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THIS AND THAT GENEALOGY TIPS ON IMMIGRATION AND PASSPORTS #2



If you remember "I" for "into" is Immigration and "E" for Exodus is Emigration - then you will know whether you are coming or going.


Passenger Lists includes Overland Trails site at
http://members.aol.com/ssmadonna/ships.htm


A group of volunteers have been transcribing passenger lists and posting them to a website. Go here to see them - ISTG - Ships Passenger Lists or http://istg.rootsweb.com/index1.html. It is their goal to post passenger lists to this site in an attempt to allow researchers to access them online. If you know anyone who has a copy of a passenger list for their ancestor(s) and they'd like to see it posted to this site, please reply to Beverly at BZanon@aol.com. She will see to it that it gets posted.


THE SHIPS LIST:
If you subscribe to and post your questions to the TheShipsList-D-request@rootsweb.com , you will receive directions from the various list owners and members as to how to find your information.


PASSENGER LISTS/SHIPS:
http://www.primenet.com/~langford/gen_page.htm (Passenger Lists)
http://members.aol.com/dcurtin1/gene/winthrop.htm (Passenger List of the Winthrop Fleet 1630)
http://members.aol.com/dcurtin1/gene/lyon.htm (Passenger List for the Lyon 1632)
http://members.aol.com/dcurtin1/gene/grifin34.htm (Passenger List for the Griffin 1634)
http://members.aol.com/dcurtin1/gene/planter.htm (Passenger List for the Planter 1635)
http://members.aol.com/dcurtin1/gene/martin38.htm (Passenger List for the Martin 1638)
http://members.aol.com/rprost/passenger.html (Passenger Lists on the Internet)
http://members.aol.com/calebj/mayflower.html (Mayflower)
http://freespace.virgin.net/alan.tupman/sites/ships.htm (Passenger Lists)
http://www.jps.net/johnmcg/passenge.htm (Passenger Lists)
http://www.qrz.com/gene/www/emig/ham_pass.html (Hamburg Passenger Lists)
http://home.att.net/~arnielang/ship04f2.html
http://www.ristenbatt.com/genealogy/shipind.htm (PA-Germans)
http://www.sixranch.com/help/shipslists.html
http://members.tripod.com/~rosters/index-16.html
http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/5978/Emigration.html
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Parthenon/5327/shiplists.htm-Irish GenWeb site at least a hundred links to transcribed logs etc (not just Irish)
http://www.hal-pc.org/~dcrane/txgenweb/passenge.htm (German-Texas Immigrant Passenger List)
http://www.Cyndislist.com/ships.htm
http://www.cimorelli.com/pie/start/start.htm
http://www.libertynet.org/balch/static/html/ship_manifests
http://pixel.cs.vt.edu/library/ships/
http://genealogy.org/~ajmorris/ireland/freemg/htm
http://genealogy.org/~palam/ia_index.htm
http://dcs1.uwaterloo.ca/~marj/genealogy/thevoyage.html
http://www-personal. umich.edu/~cgaunt/pass.html
http://www.ancestry.com (Check free lists at their web site; For paid members-has several shipping and immigration lists including Wuerttemburg Emigration Index-7 volumes from 1780-1900)
http://www.rootsweb.com/~ote/indexshp.htm (Olive Tree-especially early colonists)
http://iigs.rootsweb.com/immships/index1.html (Ships Passenger Lists)
http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~george/johnsgermnotes/germhis1.html (Germanna Immigrants to Va in 1714 and 1717)
http://istg.rootsweb.com (Where you'll see the results of the transcription guild's labors as well as links to other sites.) Emigration-Ships: Subscribe to "name" at Emigration-Ships ListServ Group at majordomo@northwest.com

Cunard's Archives - ship/passenger record - http://www.liv.ac.uk/~archives/cunard/chome.htm

To Request a search of the Passenger Arrival Records in USA e-mail your request for Form 81 from the National Archives - NARA - to: Inquire@nara.gov -They need your postal mail address

Steamship Historical Society of America Collection, University of Baltimore Library, 1420 Maryland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21201, http://www.sshsa.org/, Photos of ships can be ordered from the Library for a nominal fee.

