsmith
  • Bokemueller - flax miller
  • Bokverwa(h)er - librarian
  • Bolsmann - farmer with a full-sized farm
  • Bolzendreher - boltmaker
  • Bombardier - artillery man
  • Bombasineweber - cotton weaver
  • Bomhauer - maker of saddle trees
  • Bomsidenmaker - cotton weaver
  • Bootsmann - boatman; boat pilot
  • Bordenwerker(in) - border seamster or seamstress
  • Bordmagd - female servant
  • Bornfeger - well cleaner
  • Borngraeber - well-digger
  • Bornmacher - well-digger
  • Bornmeister - well supervisor
  • Bornzieher - water carrier
  • Bortenmacher - lace maker; lace border maker
  • Bossierer - (porcelain former)
  • Botaniker(in) - botanist
  • Botenmeister - postmaster
  • Bothe, Bott - messenger
  • Botschafter - ambassador
  • Bottelier - ship's provisions officer
  • Bottmeister - chief messenger
  • Br. - abbr. for Braut (bride); Buerger (citizen); Bruder (brother)
  • Brachervog(e)t - almoner
  • Bracker - (officially appointed) cattle broker
  • Braemelmacher - haberdasher
  • Braeutigam - bridegroom; newlywed man, esp. on wedding day
  • Brandmeister - fire chief
  • Brandweinbrenner - (brandy) distiller
  • Brandweinschenker - liquor retailer
  • Branntweinbrenner - (brandy) distiller
  • Branntweinschenker- liquor retailer
  • Braueigen, Brauer, Brauherr - brewer
  • Brauknecht - brewer's helper
  • Brautkind - child born to an engaged couple
  • Brechenmacher - flaxworker
  • Brecher - quarry worker
  • Breier - brewer
  • Breinmueller - millet miller
  • Breisler - Border maker
  • Brenker - one who lives on the edge of a village, near a grassy hill called a Brink
  • Brenneisen, Brenner - smith; stoker
  • Brennerknecht - distiller's apprentice; smith's apprentice
  • Brennmeister - master distiller
  • Brenntlerin - Alpine dairy maid
  • Brettschneider - sawyer
  • Bretzenmacher - clap maker
  • Breyer - brewer
  • Briechler - linen merchant
  • Briefbote - postman
  • Briefdrucker - printer of woodcuts
  • Brieftraeger(in) - letter carrier
  • Brinker, Brinklieger, Brinkmann, Brinksitzer, Brinkkoet(h)ner - cottager on the edge of a village, near a grassy hill called a Brink
  • Briser - border maker
  • Brodbeck - bread baker
  • Brodfuehrer - bread merchant with a cart
  • Brotlbauer - farmer obliged to provide room and board for a servant
  • Brotling - person directly dependent on lord for room and board
  • Brotmacher - worker in sugar industry
  • Bruechler - (door-to-door) peddler; ribbon seller
  • Bruchschneider - physician; surgeon
  • Bruchvogt - court servant
  • Brueckenzoller, Brueckner - bridge tollmaster
  • Bruck(n)er - bridge builder; mason
  • Bruger - brewer
  • Brunnenbauer - well-builder
  • Brunnenmeister - well supervisor; welldigger
  • Brunnenpalier - well supervisor
  • Brunnenreiniger - well cleaner
  • Brustschneider - corset maker
  • Brutkind - child born prior to marriage
  • Bub(e) - boy; apprentice
  • Bubenmeister - teacher
  • Bubnick - drummer
  • Buchbinder - bookbinder
  • Buchdrucker - printer
  • Buchdruckerfaktor - master printer
  • Buecheraltreiss - antiquarian bookseller
  • Buchfeller - parchment maker
  • Buchfuehrer - book merchant (with a pushcart)
  • Buchhaendler - bookseller
  • Buchhalter - bookkeeper
  • Buchmaler - book illustrator
  • Buchstaber - weaver of monograms and sayings
  • Budelbereeder - executor; (inheritance) administrator
  • Buechsenmacher - gunsmith
  • Buechsenmann, Buechsenschuetz - watchman with a rifle
  • Buechsenmeister - co-leader of journeyman's association; watchman (with a rifle)
  • Buechsenschmi(e)d - gunsmith
  • Buechsenspanner - gun loader
  • Buecksner - container and gun maker
  • Bueddenbender - cooper
  • Buedeker - cooper
  • Buedelmaker - leather purse and glove maker
  • Bued(e)ner - small farmer; stallkeeper; ;merchant (in market place booth or small shop)
  • Bueglerin - female ironer
  • Buergermeister - mayor
  • Buerger(in)- -full citizen; (middle -class) burgher
  • Buergknecht - worker with pick and shovel)
  • Bueroangestellte(r) - office worker; white-collar worker
  • Buerochef(in) - office manager
  • Buerovorsteher(in) - office manager
  • Buerstenmacher - brushmaker
  • Buessenschaffer - guild treasurer
  • Buessenschuett(e) - gunner
  • Buethener - beekeeper
  • Bueter - barterer
  • Buettel, Butteler - servant; butler; court messenger
  • Buettgesell(e) - paper maker; paper worker
  • Buettler, Buettner - cooper
  • Buhmann - farmer
  • Buitenmo(e)der - (female) administrator
  • Bumann - farmer
  • Bundtfutterer - furrier
  • Bungenschlager - drummer
  • Buntendrager - door-to-door cloth peddler
  • Buntfaerber - fabric dyer
  • Buntfoder(er), Buntmacher - furrier
  • Burgermeister - Mayor
  • Burpar(r)herr - village pastor
  • Burrichter - justice of the peace in a farming community
  • Butendreger - (door-to-door) medicine salesman
  • Butenfahrer - sailor
  • Butenrecht(es)mann - district judge
  • Butenwever - weaver working outside the guild
  • Butenwohner - one who lives outside the village
  • Butheler - nailsmith
  • Butigler - royal official
  • Butscher (Pennsylvania Dutch) - butcher
  • Butteler - waiter
  • Buttermann - buttermaker
  • Buw(e)mann - farmer; citizen; worker in building trades

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    Cafetier(er) - cafe proprietor
    Caffamacher - velvet weaver
    Cammerarius - valet; groom
    Canonier - cannon gunner
    Car. - abbr. for Caribiner (rifleman)
    Caribinier - rifleman
    Casier - cheesemaker
    Chasseur - (mil.)rifleman
    Chausseearbeiter - road worker
    Chelista - violinist; fiddler
    Chemiker(in) - chemist
    Chir. - abbr. for Chirurg (surgeon)
    Chirurg - surgeon, for minor wounds, animal kicks, etc.
    Chirurgus - surgeon
    Chymiater - alchemist
    Chyrurgus - surgeon
    Clausurmacher - manufacturer of clasps
    Conterfetter - portrait painter
    Corbo - basketweaver
    Cornet(t) - cavalry flagbearer
    Cossat(e) - cottager with little land
    Craemer, Craer, Cramer (also with "K÷) - small grocer; shopkeeper; merchant; trader from backpack
    Credenzer - waiter; innkeeper
    Cronenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Crown Inn
    Curand - guardian
    Curschmied - blacksmith

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    Ebentuerer - jewel merchant
    Echterling, Echtermann, Echtermeier - farmer who lives behind the village
    Ehemakler - marriage broker
    Ehemittler(in) - matchmaker
    Ehestifter(in) - matchmaker
    Ehrenbuerger(in), Ehrenb'rger(in) - honorary citizen
    Ehrenmitglied - honorary member
    Eichmeister - adjuster
    Eierhaendler - egg merchant
    Eiersammler - egg gatherer
    Eierhaendler - egg merchant
    Eigengaertner, Eigeng"rtner - cottager with a garden of his own
    Eienhaeuser(in)- one who owns his/her own home
    Eigenkaetner, -koetner, -koetter, - cottager with a garden of his own
    Eigenmann - serf; vassal
    Eigenthuemer(in), -th'mer(in) - property owner
    Einberufener - conscript
    Einlieger(in) - free agricultural laborer
    Einnehmer - tax collector
    Einspaenner - farmer with one horse; outsider; odd character; grass widower
    Eisengiesser - iron founder
    Eisenhaendler,- ironmonger
    Eisenhauer - blacksmith; iron hewer
    Eisenmenger - ironmonger
    Eisenschmi(e)d - blacksmith
    Erbpaechter - hereditary tenant
    Erchmacher - (white) tanner
    Erdarbeiter - earthworker (builder of canals and dikes)
    Erdebaecker - potter
    Eremit - hermit
    Ersatzmann - paid replacment soldier
    Eschenbrenner - maker of wood-ash for soapmaking, fertilizer, etc.
    Essigbrauer, Essigfabrikant - vinegar maker
    Essigmann, Essig-, Essigmanger, Essig-, Essigmenger - vinegar merchant
    Euler, Eulner - potter
    Exempt - (mil.) rank of bodyguard
    Exkolon - retired farmer
    Exner - small farmer with only oxen, no horses
    Expectant - student at a religious institution