More Information is available at http://www.ubalt.edu/www/archives/ship.htm


Notes from Carla Heller - Researchers who are seeking arrival records for passengers disembarking at the popular port of *New York* for a particular period DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO AN INDEX for these records. This makes it extremely difficult to track down the arrival records you may seek, unless you are already aware of a specific date of arrival for your ancestor of interest. For the period of *New York* arrivals from 1847 until June 16, 1897, it is my understanding (gleaned from U.S. National Archives publications on the subject) that NO INDEX OF ARRIVAL RECORDS HAS BEEN CREATED, and researchers will thus face the task of having to study the voluminous individual pages of the arrival records *themselves* to locate an entry for an ancestor. To the best of my understanding, names in the arrival records *DO NOT* appear in alphabetical order. I believe the records are organized according to date of arrival, port of arrival, and (likely) ship of arrival.

Certain indexes ARE available for New York for both *earlier* and *later* arrivals than the period 1847 to mid-June 1897. The lack of indexes for other years might not be a matter of major concern to researchers, were it not for the significant proportion of immigrant arrivals in the port of *New York.* While it was not the ONLY East Coast port of arrival for European immigrants, it certainly was the *busiest* one. With lack of any index for a 50-year period of arrivals, we are speaking of a considerable obstacle to one's research, unless a specific date of arrival is already known.

U.S. arrival records DO NOT frequently include the name of the *specific town of origin in Europe* for a passenger. Michael Palmer, who is a recognized authority on this subject, recently posted a message stating that, "The port of departure is almost always given on *original* passenger arrival manifests..." Though obviously referring to *ports of departure*, Mr. Palmer does not mention whether a *place of origin* (meaning, a person's hometown or place of birth) is commonly specified in U.S. arrival records. I am of the understanding that, while place-of-origin information is often found in European *departure passenger lists*, it does not commonly appear in *U.S. arrival lists.*

For researchers who DO NOT KNOW a specific date of arrival during the above-stipulated period in *New York* for an ancestor, having to locate an arrival record *without* the aid of an index would be far more difficult and time-consuming than simply "taking a stab" at researching the Baden Emigration Index on LDS microfilms for ancestors who are known to have emigrated from Baden. The Baden Emigration Index on microfilm is arranged in alphabetical order by surname, and also according to a particular range of years---either BEFORE or AFTER 1866. The films are therefore considerably easier to search than an *unindexed* set of passenger records which are not organized in a similar manner.

Please maintain an awareness of possible obstacles with which someone researching U.S. arrival records may be faced. If one already knows WHEN an ancestor arrived, or does not mind the necessity of labor and time-intensive research if there is no record index available, such obstacles will not be of concern to you.

Be sure to visit Carla's web page at How to Use LDS Family History Library Microfilm of the Baden Emigration Index


DEFINITIONS OF IMMIGRANT GROUPS:
HESSIANS: German Troops used by the British in the Revolutionary War, many of whom deserted and remained in America.

HUGUENOTS: French Protestants that fled from persecution mainly from 1685 onward. They went to Prussia, the German Palatinate and then came to America. Those in the French West Indies escaped to the southeastern coast of America, others went to England and Ireland.

MENNONITES: A Swiss Protestant group founded in 1525 and migrated by way of Alsace, England and Russia to America. They settled in Pennsylvania, Minnesota and Kansas.

MORAVIANS: The United Brethren is a Protestant group formed in Bohemia about 1415 and spread to Poland, Prussia, Germany and England.

PALATINES: In 1688 Louis XIV of France began persecuting German Protestants on the west bank of the Rhine River. Queen Ann of England helped a group to come to America in 1708. More than 2,000 arrived in New York in 1710 and settled along the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers.

QUAKERS: The Society of Friends was founded in England in 1648. Early restrictions brought them to New Jersey in 1675 and some 230 English Quakers founded Burlington, N.J. in 1678. 1681 was the year William Penn was granted the territory of Pennsylvania and within two years there were about 3,000 Quakers there.

SCOTS-IRISH: The descendants of the Presbyterian Scots that had been placed in the northern counties of Ireland by British rulers in the early part of the 17th century. Most came to America from 1718 until the Revolution. Settling in Pennsylvania first, the movement was then to the south and then westward with the frontier.

WALLONS: From southern Belgium, the language of the Wallons is a French dialect. Cornelis May of Flanders, Holland and about 30 to 40 families came to America in 1624 and Established Fort Orange, now known as Albany, NY.


SOME RESOURCES:
Temple - Balch Center for Immigration Studies Philadelphia, PA , (scholarly immigration archive founded by Philadelphia Orphans Court in 1971 to fulfill Balch family wills; mission to document and interpret American immigration history and other ethnic life with photographs, foreign language newspapers; originals of NY passenger arrival lists (being published as Germans to America, Italians to America and Migration from the Russian Empire).

Germans to America currently ranges from Vol. 1 - January 1850 to Vol. 58, April 1890. New volumes are published as the work is completed.

Italians to America begins January 1880 and will eventually go to 1899. Vol. 9, through June 1896 is out.

Migration from the Russian Empire for arrivals at NY, currently cover Jan 1875 through May 1889. They will eventually go through 1910. The Genealogical Publishing Co. of Baltimore is publishing this series.

All of these books are essentially arranged by ship, from what port and port of arrival, date of arrival; name of immigrant, age, occupation, place of origin, and destination. Very few place of origins include a town, they generally are a state (Bavaria) or country (Germany, Russia). The relationships of people of the same name traveling together are not given, nor were they asked for when the lists were made.

Note that the Germans and Russian Empire books cover all the territory where Polish people lived. By Germans, they mean all people originating in Austria and the German Empire. I've looked at the Germans series, and there are lots of Polish surnames in them. The same goes for the Russian Empire series.

When using the books, remember to look under all spelling variations of the surname, and check several years around the date you may have found in the Census for date of arrival.

If your local library doesn't have these books in their genealogy collection, ask that they purchase them! The main LDS Library in Salt Lake City has these books. They are not currently on microfilm, as they are still being published. For those in the Chicago area, the Wheaton Public Library has them.

Most aliens became citizens within 10 years of the time they were eligible. Before 1906 the records were kept by federal, state and local courts. There is a book that summarizes these records on file for each state: "Locating Your Immigrant Ancestors:A Guide to Naturalization Records" by James C. and Lila Lee Negles. You can obtain this from Everton Publishers, Inc. or your local intra-library loan program.

To find the ship or port, check the Index to the Passenger Lists available at your local Family History Center and most large genealogical libraries. You can request a search of the Passenger Arrival Records by requesting Form 81 from the National Archives or e-mail your request for the form to: Inquire@nara.gov - be sure you give them your postal mailing address.


IMPORTANT DATES REGARDING NATURALIZATION:
1790
Citizenship required a two year residency in the U.S. and one year in the state, to be of good character, and to be performed in a court of record.

1795
Additional requirements were added of a 3-year residency to file a declaration of intention,a 5-year residency requirement (with 1-year in the state of residence) to file final papers,and required renunciation of titles of nobility and foreign allegiance. This act provided derivative citizenship for wives and minor children.

1798
Additional requirements stated that a copy of the return was to be sent to the Secretary of State, and the residency was increased to fourteen years. This was repealed in 1802.

1804
Widows and children of an alien who died before filing his final papers were granted citizenship.

1824
The residency time between filing a declaration and final papers was shortened to two years.

1855
An alien female who married a U.S. citizen was automatically naturalized. This was repealed in 1922.

1862
Aliens over 21 who performed military service in the Army could become citizens after one year’s residency.

1868
African Americans became citizens by passage of the Fourteenth Amendment.

1872
Alien seamen serving three years on a U.S. merchant vessel could be naturalized without fulfilling a residency requirement.

1882
Chinese were excluded from becoming citizens. This was repealed in 1943.

1891
The Office of Immigration was established. Polygamists, and those convicted of certain crimes or who carried certain diseases were excluded from citizenship.

1894
Aliens serving in the Navy or Marine Corps could be naturalized under the same conditions of the 1862 law.

1906
The Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization was established. Alien registration was required. Residency requirements were changed to two years to file intent, and five years for final papers. Derivative citizenship was still practiced.

1907
A female U.S. citizen who married an alien lost her U.S. citizenship and took on the nationality of her husband. This was repealed in 1922, but citizenship was not restored until 1936.

1918
Aliens serving in U.S. Forces during World War I could be naturalized without any residency requirement.

1921
The first Immigration Act to establish quotas of immigrants based on national origin was enacted.

1922
Women 21-years of age and over were entitled to citizenship. Derivative citizenship was discontinued. The residency requirement to file a declaration of intention was waived.

1924
The Citizen Act of June 2, 1924 provided that “all non-citizen Indians born with the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby declared to be, citizens of the United States.” This included Indians living on tribal reservations.

1940
The Alien Immigration Act required registration and fingerprinting at a local post office within 30 days of arrival.