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    Fabrikant - manufacturer; factory owner, mill owner
    Fabrikarbeiter - facotry, mill-worker
    Fabrikbesitzer - factory, mill owner
    Fabrikschlosser, -scholžer - factory maintenance man
    Fachmann - specialist; expert
    Fachreferent(in) - consusltant
    Faehndrich, Faehnrich - ensign; flagbearer
    Faehrmann - ferryman
    Faehrpaechter - ferry renter
    Faenger - hunter
    Faerber - dyer
    Faessler - cooper; vatmaker
    Faehndrich - ensign; flagbearer
    Fahnentraeger; Fahnentr"ger - ensign; flagbearer
    Fahnenwirt(h) - innkeeper of the Flag Inn (at the sign of the flag)
    Faehnrich - ensign; flagbearer
    Fahrender - juggler; jester
    Fahrenheinz - vagabond
    Fahrensmann - seaman; seafarer
    Fahrer(in) - driver
    Fahrlehrer(in) - driving instructor
    Faehrmann - ferryman
    Faehrpaechter - ferry renter
    Fait(h) - bailiff; sheriff; constable; local representatvie of the ruler
    Faktor - administrator; manager
    Falconi(er)meister - master falcon er
    Falk(e), Falkner - falconer
    Familiant - servant
    Familiare - s;ave' serf (member of the household)
    Familienforscher - family reseacher; genealogist
    Familienkundler - family reseacher; genealogist
    Faerber - dyer
    Farcher - hog merchant
    Fasanenmeister - master of pheasants
    Fassbinder, Fasshauer, Faessler - cooper
    Fassschlupfer - cooper
    Fasszieher - carrier
    Fastbaecker - baker of brown bread
    Fa(u)th - bailiff; sheriff; constable; local representative of the ruler
    Fechner - fur trader
    Federbedienter - community official
    Federschm'cker, -schmuecker - featherworker; plumassier
    Federschneider - (quill) penmaker
    Federviehhaendler, -h"ndler - poultry dealer
    Fehnrich - ensign; flagbearer
    Feilbeck - baker with own bakery
    Feilenhauer, Feiler, Feilhauer, Feilner - file maker
    Feilpeddler, Feiltraeger - peddler (with sack or rucksack)
    Feilschlaechter - butcher with a butchershop
    Feiltraeger - riflemaker
    Felbaweber - silkweaver
    Feldbauer - grain farmer
    Feldgeschworener - settler of boundary disputes.
    FeldhueterFeldschuetz - field watchman
    Feldjaeger - courier
    Feldkaplan - (mil.) field chaplain
    Feldm. - abbr. for Feldmarschall (field marshall)
    Feldmarschall - field marshall
    Feldmeister - skinner; flayer
    Feldprediger - (mil.) field chaplain
    Feldreiter - policeman
    Feldrichter - arbitrator of field disputes
    Feldscher(er) - assistant medical officer
    Feldw. - abbr. of Feldwebel
    Feldwe(i)bel - (mil) noncommissioned officer; sergeant (major); sergeant (first class)
    Felgenhauer - (wooden) wheel rim maker
    Fellbereiter - currier
    Feller, Fellhaendler - fur trader
    Felllmann - animal hide skinner
    Fellwerkbereiter - furrier
    Fenner - ensign; flagbearer
    Fensterputzer - window-washer
    Ferber - dyer
    Ferd(e)menger - horse trader
    Ferge - ferryman
    Festbaecker - baker of dark large loaves of bread
    Fetthake, Fettmengen - lard merchant
    Feuerer - stoker
    Feuergeschworener - fire engine maintenance man
    Feuermaeuerkehrer - chimney sweep
    Feulner - filemaker
    Feurer - stoker
    Fiarant - merchant at a market
    Fiaulmacher - wheelwright
    Fickenwirt(h) - pursemaker
    Fidler - fiddller; violinist
    Fiedler - fiddler; violinist
    Filterer - feltmaker
    Findel - foundling; abandoned infant
    Fischbeinhaendler - whalebone trader
    Fischer(mann) - fisherman
    Fischmenger - fishmonger
    Fischweicher - seller of dried fish
    Fiskal - tax inspector
    Fitzer - artistic weaver
    FJg. - abbr. for Feldjaeger (courier)
    FK - abbr for Freikorporal (Free Corporal)
    Flachshaendler - flax trader
    Flachsmenger - flax trader
    Flader - pastry baker
    Flaeminger - tanner
    Flaeschner - plumber
    Flaeminger - tanner
    Flaschenmacher - bottlemaker
    Flaschner, Flaeschner - plumber
    Fleischbeschauer - meat inspector
    Fleisch-er, -hacker, -hauer, -mann - butcher, meatcutter
    Flickschneider - repairer of clothes
    Flickschuster - cobbler; shoe repairman
    Flieger - aviator
    Flintfiller - stonemason
    Flitterer - gold leaf maker
    Floesser - raftsman
    Fluechtling - refugee
    Flurschuetz(e) - field watch, forester
    Flyerin - (female) wool-spinning machine operator
    Focker - merchant
    Foeniseca - mower, cutter
    Foerster, Forster, Forstner - forester; forest ranger
    Folterer, Folterknecht - torturer
    Forense - absentee lord of and estate
    Formdreher, Former Formschneider - formcutter; molder
    Forscher(in) - researcher
    Forstverwalter - forest superindendent
    Fotograf(in) - photographer
    Fotograph(in) - photographer
    Fotzenstecher - animal castrator
    Fourier - quartermaster
    FP - abbr. for Feldprediger (field chaplain)
    Frachter, Fraechter, Frachtfahrer - freight hauler
    Fraele - midwife
    Fragner - merchant
    Freibauer - free farmer with only small rent payments
    Freibeuter - pirate, buccaneer
    Freibote - court messenger
    Freigraf - magistrate
    Freiherr - ruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor; baron
    Freiknecht - renderer; knacker
    Freikorporal - Free Corporal
    Freimann - tramp
    Freimaurer - Freemason; member of the Masonic Lodge
    Freisasse - farmer on Freisassenhof, a farm largely free from tithes
    Freischulze - village mayor and founder of a farming community
    Freischuster - nonn-guild cobbler
    Freiwaechter - soldier released from duty but kept in reserve; National Guardsman
    Fremdarbeiter(in) - foreign worker
    Fremde(r) - stranger; person from elsewhere; traveler
    Friedhofswaerter - cemetery employee
    Friedmacher - plasterer
    Frischmeister - master iron founder
    Friseur - male barber; hairdresser
    Friseuse - female hairdresser
    Froehner, Froender, Froener - one doing forced labor for the ruler
    Froehner, Froener - one doing forced labor for the ruler
    Frohne - court messenger
    Fruchthaendler - fruit trader; grain trader
    Frumwerker - day laborer
    Fucker(er), Fugger(er) - wholesaler
    Fuderer - cattle feeder
    Fuehrer -guide; leader; hauler; local official
    Fuehrerin - female guide, leader
    Fuetterer - servant who feeds cattle
    Fuhrmann - freight handler; carrier; carter
    Fuhrunternehmer - freight hauler
    Fuker - wholesaler
    Fussknecht - infantryman; foot soldier
    Fuetter - cattle feed merchant
    Futterknecht - servant who feeds cattle

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    Imber - herb merchant
    Imitraeger - cooper
    Imker - beekeeper
    Impfartz - vaccinating physician
    Infrau - female inhabitant
    Ingrossist - tax collector
    Ingwer - spice merchant
    Inhaber(in) - proprietor
    Inlaender(in) - citizen, non-foreigner
    Inlieger, Inligger - tenant; lodger
    Inmann - male inhabitant
    Innungsmeister - master of a local guild
    Innungsmitglied - member of a local guild
    Innungsobermeister - chief master of a local guild
    In(n)wohner - inhabitant
    Insasse - male hospital patient; inhabitant
    Insassin - female hospital patient; inhabitant
    Insgesessene(r) - non-citizen tenant
    Inste - renter; hired help; pensioner; craftsman with no land
    Instmann - farm worker; hired help; pensioner; craftsman with no land
    Interimswirt(h) - farmer who marries into a farm (by marrying the widow or heiress)
    Ipser - house painter; decorator
    Ircher - goat leather tanner

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    Jaeger - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
    JAG - abbr. for Feldj"ger-Korps (Courier Corps)
    Jagdgehilfe - hunting helper
    Jaeger - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
    Jahrmeister - guildmaster
    Jammer - epilepsy
    Jaufer, Jaufmann - itinerant juggler
    Jgfr., Jngfr. - abbr. for Jungfrau (Miss; virgin)
    Jobstkrankheit - leprosy
    Johanniter - Maltese Knights
    jong Gezel - bachelor; young journeyman
    Jugendrichter - juvenile court judge
    Jungmann - young male servant
    Junker - young nobleman (Prussian army officer); country squire
    Jurist - lawyer; law student
    Justizbeamte - judicial official