1952
The Immigration Act Amendment abandoned the national origins system of setting quotas on ethnic groups.

Note: Naturalization is voluntary. According to Census Bureau - of the foreign born persons listed on the 1890 through 1930 censuses, 25% had not become naturalized or filed their “first papers.


WESTERN COURT DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA:
The Western Court District of Pennsylvania was established by Congress in 1820, with its seat at Pittsburgh. The US circuit and district courts that met there from 1820 to 1906 generated the declarations of intention and petitions for naturalization that are now in the custody of the FARC Philadelphia. These records are filed chronologically either by the date of the declaration or, if the naturalization action was completed by the same court, by the date of the petition. It should be noted that some of these documents are missing.

The indexes here microfilmed refer only to those aliens who sought naturalization in the US Circuit and the US District Court (1820-1906) for the Western District of Pennsylvania, which were located in Pittsburgh. However, an alien could seek citizenship through any court of record. Therefore, it was possible for an alien living in Pittsburgh to seek naturalization through the city or county courts in Pittsburgh. The city of Pittsburgh stopped the naturalization of aliens in 1906 and the county of Allegheny also relinquished naturalization jurisdiction in 1906. Both courts turned the function over to the Federal Courts. Therefore, these indexes do not contain the names of all those naturalized in the city of Pittsburgh or Allegheny County but only those naturalized in the Federal courts in Pittsburgh from 9 Oct 1820 through 28 Sep 1906. Researchers who wish to seek information on naturalization records from the city of Pittsburgh or Allegheny county should consult: A List of Immigrants Who Applied for Naturalization Papers in the District Courts of Allegheny County, PA 1798-1906. This 7-volume work was published by the Western PA Genealogical Society during the period 1978-1982.


BADEN EMIGRATION LIST INDEX from Carla Heller Los Angeles:

The exact title of the publication on LDS microfilm is shown (in German) in their card catalogue as "Auswanderer, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert," which *roughly* translates as "Emigration, 17th-20th Century." The author is shown as "Karlsruhe (Baden). Auswanderungsamt," which, again *roughly* translated, refers to the office(s) where residents of Baden (the former grand-duchy) registered when leaving the country and emigrating elsewhere. The microfilms are of original records in the Badischen Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe, and were filmed by the LDS Family History Library in 1978.

This is a multi-film (38-roll, 35 mm) series of "card indexes and emigration lists for Baden, Germany to all parts of the world," (to give the language taken directly from the LDS Library's description). In general, the films are of good quality, and most of the data is typewritten or machine-printed, and therefore relatively easy to read.

The film series begins with Film # 1180096 and, as noted, contains an additional 37 rolls with separate numbers---not all of them in strict numerical sequence. To know which film(s) to view, a researcher needs to have an idea of whether an ancestor emigrated from Baden either *before* or *after* the year 1866 (the file is divided using that year as a separation point), and the films are in alphabetical order by surname or initial letter of the surname. For example, the first film in the series is for the period *before* 1866, and covers the alphabet from the letter "A" through the surname "DREHER."

There are also films in this series of emigration data for persons leaving Baden *after* 1866 (until 1911, the cutoff date for the filming), which are organized either alphabetically by surname and/or according to the location of the emigration office where the individuals registered---at Baden-Baden, Karlsruhe, Kehl, Altenheim, etc. There are also films in the same series with *completely different sequence numbers* which cover emigration from Baden and the nearby region of Elsass-Lothringen (Alsace-Lorraine), and films which contain some bibliographic material. It is necessary to carefully check the description and numbers of the available films to make sure you are ordering the particular roll(s) which may include the surnames, region, and time period you are seeking.

These films are of the Baden Emigration List *index*----an alphabetical card index with names and various degrees of information about the emigrants---not the actual emigration records themselves. The card index, is, though, quite helpful in many cases. Keep in mind that if you are researching a *common* German surname (such as SCHMIDT, MÜLLER, BAYER, MEYER, HOFFMANN, HARTMANN, MILLER, SCHNEIDER, SCHWARTZ, etc., etc., etc.), you are likely to encounter dozens and dozens of persons with not only the same *surname,* but the same *given* name---so you are well-advised to have some kind of *other* substantiating information about your Baden-origin ancestor, such as a birth or emigration date, parents' names, place of origin, etc. Remember, too, that German (and other) surnames which may seem *unusual* to those of us outside Germany are often quite common within Germany itself. Be prepared to do some detective work to more precisely identify any individuals whom you suspect might be your ancestors---both before and after you take the time to research the Baden Emigration List Index. No one wants to discover that they have been painstakingly researching the *wrong* family---especially years down the line!

The Baden Emigration List Index films are catalogued on the LDS FHC computer (and their conventional card catalogue) under the following headings (they cross-reference each other, but point to the same films:
1. Germany, Baden - Emigration and immigration
2. Germany - Emigration and immigration
3. Germany, Baden, Karlsruhe - Emigration and immigration
4. United States - Emigration and immigration
5. Germany, Elsass-Lothringen - Emigration and immigration

Current loan fees for LDS films vary slightly from one FHC branch to another. It can be $3.00 to $3.50 per roll plus 15 cents per roll additional for postage (as they are sent to the local branch from the main LDS library in Salt Lake City, unless certain rolls are already on permanent loan to the local branch). Check with your FHC branch staff for fee details. The usual current initial loan period for each film is 8 weeks, and they can be renewed (for an additional nominal fee per roll) at least twice. Researchers view LDS films within the local LDS Family History Center branches on the microfilm reading machines available there.


NATIONAL ARCHIVE PASSPORT APPLICATION RECORD INFORMATION:
Since 1798 the Department of State has issued passports to United States citizens traveling abroad. The Department did not, however, have sole authority to do so until an Act of August 18, 1856 (11 Stat. 60), for the first time regulated the issuance of passports.

There was no statutory requirement that Americans obtain a passport for travel abroad until World War I, although an order by Secretary of State William H. Seward prohibited departure from or entry into the United States without a passport during the period August 19, 1861 - March 17, 1862. Many persons did obtain passports, however, because they were required by the countries to which they were traveling or because the traveler wanted the protection a passport might provide. On November 14, 1914, the State Department issued a requirement that American citizens must have a valid passport for travel abroad. This was followed by Executive Order 2285 of December 15, 1915, which gave presidential authorization to the same requirement. Then, the Travel Control Act of May 22, 1918, made the requirement a matter of statutory law. A Joint Congressional Resolution of March 3, 1921, technically ended the wartime restrictions of travel, including the passport requirement. An Act of June 21, 1941, reimposed the statutory requirement, and the "Immigration and Nationality Act" of June 27, 1952, made it unlawful to depart from or enter the United States without a valid passport.

State Department passport records in the custody the National Archives include applications dated October 27, 1795 - November 30, 1812; February 22, 1830 - November 15, 1831; and May 13, 1833 - December 31, 1905; emergency applications submitted abroad 1877 - 1907; originals and copies of passports 1794 - 1901; and applications for special (diplomatic) passports 1829 - 1897. Applications dated 1906 - 1925 are in our Civil Reference Branch in Suitland, Maryland.

Finding aids for these records are incomplete. There is an alphabetical card index for applications dated 1850 - 1852 and 1860 - 1880. For the years 1810 - 1817 and 1834 - 1904 there are also registers and indexes which vary by arrangement. Some are chronological and some are alphabetical by the first letter(s) of the applicant's surname.

For post-1923 applications, please contact the Passport Office, Bureau of Consular Affairs, FAIM/RS, Room 1239, Department of State, 22nd & C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20520. The State Department maintains passport applications starting in 1925, and a name index that begins in 1923. If the passport application you seek was made between 1923 and 1925, the State Department will provide you with an application number, which you should in turn send to the National Archives.

The alphabetical card index for passport applications dated 1850 - 1852 and 1860 - 1880 is held in the Family History Library at Salt Lake City. The computer number in the catalog is 437973, the actual microfilm numbers are 1429876 - 1429903.

Textual Reference Branch National Archives and Records Administration, 7th and Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20408

This information is now also available on the Web at http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~jenkg/family/passport.html


HAMBURG PASSENGER LISTS 1850-1934 WEBSITE: http://www.hamrick.com/names/

Click here Ship Photos

Click here Passenger Lists on the Internet

Click here Immigration Ships Transcribers Guild(ISTG)

Click here Guide to Immigration Records and Ship's Passenger Lists Research Guide

URL's on what the boat conditions were like and the expectations of the immigrant, etc. The sites are:
http://www.hamburg.de/Behoerden/Pressestelle/emigration/englisch/welcome.htm
http://www.bergen.org/Projects/Immigration/index.html


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