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    Kabinettmeister - administrator
    Kabuzenbauer - cabbage farmer
    Kacheler, Kachler, Kaechler - tilemaker; tile-layer; potter
    Kaehler - collier; coal merchant
    Kaelker - limeburner
    Kaemifaeger - chimneysweep
    Kaemmerer, Kaemmerin - steward; treasurer; buttler
    Kaemmerling - domestic servant; valet
    Kaendler - canmaker; gutter repairer
    Kaercher - wagonmaker
    Kaerrner - freight hauler (by cart)
    Kaesebaecker - cheesemaker
    Kaeshaendler,Kaeser - cheese trader
    Kaesmacher - cheesemaker
    Kaestenbrenner - chestnut roaster
    Kaestner - steward; treasurer; carpenter
    Kaet(h)ner - cottager with samll house, garden, a little land for cattle or anaimals
    Kaeufel, Kaeufeler - small merchant; peddler
    Kaeufer - merchant
    Kaeufler - small merchant; peddler
    Kaffhaarmacher - velvet weaver
    Kafiller - renderer; knacker
    Kagelbruder - fishmonger
    Kageler, Kagelmacher, Kagelmann - tilemaker; tile-layer; potter
    Kaehler - collier; coal merchant
    Kahnsmann - bargeman
    Kallchborner - chalk burner
    Kalfakter, Kalfaktor - boilerman; caretaker
    Kaltschlaechter - renderer; knacker
    Kaltschmi(e)d - coppersmith
    Kamesierer - peddler
    Kaminfeger - chimneysweep
    Kammerbeamte(r) - treasury clerk
    Kammerbedienter - valet
    Kammerdame - maid
    Kammerdiener - valet
    Kaemmerer - treasurer; butler
    Kammerherr - chamberlain
    Kaemmerin - treasurer; butler (female)
    Kammerjungfer - chambermaid
    Kammerjunker - chamberlain
    Kammerlakai - servant of the court; lackey
    Kaemmerling - domestic servant; valet
    Kammermaedchen, -maedchen - chambermaid
    Kammermeister - internal revenue administrator
    Kammerpaechter, -paechter - crown-land tenant
    Kammerportier - domestic servant
    Kammersteward - ship's cabin steward
    Kammerzofe - chambermaid
    Kampelmacher - combmaker
    Kampheuerling - tenant of a farm belonging to nobility
    Kanalarbeiter - canal worker
    Kandelgiesser - (tin or pewter) can founder
    Kandler, Kaendler - (tin or pewter) can founder; gutter repairer
    Kanefassmacher - canvas weaver
    Kannengiesser - (tin or pewter) can founder
    Kantengiesser - (tin or pewter) can founder
    Kanzelredner - preacher
    Kanzleibeamte(r), -bote - government official
    Kanzleidiener - government servant
    Kanzleischreiber - chancery clerk
    Kanzleivorsteher - head chancery clerk
    Kanzlist - chancery clerk
    Kapauner - animal castrator
    Kapellmeister - bandleader
    Kaplan - chaplain; clergyman in a chapel
    Kappenmacher - capmaker
    Kappusmann - cabbage merchant
    Karbender - wheelwright
    Karchelzieher - freight hauler
    Karcher - freight hauler in a cart
    Kaercher - wagonmaker
    Karpe - carpenter
    Karrer - carter
    Kaerrner - freight hauler (in a cart)
    Kartenmaler - painter for (religious) woodcuts
    Karter - wool carder
    Kartzin - money changer
    Kaesebaecker - cheesemaker
    Kaesehaendler - cheese merchant
    Kaeser, Kaesmacher - cheesemaker
    Kassengehilfe, -gehuelfe - sales clerk
    Kassi(e)rer(in) - cashier
    Kastellein - innkeeper
    Kaestenbrenner - chestnut roaster
    Kastenkeller - tax official
    Kastenmeister - administrator of a church office
    Kaestner - steward; treasurer; carpenter
    Kat(h)enmann - cottager with small house, garden, a little land for animals
    Kaet(h)ner - cottager with small house, garden, a little land for animals
    Kattunweber - cotton weaver
    Kaeufel - small merchant
    Kauffrau - business woman; female shopkeeper
    Kaeufler - small merchant; peddler
    Kaufmann - merchant
    Kauwarz - moneylender
    Kaviller - renderer; knacker
    Kedde - peasant master
    Keifer, Keiffer - cooper
    Keiper - captain of a fishing boat
    Keller - wine steward
    Kellereiverwalter - administrator of the winecellar
    Kellerherr - wine steward
    Kellermeister - keeper of the winecellar
    Kellerwart - cooper
    Kellner - waiter, receiver of revenues; steward
    Kellnerin - waitress
    Keltermacher - winepress maker
    Kemmetfeger, Kenderkehrer - chimneysweep
    Kendler - canmaker
    Kerkermeister - jailer
    Kerzenmeister - chairman of a guild
    Kerzenzieher - chandler
    Kesselflicker - itinerant kettle repairman; soothsayer and medicine man
    Kesselschmi(e)d - boilermaker
    Kesskaiffer - cheese merchant
    Kessler, - kettlemaker; coppersmith
    Kestner - steward; treasurer
    Ketelbuter - pot repairer
    Kettenmacher, Kettenschmi(e)d - chainmaker
    Kettler - kettlemaker
    Kettner - chainmaker
    Keuschler - small farmer
    Kiefer, Kieffer - cooper
    Kindelmutter - midwife
    Kinderarzt(in) - pediatrician
    Kindererzieherin - female teacher of young children
    Kinderfraeulein, - governess
    Kinderfrau - nanny
    Kindermaedchen, -maedchen - nanny
    Kinderschwester - children's nurse
    Kindervater male - obstetrician
    Kinderzieher(in) - tutor
    Kirchenbeter - church tax collector
    Kirchenbuchfuehrer(in) - one in charge of church books ; church book keeper
    Kirchencensor - church censor (guardian of morals)
    Kichendiener - church sexton
    Kichenfuerst, - prelate
    Kirchengeschworener - chuch juryman
    Kirchenjuraten - church juryman
    Kirchenlehrer(in) - church teacher
    Kirchenmeyer - administrator of church farm property
    Kirchenpfleger - church caretaker
    Kirchenprovisor - administrator of church farm property
    Kirchenrat(h) - church council
    Kirchenschoeffe - church lay juryman
    Kirchenvater - church administrator
    Kirchenvogt - lay administrator of church property
    Kirchenvorsteher - chairman of the church council; deacon
    Kircher - sexton; pastor
    Kirchner - sexton
    Kirchschaffner - administrator of church farm property
    Kirchspielshauptmann - president of church congregation
    Kirchspielsrichter - chairman of church congregation
    Kirchvater - church father; presbyter; church elder
    Kistenmacher - maker of boxes; woodworker
    Klagbote - lawyer
    Klagfuehrer - lawyer
    Klaiber - stucco worker
    Klammer, Klampferer - plumber
    Klausner - hermit; recluse
    Kleber - stucco worker
    Klecker - painter
    Kleenschmi(e)d - blacksmith
    Kleiber - stucco worker
    Kleidermacher - maker of clothes
    Kleinbauer - farmer with a small farm
    Kleinbinder, Kleinboettcher - cooper for small barrels
    Kleinhaendler - retailer
    Kleinknecht - young helper; apprentice
    Kleinkoetner, -koetter - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Kleinschmi(e)d(t) - locksmith
    Kleinschnitzler - detail carver
    Klempner - plumber; tinsmith
    Kleriker - cleric; clergyman
    Klerk - writer; clerk
    Klingelschmid(t) - bellmaker
    Klingenkaufmann - cutlery merchant
    Klingenschmid(t) - bellmaker
    Klinger - blacksmith
    Klippkraemer - cork merchant
    Kloeckner - church sexton; bellringer
    Kloterer - juggler
    Klozenmacher, Klozenkorkenmacher - cork maker
    Kluengelkerl, - scrap dealer
    Knaebin - woman's helper (female)
    Knaeufler - button maker
    Knakenhauer - butcher
    Knapsack - peddler
    Knaufelmacher, Knaeufler - button maker
    Knecht - servant; farmhand; apprentice; errand boy; laborer
    Kneipwirt(h) - proprietor of a tavern; alehouse keeper
    Knepsche - weaver's helper (female)
    Kneveler - beer hauler
    Knieriem(en) - shoemaker
    Knochenhauer - butcher
    Knoespler - wooden-shoe maker
    Knopfmacher(in) - button maker
    Knoespler - wooden-shoe maker
    Kobelhirt - horse groom
    Koebler - cooper; farmer of a small farm
    Koch(in) - cook; chef
    Koebler - cooper; farmer of a small farm
    Koechin - female cook
    Koehler - charcoal burner
    Koelschenweber - clothweaver
    Koepfler - pig castrator
    Koerb(l)er - basket maker; seller of baskets
    Koerner - granary protector; dealer in grains
    Koer(t)zener - furrier
    Koester, Koesterius - church sexton
    Koestner - steward
    Koet(h)ner - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Koggenbuwer - shipbuilder
    Kohlenbrenner, Kohler, Koehler - charcoal burner
    Kohlhoeker - greengrocer
    Koller - leather harnessmaker
    Kolon(e) - settler; farmer of a crop farm with hereditary tithe
    Kolonist - settler; colonist
    Kolporteur - door-to-door salesman
    Koelschenweber - clothweaver
    Komiss, Kommerziant, Kommis(s) - merchant's clerk on commission
    Kommissarius - clerk on commission
    Kompassmacher - compass maker
    Konditor - pastry-maker
    Konduktor - estate tenant
    Konstabler - constable; (mil.) gunner
    Konstrukteur - engineer
    Kontorbediente(r),Kontorist(in) - clerk; office worker
    Koolke - colic
    Koopmann - merchant
    Kopenhauer - cooper
    Kopersmid - coppersmith
    Koepfler - pig castrator
    Kopfwuestigkeit - influenza
    Koppelknecht - horse groom
    Kopperschmid - coppersmith
    Koerber, Korbflechter, Koebler, Korbmacher - basket weaver
    Korduan - shoemaker, with goat's leather
    Koerner - granary protector; dealer in grains
    Kornfuehrer - grain dealer with a cart
    Kornhaendler - grain trader
    Kornhausverwalter - granary administrator
    Kornmann - granary protector; dealer in grains
    Kornmesser - grain measurer
    Kornmueller - grain miller
    Korssenmeister - furrier
    Koer(t)zener - furrier
    Kossat(e), Kossatin - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Kostgaenger - boarder
    Kote - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Kot(h)mann - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Koet(h)ner - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Kotsass, Kotasse, Kotsasse - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Kotter, Koetter - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
    Kotzenmacher - coatmaker
    Kotzenweber - loden cloth weaver
    Kraemer - merchant; peddler
    Kraemper - peddler
    Kraeutler- bontanist; pharmacist
    Krameramt - shopkeeper's guild
    Krammoder - mid-wife
    Krankenpfleger(in) - caregiver for the sick
    Krankenschwester - female nurse
    Krankenwaerter(in) - orderly; practical nurse
    Kratzenmacher - basket weaver
    Krautkraemer, -kramer - druggist
    Krebisser - shell fisherman
    Krebsgeschwuer - cancer sore
    Kreisrat - county commissioner
    Kreisser - forest supervisor
    Kremer - grocer; small merchant; shopkeeper
    Krenke - epilepsy
    Kretschmer, Kretschner - innkeeper
    Kreuzschmi(e)d - swordsmith; silversmith
    Kreuzwirt(h) - inkeeper of the Cross Inn
    Kriebelkrankheit - cramp
    Kriegsknecht - mercenary
    Krippenmacher - maker of cribs
    Kripps, Krips - influenza
    Kroeger, Krogmann - innkeeper
    Kroemke - peddler
    Kronanwalt - attorney general
    Kronenwirt(h) - innkeeper of the Crown Inn
    Krudener, Kruedener - pharmacist
    Krueger - innkeeper
    Krueppel - cripple; lame person
    Krummholzhaendler - scrub timber dealer
    Krueselkerl - tin founder
    Kuebler - cooper
    Kuechlebaecker, Kuchenbaecker, -baeker - pastry baker
    Kuechenmeister - chef; master of the kitchen
    Kuechenschreiber - master chef
    Kuderer - flax merchant
    Kuebler - cooper
    Ku(e)her - cowherd; dairyman
    Ku(e)hhirt(in) - cowherd
    Kuehlmann - field watchman
    Kuemmer - cooper
    Kuemmichkehrer - chimneysweep
    Kuemper - cooper
    Kuenstler(in) - artist
    Kueper - cooper
    Kueperholzmacher - barrelstave maker
    Kueppenbender, Kueppers - cooper
    Kueppler(in) - matchmaker
    Kuerbenzeiner - baskt weaver
    Kuerschner - furrier
    Kuester(in) - sexton; church custodian; pastor's assistant
    Kueter - butcher
    Kuefer, Kuffer, Kuefler - cooper
    Kuhbauer - farmer with a cow
    Kueher, Kuhhirt(e) - male cowherd
    Kuhhirtin, Kuehhirtin - female cowherd
    Kuhlengraeber - gravedigger
    Kuehlmann - field watchman
    Kulitze- -furrier
    Kummeder - saddler
    Kuemmer - cooper
    Kumper - tanner
    Kuemper - cooper
    Kunstdrechsler - (ivory) turner
    Kuenstler(in) - artist
    Kunstmaler(in) - artist
    Kunstmeister - master organ builder
    Kuper, Kueper - cooper
    Kueperholzmacher - barrel stave maker
    Kupferdrucker - copperplate printer
    Kupferschmi(e)d - coppersmith
    Kupferstecher - copper engraver; etcher
    Kueppenbender, Kueppers - cooper
    Kueppler(in) - matchmaker
    Kuerbenzeiner - basket weaver
    Kurdewaener - shoemaker (with cordovan leather)
    Kurkeler - corkmaker
    Kurschmi(e)d - blacksmith; farrier
    Kuerschner, Kursener - furrier
    Kuester(in) - sexton
    Kueter - butcher
    Kutschenbauer - wagonbuilder
    Kutscher - coachman
    Kuttelwamper - tripe seller
    Kutter - cutter
    Kuttler - offal seller

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    Nachlasspfleger(in) - trustee of estate
    Nachlassverwalter(in) - executor; administrator
    Nachtwaechter - night watchman (sometimes held in ill repute)
    Nadelmacher, Nadelmann - needlemaker
    Nadler - needlemaker; haberdasher
    Naehdirne - sewing girl
    Naeher - seamster
    Naeherin - seamstress
    Naetler - needlemaker
    Nagel, Nagelschmi(e)d, Nagler - nailmaker
    Naeher - seamster
    Naeherin - seamstress
    Naetler - needlemaker
    Neiler, Neilschmieder - needlemaker
    Nestler - shoelace maker
    Netzmacher - (fish) net maker
    Neubuaer - farmer on land newly cleared (18th century)
    Neubuerger(in), Neub'rger(in) - new citizen
    Neuschwander - person living on a newly burnt-out (cleared) place
    Neuwohner - new inhabitant
    Noldener - needlemaker
    Nonne(n)macher - animal castrator
    Nosterer - rosary maker
    Notar - (government) notary
    Noterbe - (mandatory) heir
    Nothzeuge - emergency witness
    Nottaufe - emergency baptism (by a layman)
    Nudelmann - needlemaker
    Nuesch(e)ler - belt maker
    Nuess(e)ler, - maker of nut oil
    Nufeler - tweed maker
    Nuldener - needle maker

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    Obdachlose(r) - homeless person
    Obentuerer, Obent'rer - diamond merchant
    Oberamtmann - (government) administrator
    Oberfeldwebel - warrant officer
    Oberfoerster, Oberf÷rster - chief forester
    Oberkoch - male master chef
    Oberkoechin,- female master chef
    Oberkueper - cooper
    Obermann - superintendent
    Obermeister - master of a guild
    Obermueller - miller (at the upper mill)
    Oberpfarrer - chief pastor
    Oberrabbiner - chief rabbi
    Obesser - fruit merchant
    Obervogt - chief local government official; bailiff
    Oberst - (mil.) colonel
    Oberzolldirektor - chief customs director
    Obmann - chairman
    Ob(t)ser - fruit picker
    Obstler - fruitpicker; fruit seller
    Obstverkaeufer(in) - fruit merchant
    Ochsenknecht - oxen tender
    Oechsner - small farmer with only oxen, no horses
    Oeconom - small farmer; farm manager; steward; innkeeper, economist
    Oehler, Oehlmann - oil maker; oil seller
    Oekonom - small farmer; farm manager; steward; innkeeper, economist
    Oelmann - oil miller; oil merchant
    Ofener - stovefitter
    Ofenfabrikant - stove maker
    Ofengrgraeber - stoker
    Ofensetzer - stovefitter
    Ofenwaerter - furnace operator
    Offermann - church sexton
    Ohlenmacher - potter
    Oelmann - oilmaker; oil seller
    Olboeter - shoe repairer; cobbler
    Oldkitter - shoe cobbler
    Oleymann - oil merchant
    Oelmann - oil miller; oil merchant
    OM - abbr. for Obermeister (master of a guild)
    Omentraeger - freight hauler
    Opperknecht - apprentice bricklayer
    Oppermann - church sexton
    Ordner - file organizer
    Orgelbauer, Org(e)ler - organbuilder
    Orleymacher - watchmaker
    Ortsbewohner - local resident(s)
    Ortsbuerger - citizen of a place
    Ortschmi(e)d - toolsmith
    Ortsgeistliche(r) - local pastor; local clergy
    OZD - abbr. for Oberzolldirektor ("chief customs director")

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    Pauken - swelling; tumor (growth)
    Pest - plague; pestilence
    Pestbeule - pestilence sore
    Pestblattern - pestilence sores
    Petetchen - typhoid fever
    Pfies - skin growth*Pfnuesel, Pfnusel, Pfnuesel - head cold
    Pfneche - asthma*Pipf - influenza
    Phronesia - insanity
    Popf, nuernbergischer - "Nuremberg flu"
    Pipf, spanische - "Spanish flu"
    Plage - plague; syphilis
    Pocken, Pockseuche - smallpox
    Podagra - gout
    Porpeln - measles; pox
    Puls - pulse; heartbeat
    Pusseln - pustules; pox

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    Quartanfieber - malaria

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    Rachimburge - lay assessor
    Raecke - stiffness of the limbs
    Racker - renderer; skinner
    Rademacher - wheelwright
    Radhauer - wheelwright
    Raebbe - rabies
    Raecke, Raehe - stiffness of the limbs
    Raetin - female council member; official; councilman's wife
    Rastelbinder - pen repairer
    Rateler - night watchman
    Rat(h)geber(in) - advisor
    Rat(h)s, des - member of the council
    Rat(h)sdiener - council employee; beadle
    Rat(h)sherr - town councilman
    Rat(h)smitglied - member of the council
    Rat(h)sschreibe - town clerk
    Rat(h)sverwandter - member of the town council
    Raetin - female council member; official; councilman's wife
    Rauhmaurer - stonemason
    Raumpflegerin - cleaning lady
    Rauschfaerber - black dyer
    Rebmann - vine dresser
    Rebmeister - master vine dresser
    Rechtsanwalt - male lawyer
    Rechtsanwaeltin - female lawyer
    Rechtsbeflissene(r) - law student
    Rechtsbeistand - legal adviser
    Rechtsgelehrte(r) - lawyer; legal scholar
    Rechtspfleger - judicial administrator
    Regi(e)rungsbaumeister - superintendent of public works
    Regi(e)rungsbeamte(r) - government official
    Regi(e)rungsdirektor - chief administrator
    Regi(e)rungsrat(h) - government council(lor)
    Regi(e)rungsferendar - probationary government worker; government intern
    Regimentsartz - regimental doctor
    Regisseur - male director
    Reiber - masseur
    Reichkraemer - herb and silk merchant
    Reichkanzler - Imperial chancellor
    Reichritter - Imperial knight
    Reichsverwer - Imperial regent
    Reidemeister - vice-mayor on council; council president
    Reifer - ropemaker; rope merchant
    Reifschlaege - ropemaker
    Reinmachefrau - cleaning lady
    Reiseknecht - ruler's servant during travels
    Reisemarschall - royal courier; travel advance man
    Reiser - pilgrim
    Reisiger - rider
    Reisner - rope maker
    Reitender - mounted messenger
    Reiter - rider; cavalryman
    Reitschmi(e)d - blacksmith; farrier
    Rektor(in) - school headmaster/mistress; principal; minister/minister's wife
    Relikt - relict; survivor
    Rendant - paymaster; treasurer
    Rentamtmann - treasurer
    Renteibote - treasurer's office messenger
    Rentner(in) - retiree
    Reper - ropemaker
    Repschlaeger- ropemaker
    Retspede - lay assessor
    Retuschier - porcelain retoucher
    Reuss- shoemaker
    Reuter - rider; cavalry; clearer of land
    Reutschmi(e)d - blacksmith; farrier
    Reuzze - shoe cobbler
    Revisor - inspector
    Richtherr - lay assessor
    Richter(in) - judge
    Riedemeister - vice-mayor on council; council president\
    Riemenmacher, Riemenschneider, Riemer, Riemschlaeger Riemschneider - leather strapmaker
    Rinderknecht - cattle tender
    Rindsschuster - tanner
    Rinker - kettlesmith
    Rit(t)er - knight
    Rittmeister - cavalry captain
    Roback - servant
    Rockener - baker of dark bread
    Roeder, - clearer of land
    Roepe - ropemaker; town crier
    Roeseler - whitewasher
    Roessler - horseman; tanner
    Roet - measles; bloody diarrhea
    Roeteln - measles
    Rojgast - seaman
    Rolladenbauer - window blind installer
    Roller - coachman; freight hauler
    Roeper - ropemaker; town crier
    Rorenschieber - tin peddler
    Rossarzt - horse doctor; veterinarian
    Rosser - horse groom; freight hauler
    Rosshaendler - horse dealer
    Rosshirt - horse herdsman
    Rosskamm - horse dealer
    Rotgerber - red tanner
    Royer - cooper
    Ruetze - shoe cobbler
    Russfaerber, Ružfarber - dyer

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    Saeckelmeister - treasurer; administrator
    Sackhuhn - sailmaker
    Saeckler - sack maker; treasurer
    Sackmacher - sack maker
    Sadelhoefer - farmer and lay assessor
    Saeger - sawyer
    Saemischmacher - white tanner
    Saenger - singer(s)
    Saeuhirt(e) - swineherd
    Sagenschneider - plank cutter
    Sageter - sawmiller
    Sailer - ropemaker
    Salinearbeiter, Salinenknecht - helper at a salt-well
    Salmann - executor; administrator
    Salpetersieder - nitrate maker
    Saltzitzienmacher - sausage maker
    Salunenmacher - blanket weaver
    Salwirt(h) - weapon smith
    Salwuerker, -wurch, - tinsmith
    Salzaufleger - tax official
    Salzfueher - salt merchant with a cart
    Salzfueller - customs official
    Salzhaendler - salt merchant
    Salzinspektor - salt inspector
    Salzkaerrner - salt merchant with a cart
    Salzmann - salt merchant
    Salzsieder - saltmaker
    Salzsteuereinnehmer - salt tax collector
    Salzstoessel- salt merchant
    Salzvogt - saltworks overseer
    Saemischmacher - white tanner
    Sandbauer - farmer with sandy ground
    Sandler - sandal maker
    Sargedromacher, Sargenweber - woolen cloth weaver
    Sarghauer - stonemason
    Sargtraeger - pallbearer
    Sarkhauer - stonemason
    Sarrwerker, -wuerker, -wurker - harness-maker
    Sauhirt(h) - male swineherd
    Sauhirt(h)in - female swineherd
    Saeumer - freight hauler
    Sauter - shoemaker
    Schacherer - peddler
    Schachtmeister - mine master
    Schaefer - shepherd
    Schaef(f)ler - cooper
    Schaeuf(e)ler - shovelmaker; peddler
    Schaffer - worker; laborer; administrator
    Schaffmann - worker
    Schaffner(in) - conductor
    Schafhirt(e) - shepherd
    Schafmeister - sheep farm overseer
    Schaidmesser - maker of cutlery
    Schal(c)k, Schall - servant
    Schalenschroder - maker of knife handles
    Schallaunenmacher - blanket weaver
    Schankmacher - cupboard maker
    Schankwirt(h) - innkeeper
    Schanzenmeister - jailer
    Schaper - shepherd
    Scharfrichter - executioner
    Scharlach, Scharlachfieber - scarlet fever
    Scharnemann - merchant in a market
    Scharrmacher - wagon builder
    Scharwaechter- night watchman
    Scharwerker - day laborer on a farm
    Schatter, Schattmann - tax assessor
    Schatzmann - moneychanger; treasurer
    Schatzmeister - treasurer
    Schauer - cloth inspector
    Schaeuerchen- shooting pains in the teeth; epilepsy
    Schaufert - shoemaker
    Schaeuf(e)ler - shovel maker; peddler
    Schaukastentraeger - traveling salesman who carries a showcase around
    Schauspieler(in) - actor/actress
    Schauwecker - shoemaker
    Scheckensticker - embroiderer
    Scheffler - bowlmaker; cooper
    Scheibenreisser - glazier
    Scheibler - salt carrier
    Scheidler - knife-blade maker
    Schellenschmi(e)d - cowbell maker
    Schelter - jester; entertainer
    Schen(c)k - innkeeper who taps beer or wine
    Schen(c)ker - innkeeper
    Schen(c)kjunfer - wet nurse
    Schen(c)kwirt(h) - innkeeper who taps beer or wine
    Scheper - shepherd
    Scherenschleifer - scissors sharpener
    Scherenmacher - scissors maker
    Scherer - barber; beardcutter; cloth cutter
    Scherge - sheriff's deputy
    Schichtmeister - mine paymaster
    Schiedsrichter - local court judge; justice of the peace
    Schiedsverwandter - member of local court
    Schieferdecker - roofer of slate roofs; slater
    Schiesser - hunter
    Schiffbauer - shipbuilder
    Schiffer - shipper; seaman
    Schiffmann - sailor
    Schiffseigner - shipowner
    Schiffsmakler - shipbroker; shipping agent
    Schilderer - sign painter
    Schilderhersteller - sign maker
    Schindeldecker - roofer of shingle roofs
    Schindelmacher - shingle maker
    Schinder - renderer; skinner
    Schindler - roofer; skinner
    Schinner - renderer; skinner
    Schirmmacher - umbrella maker
    Schirrmacher - wagon maker
    Schirrmeister - master wagon maker
    Schlachter - butcher
    Schlaechter - butcher
    Schlachtmann - butcher
    Schlachtwanter - clothing wholesaler
    Schlafbaas - innkeeper
    Schlechter - butcher
    Schlegel - turnkey of a prison
    Schleifer - polisher
    Schleusserin - maid
    Schlieper - knifemaker; cutler
    Schliesser - church administrator
    Schlieter - merchant
    Schlossaufseher - castle keeper; castellan
    Schlossbesitzer(in) - castle owner
    Schlosser - locksmith; mechanic; tinkerer
    Schlossherr(in) - castle owner
    Schlotfeger - chimneysweep
    Schlotthauer - locksmith
    Schlueter, - turnkey in a prison
    Schlupwaechter - night watchman
    Schm. - abbr. for Schmeid (smith)
    Schmelzarbeiter, Schmelzer - (s)melter
    Schmi(e)d(t) - smith
    Schn. - abbr. for Schneider (tailor)
    Schneider - tailor
    Schnellweber - machine weaver
    Schnider - tailor
    Schni(t)tger, Schni(t)tker - woodworker; joiner
    Schnitter - harvest hand
    Schnittwarenhaendler - drygoods (cloth) merchant
    Schnitzer, Schnitzker, Schnitzler - woodcarver
    Schnuerer - lacemaker
    Schnurmacher - lacemaker
    Schnyder - tailor
    Schoband - skinner's helper
    Schoeffe - member
    Schoeffen-, Schoeffenmeister - foreman of small claims court
    Schoeffler, Schoeffler - bowlmaker
    Schoenfaerber - dyer of colored goods
    Schoepe - member of small claims court; lay juryman; councilman
    Schoesser - tax collector
    Scholz - village mayor; magistrate
    Schomaker - shoemaker
    Schoenbeck - pastry baker
    Schoenfaerber - dyer of colored goods
    Schoolapper - shoe cobbler
    Schopenhauer - wooden scoop maker
    Schopper - ship's carpenter
    Schornsteinfeger - chimneysweep
    Schosserheber - tax collector
    Schoesser- tax collector
    Schotte - peddler
    Schottler - turner; key maker
    Schottilier - turner; carpenter
    Schrader - tailor; cutter
    Schrannengast - grain merchant
    Schreiber - clerk; business manager
    Schreibmeist - master of writing
    Schreiner - joiner; woodworker
    Schriftfuehrer(in) - corresponding secretary
    Schriftleiter(in) - editor of journal
    Schriftsetzer - typesetter
    Schrobber - wool weaver
    Schrobelmacher - loom maker
    Schroder, Schroeder - tailor
    Schroepfer - blood-letter
    Schroeer - tailor
    Schroeter - tailor; carter; driver; cooper
    Schryffeyne(r) - clerk
    Schubart(h), Schubert(h), Schubring - shoemaker
    Schuchard, Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert - shoemaker
    Schuessler - bowl maker
    Schuetze - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
    Schuhflicker - shoe cobbler
    Schuhknecht - apprentice shoemaker
    Schuhllapper - shoe cobbler
    Schuhmacher - shoemaker
    Schuhmann - shoemaker; seller of shoes
    Schuhputzer - shoe-shiner
    Schuhwerk - shoemaker
    Schulapper - shoe cobbler
    Schuldenbote - debt collector
    Schuldiener - schoolteacher
    Schuldner - debter
    Schulgehilfe - teacher's assistant
    Schullhalter - schoolteacher
    Schuljunge, Schulknabe - schoolboy
    Schullehrer(in) - schoolteacher
    Schulleiter(in) - school principal
    Schulmaedel - schoolgirl
    Schulmeister - schoolmaster
    Schulrat(h) - school board member
    Schulsschwester - teaching nun
    Schulte, Schultheiss - appointed village mayor; magistrate; head man of the village governing body; originally tax collector for the ruler
    Schul(t)z(e) - appointed village mayor; magistrate; head man of the village governing body; originally tax collector for the ruler
    Schumacher - shoemaker
    Schumann - shoemaker; seller of shoes
    Schuerken - toothache
    Schuessler - bowlmaker
    Schuster - shoemaker
    Schutenmaker - boat builder
    Schuetze - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
    Schutzverwandter - protected non-citizen with rights of a citizen
    Schuwarte - shoemaker
    Schwaiger - shepherd
    Schwanenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Swam Inn
    Schwaer - illness
    schwarzer Tod - black death; plague
    Schwarzefaerber, - dyer of dark goods
    Schwarzgiesser - iron smelter
    Schwa(e)che - debility; weakness
    Schweiger - cowherd; cheesemaker
    Schweinehaendler - hog trader
    Schwein(e)hirt(h) - pigherd
    Schweisser - welder
    Schwendimann - settler on recently burned woodland
    Schwer(d)tfeger - armorer
    Schwertbbauer - farmer on farm inherited through the male line
    Schwoedler - white tanner
    Seelbinder - ropemaker
    Seelotse - sea pilot
    Seelsorger - minister; chaplain; spiritual guide
    Seemann - seaman
    Segenschmi(e)d - saw smith
    Segesser, Segisser - scythe maker
    Segner - fisherman
    Seidenneger - silk embroiderer
    Seidenspuler - silk reeler
    Seidenst(r)icker(in) - silk embroiderer
    Seidenweber(in) - silk weaver
    Seifensieder - soapboiler
    Seigermacher - watchmaker
    Seigerschmi(e)d - clockmaker
    Seigersteller - caretaker of the village clock
    Seigner - fisherman
    Seiler - ropemaker; rope merchant
    Seimtauer - tanner
    Sekelmeister - master sackmaker; treasurer
    Sekretaer(in) - secretary
    Selcher - butcher; smoker of meat
    Selzer - salt merchant
    Sendbote - messenger
    Senker - fisherman
    Senkler - bracelet maker
    Senn - (Alpine) herdsman; dairyman
    Senner(in) - (Alpine) herdsman; dairyman/maid
    Sensal - real estate agent
    Sensenbrenner, -schmi(e)d - scythe maker
    Sentrin - female cowherd
    Sesterer - cooper
    Settbur - farm administrator
    Setzer - typesetter
    Seuner - fisherman
    Sicherheitspolizei - security police
    Sichter - harvester
    Sieber - sievemaker; sieve worker in a mine
    Siebmacher - sievemaker
    Siebmann - sieve worker in a mine
    Sieche - sick person
    Siedler - settler
    Siegrist - church sexton
    Siberarbeiter - silver worker
    Silberbote - messenger
    Silberschmi(e)d - silversmith
    Simmermacher - sievemaker
    Skribent - writer; scribbler
    Smalweber - weaver of strips of linen
    Smerde - slave
    Smersnider - bacon merchant
    Snitker - joiner
    Snopel - vagabond
    Soeldner - mercenary soldier; day laborer
    Soldat - soldier
    Soeldner - mercenary soldier; day laborer
    Solepumper - helper at a salt well
    Sommerkrankheit, -plague - summer complaint
    Sonnenkraemer, -kramer - peddler
    Sonnenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Sun Inn
    Spangenmacher - brass worker; clasp maker
    Spanner - freight hauler
    Spediteur - freight forwarder
    Speisewirt(h) - restauranteur
    Spenelmacher, Spener - needle maker
    Spengler - plumber; tinsmith
    Spenhauer - carpenter
    Spetter - market servant
    Spettreiter - messenger
    Spezereikraemer, -kramer - spice merchant
    Spicker - cottager
    Spikermann - cottager
    Spiegelmacher - mirror maker
    Spiegelwirt(h) - proprietor of the Mirror Inn
    Spielmann - minstrel
    Spiessbuerger, Spiesser - city citizen with no horse; philistine
    Spillmacker - tile maker
    Spindelbauer - farmer on a farm inherited through the female line
    Spindelmacher, Spindler - wooden spindle maker
    Spinner(in) - spinner
    Spitalpfleger - male nurse; orderly
    Spitalpflegerin - female practical nurse
    Spitzenhaendler - lace dealer
    Splettstoesser - shingle merchant
    Splittgerber - tilemaker; shingle merchant
    Spurmann - hunter
    Stabhalter - administrator and judge
    Stabherr - judge
    Staebler - peddler; beggar
    Stabschlaeger - cutter of wood for barrel staves
    Stabsfeldwebel - (mil.) master sergeant
    Stabkapitaen, -kapitain - (mil.) staff captain
    Stabskeller - court official
    Stabuel - beggar
    Stabulier(er) - peddler
    Stadler - keeper of the tax granary
    Stadtbeamter - municipal official
    Stadtbewohner - inhabitant of a city
    Stadtbote - town messenger; beadle
    Stadtdiener - town worker
    Stadtknecht - town worker
    Stadtrichter - municipal judge
    Stadtschreiber - municipal clerk
    Stadtvogt - town magistrate
    Staebler - peddler; beggar
    Staettenbesitzer - owner of a place
    Staffhauer - maker of barrel staves
    Staffirmaler - whitewasher
    Stahlschmi(e)d - steelsmith
    Stallbursche, -junge, -knecht - stable boy
    Stallmagd - milkmaid
    Stallmeister - equerry; master of the horse
    Stalmenger - ironmonger
    Staerkefabrikant - starch manufacturer
    Staettenbesitzer - owner of a place
    Statthalter - governor; vicar
    Statzauner - pharmacist
    Staudenmeier - shrubkeeper; gardener
    Staufer - potter; cupmaker
    Staupe, boese - festering sores and fever; child's convulsions
    Stavener - farmer
    Sterrtenmacher - pencilmaker
    Steinbrecher - quarryman
    Steinbrenner - maker of lime
    Steinbroecker, -bruecker - bridge paver
    Steiner - field border-stone watcher
    Steingutarbeiter, -brenner - stoneware potter
    Steingutwarenhaendler - stoneware dealer
    Steinhacker - stonecutter
    Steinhauer - stonecutter
    Steinmetz - stonemason
    Steinschneider - gem cutter; lapidary
    Steinwirker - stoneworker
    Steinworte - bricklayer
    Stellmacher - wheelwright; wagonmaker
    Stelzer - stilt-walker
    Stengelbauer - poor farmer
    Sterbenslaeufe - epidemic of plague
    Sticker = embroiderer, Stickerin = embroideress
    Stirnwirt(h) - proprietor of Star Inn
    Sterzer - tramp
    Steuerbeamte(r) - tax official
    Steuerberater(in) - tax advisor
    Steuerbote - tax messenger
    Steuereinnehmer - tax collector
    Steuerheber - tax assessor
    Steuermann - ship or boat pilot; helmsman
    Stieffeler - maker of vineyard stakes
    Stiftenmacher - pencilmaker
    Stiftungsmitglied - member of board of trustees of a foundation
    Stille, in der - quietly (e.g. without the tolling of bells at a funeral/ wedding)
    Stillfaut(h) - chairman of a secret court
    Stillstaende- church elder
    Stirnstosser - veil merchant
    Stoecker - jailer
    Stockjunge - rifle cleaning-rod boy
    Stoellner - mine owner
    Stoker - brandy distiller
    Storger - market barker
    Straehler - wool carder
    Straehlmacher - combmaker; grapeshot maker
    Strassen-, bauer - road builder
    Strassen-, Strassenfeger - street sweeper
    Strassen-, Strassenkehrer - street sweeper
    Strassenkoetter - cottager living by the road
    Stratener - peasant on a small farm
    Stricker(in) - knitter
    Strohdachdecker - fletcher; thatcher
    Strohhutfabrikant - straw hat manufacturer
    Strohmenger - straw merchant
    Strohschneider - one who cuts straw for thatched roofs
    Strumpflismer(in) - stocking knitter
    Strumpfsticker(in) - stocking knitter
    Strumpfweber(in) - stockingweaver
    Stubenmeister - proprietor of an inn with a meeting room for guild or society members
    Stueck-, Stueckwerker - piece worker
    Stuenschenmacher - cooper of small buckets
    Stuerzner - plumber
    Stuhler, Stuhlmacher - joiner; chairmaker
    Stuhlschreiber - court recorder
    Stukkateur - stucco worker
    Stuler - chairmaker
    Stuenschenmacher - cooper of small buckets
    Stuerzner - plumber
    Stutenbaecker, -becker - pastry baker
    Stuttknecht - stud horse groom
    Stuurmann - boatman
    Substitut - young pastor who takes over for and older pastor still officially in office
    Suchmann - hunter
    Sudler - cook of offal
    Suesskuechler - pastry baker
    Suwestecher - hog castrator
    Sween - swineherd

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    Tabagist, Tabakist - proprietor of a tobacco shop
    Tabaksarbeiter, Tabakpflanzer - tobacco worker/planter
    Tobaksteuereinnehmer - tobacco tax collector
    Tabourin - drummer
    Tabulettkraemer, -kramer - peddler of pills
    Taedinger - business agent; mediator
    Taenzer(in) - dancer
    Taeschner - pursemaker
    Tafelitenkraemer, -kramer, Tafelit(t) - door-to-door salesman
    Tagloehner(in), - day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
    Tagner(in) - day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
    Tallierer - peddler
    Talmueller - miller in the valley
    Tambour - (mil.) drummer
    Taenzer(in) - dancer
    Tapetenmaler - wallpaper painter
    Tapazier(er) - wallpaper hanger
    Taschner, Taeschnerd - leather bagmaker
    Tater - gypsy
    Taubenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Dove Inn
    Tauer - tanner
    Taufgesinnter - Anabaptist
    Taun(n)er(in)- day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
    Taverner - innkeeper
    Techniker(in) - technician
    Teefuehrer, -f'hrer - tar hauler
    Teerschweler - tar manufacturer
    Tegtmaier - farm rent collector
    Tellrer - peddler
    Tepper - potter
    Teufer - Anabaptist
    Thalmueller, Thalm'ller - miller in the valley
    Thaun(n)er(in) - day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
    Thierarzt - veterinarian
    Thuchmacher - clothmaker
    Tich(e)ler - tilemaker
    Tierarzt - veterinarian
    Tierausstopfer - taxidermist
    Timmerman - carpenter
    Tischer, Tischler, Tischmacher, Tischner - tablemaker; joiner
    Toedde - peddler
    Toepfer - potter
    Torfstecher - peatcutter
    Torhueter, -mann - gatekeeper
    Torschreiber - gate toll collector
    Torwaechter, -waechter - gatekeeper
    Totenausleger - undertaker
    Totenbeschauer - physician attesting death; medical examiner; coroner
    To(d)tengraber, -graeber - gravedigger; cemetery caretaker
    Totenmann - undertaker
    Trabant - foot soldier
    Traeger - pallbearer
    Traexl - wood turner
    Traiteur, Trakteur - master cook
    Traubenweber - cloth weave
    Trautgesell(e) - trusted journeyman
    Trautherr - trusted master
    Trautmann - trusted man
    Traexl, Traxler - wood turner
    Trechsler - wood turner
    Trimmer - freight hauler
    Trissler - treasurer
    Troedler - peddler
    Trommler - drummer
    Trompeter - trumpeter
    Troner - peddler
    Tropfhaeusler - cottager; tenant with a small house
    Trossknecht - baggage servant; wagoner
    Truchsess - food procurer of a ruler or noble
    Truhenmacher - trunkmaker
    Trumpter - trumpeter
    Trunkenbold - drunkard
    Tschismenmacher - bootmaker of women's long boots
    Tschudi, Tschudy - judge
    Tuchhaendler - cloth merchant; draper
    Tuchmacher - cloth maker; clothier
    Tuchscherer - cloth cutter
    Tuchwalker - fuller
    Tuchweber(in) - cloth weaver
    Tueffelmacher - slipper maker
    Tuencher - whitewasher
    Tueoedde, Tueoette - peddler
    Tuerhueter - guard
    Tuermer - watchman in a tower; bellringer
    Tuefelmacher - slippermaker
    Tuencher - whitewasher
    Tuedde, Tuette - peddler
    Turmvader, -vater - jailer
    Tuunker - gardener

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    Uebersetzer(in) - translator
    Uhrmacher - clockmaker; watchmaker
    Ulan - (mil.) lancer
    Ulenbecker - potter
    Ulner - potter
    Umsiedler - resettler; refugee
    Unglueck - bad luck; epilepsy
    Unterfeldwebel - sergeant
    Unterhaendler- negotiator; agent
    Unterkaeufer - broker
    Untermieter(in) - subtenant; roomer; lodger
    Untermueller - miller on the lower part of a stream
    Unternaehmer - entrpreneur
    Unteroffizier - (mil.) non-commisioned officer; petty officer; sergeant
    Unterschultheiss- deputy mayor; vice-mayor
    Untertan - subject; serf
    Untervogt - assistant bailiff; deputy sheriff
    Unvermoegende(r)- without property; pauper
    UO - abbr. for Unteroffizier (non-commissioned officer)
    Urheber(in) - author

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    Vaagd - bailiff; sheriff; constable; representative of the ruler; administrator
    Vastbecker - pastry baker
    Verbrecher(in) - criminal
    Vere - ferryman
    Verfasser(in) - author
    Verheiler - animal castrator
    Verkaeufer(in)- sales clerk
    Verleiher, Verleyher - investor
    Verler - hog merchant
    Vermieter(in) - renter; landlord/lady
    Vermittler - marriage broker; matchmaker
    Verschiedene - deceased person
    Versorgungsempfaenger - pensioner, welfare recipient
    Versteigerer - auctioneer
    Verwalter - administrator
    Verwandte - relative
    Verweser - administrator; vicar
    Verzimmerer - timberer in a mine
    Veterinaer (arzt), Veterinaerarzt) - veterinarian
    Vetinkmaker - wagonmaker
    Viehhaendler, - cattle dealer
    Viehhirt(e) - cowherd
    Viehknecht - cattle herdsman
    Viertelbauer - farmer of a 1/4 sized farm
    Visitator - church census taker
    Viztum - deputy of the ruler
    Vizebuergermeister - deputy mayor
    Vocker - wholesaler
    Voerradesmann -guardian
    Vogler - bird catcher; fowler
    Vogt - bailiff; sheriff; constable; representative of the ruler
    Volksheer - militia
    Vollbauer, -erbe, -maier, spaenner- farmer on a full-sized farm
    Vribunde - free farmer
    Vucker - wholesaler

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    Waagemeister - weighmaster
    Wachsspinner - wax-spinner
    Waechter, Wachtgaenger - watchman; security guard
    Wachtmeister - police patrolman; cavalry sergeant
    Wachtsoldat - (mil) guard
    Waechter - watchman; security guard
    Waegner - wagonbuilder; cartwright
    Waemstler - offal dealer
    Waerter(in) - caretaker
    Waescher(in) - launderer
    Waffenfabrikant - armorer
    Waffenschmi(e)d - shieldmaker; armorer
    Wagenknecht - wagonhand
    Wagenmeister - master wagon builder; master cartwright; (mil.) wagonmaster
    Wagenpfleger - auto mechanic
    Waggonmacher - car maker
    Wagler, Wagener, Waegner - wagonbuilder; cartwright
    Wagnermeister - master wagon builder; master cartwright
    Wahrsfrau - nurse; caretaker
    Wahrsmann - caretaker
    Waidner - dyer
    Waise(r) - orphan
    Waisenpfleger(in) - guardian; caretaker of orphans
    Waldbewohner - forest inhabitant
    Waldgrebe - overseer of wood in a forest
    Waldhaeuer- woodcutter
    Waldhornist - hunting horn player
    Waldhueter - forest guard
    Waldschlaeger - woodcutter
    Waldschuetze- forest guard
    Walker - person who softens cloth; fuller
    Waemstler - offal dealer
    Wanderbursch(e), Wanderer - journeyman; traveler
    Wandersmann - journeyman
    Wandmacher - cloth weaver
    Wandschneider - clothmaker
    Wannenkraemer, -kramer - peddler
    Wantsnider - clothmaker
    Wardein - mint inspector
    Waerter(in) - caretaker
    Wartfrau - midwife
    Waschmagd - washerwoman
    Waescher(in) - launderer
    Wasenmeister - skinner; renderer
    Wassermueller - water-mill operator
    Wasserzieher - water carrier to the public baths
    Watmanger - cloth merchant
    Wattmann - cloth wholesaler
    Waydjaeger - hunter
    Weber - weaver
    Wechsler - money-changer; money lender
    Wegewarter - road watchman
    Wegmacher - road repairman
    Wegmeister - road supervisor
    Wehener - wagonbuilder; cartwright
    Wehenmutter, Wehfrau - midwife
    Wehmutter - midwife
    Wehrmann - soldier
    Wehrmeister - forester
    Weibel - sergeant; court usher
    Weid(e)mann - hunter
    Weinbauer, -berger - vinedresser
    Weinbleicher - wine bleacher (adulterator)
    Weiner, Weinert - wagonbuilder; cartwright
    Weinfuehrer- proprietor of a wine inn
    Weingaertner- vinedresser
    Weingeber - innkeeper
    Weinhaendler - wine merchant
    Weinherr- wine wholesaler
    Weinreber - vine dresser
    Weinschen(c)k(er) - proprietor of a wine tavern; wine waiter
    Weinsticher - wine tester
    Weinvisierer - wine inspector
    Weinzapf - proprietor of a wine tavern
    Weinzi(e)rl - vine dresser
    Weisemutter - midwife
    Weissbinder - copper; whitewasher
    Weissdreher - ceramic worker
    Weissgerber - tanner of fine leather
    Weldeme(i)ster - policeman
    Wendkraemer, -kramer - cloth merchant
    Wenster - butcher
    Werghaendler - flax dealer
    Werkfuehrer, Werkmeister - factory foreman; Administrator
    Wetschenmacher - bagmaker
    Wetteherr - administrator of a guild
    Wetzer - grinder; polisher
    Weyner - wagonmaker; coach builder
    Wildbrethaendler - venison dealer
    Wilddieb, Wilderer - game poacher
    Wildenhirt(e) - horse groom
    Wildfoerster - forest ranger
    Wildhirt - horse herder
    Wildheger - gamekeeper
    Wildheuer - grass cutter
    Wildner - game hunter
    Wildwerker - furrier
    Windmueller - windmill operator
    Wingertsmann - vintner
    Winkler - merchant
    Winzer - vine dresser
    Wirker - worker; laborer
    Wirt(h)(in) - innkeeper; landlord/lady
    Wirtschaefterin, -schafterin, - housekeeper
    Wissler - painter
    Witmenger - wood merchant
    Wittgrefe - overseer of wood in a forest
    Wittib - widow
    Wittiber, Wittler, Wittling, Wittmann - widower
    Wit(t)we(r) - widow(er)
    Wobber - wool weaver
    Wochenpflegerin - obstetric nurse
    Wohlhueter - foremen of woodcutters
    Wollbereiter - wool preparer
    Wolldeckenmacher - wool blanket maker
    Wollenweber - woolweaver
    Wollhaendler - wool dealer
    Wollner - wool carder
    Wollschlaeger - wool cleaner
    Wollspinner - wool spinner
    Wooler - wool carder
    Wucherer - money-lender; usurer
    Wuellenweber - wool weaver
    Wuellner - maker of woolen clothes
    Wuergengel - plague epidemic
    Wuerth - innkeeper
    Wuellenweber - woolweaver
    Wuellner - maker of woolen clothes
    Wundarzt - surgeon
    Wurmfieber - diarrhea; typhoid fever
    Wurster, Wurstmacher - sausage-maker
    Wuert(h) - innkeeper
    Wurzkreamer, -kramer, -kraemer, Wurzler, Wurzmann, Wurzmenger - herb merchant
    Wyrt - innkeeper

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    Yngwuenner - tax collector

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    Zacher, Zacherweber - weaver
    Zahlmeister - paymaster
    Zahnaerzt(in) - dentist
    Zahnbrecher - dentist, male
    Zainer - basket weaver
    Zajemacher - wool weaver
    Zapfenwirt(h) - proprietor of a beer tavern
    Zauberer - sorcerer
    Zauer - clothmaker
    Zechner - groom
    Zeichnenlehrer(in) - drawing teacher
    Zeichemmeister - weights and measures official
    Zeichner(in) - graphic artist; drafter
    Zeidelmann, Zeidler - beekeeper
    Zeiner - basket weaver
    Zeitungshaendler - newspaper dealer
    Zeitungsfrau, -junge - newspaper carrier
    Zeitungsverleger - newspaper publisher
    Zeller - hermit monk; farmer of a large farm
    Zeltknecht - tent-hand
    Zementi(e)rer - cement worker
    Zengener - tongsmith
    Zensor - church censor
    Zerenner - iron founder; smelter; blacksmith
    Zeukraemer, -kramer, -kr"mer - cloth merchant
    Zeugmacher - clothmaker
    Zeugschmi(e)d - toolsmith
    Zeugwahrter - cloth inspector
    Ziechner - linemaker
    Ziegelagent - brick dealer
    Ziegelarbeiter, -brenner - brickmaker; tilemaker
    Ziegeldecker - roofer
    Ziegeleibesitzer - owner of a brickyard
    Zieg(e)ler - brickmaker
    Ziegenmenger - goat trader
    Ziegerer - cheesemaker
    Zielke - cabbage farmer
    Zigeuner(in) - gypsy
    Zimberman(n), Zimmermann - carpenter
    Zimmerer - carpenter
    Zimmergesell(e) - apprentice carpenter
    Zimmerhauer - lumberjack
    Zimmerknecht - apprentice carpenter
    Zimmerling - carpenter
    Zimmermaedchen - domestic servant, female
    Zimmermaler - interior painter
    Zimmermann - carpenter
    Zimmermeister - master carpenter
    Zinkenist - bugler
    Zinsbauer - farmer who pays tithes
    Zinsherr - lessor; landlord
    Zinswucherer - userer
    Zirkelschmi(e)d - compass-maker
    Zitzweber - cotton weaver
    ZM - abbr. for Zimmermann (carpenter)
    Zmurde - Slavic servant
    Zoeller - customs official
    Zoellner - toll collector
    Zoewerer - weaver
    Zofe - chambermaid
    Zollbeamte - customs official
    Zolleinnehmer(in) - toll collector; collector of customs duty
    Zoeller - customs official , toll collector
    Zollfahnder - customs inspector
    Zollinspektor - customs inspector
    Zollmeister - customs officer
    Zommacher - beltmaker
    Zoewere - weaver
    Zuechner - linenweaver
    Zuechter - breeder
    Zuechtiger - hangman
    Zuckerbaecker - pastry baker
    Zuckerimporteur - sugar importer
    Zuckersieder - sugar maker
    Zuechner - linenweaver
    Zuechter - breeder
    Zeuchtiger - hangman
    Zugeherin, Zugehfrau - cleaning woman
    Zueglin - trainee
    Zunftbuerger citizen and guild member
    Zunftmeister - chief warden of a guild; master of a guild
    Zunftpfleger - warden of a guild
    Zwillinge - twins
    Zwirner, Zwirnmacher - threadmaker
    Zwischendeckspassagier - steerage passenger

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