For historical purposes the information in this original document is retained, but many additions, corrections have been added to my database as two men were originally confused in the same area at the same time. For the updated database report, please check the more accurate account here.
NOTE: At one time it was thought that Andrew Jarrard married Elizabeth Henderson. We now know that this was a different Andrew whose last name was originally spelled Giraud indicating that it may be a French name. Our family has always claimed to be English. Others claim Irish. According to the LDS records. Andre Giraud was born 24 February 1737 Chr. 1 March 1737/38 New York City, New York married 14 July 1763. Descendants located indicate that this is not the Andrew Jarrard reported here. We now believe that Andrew Jarratt arrived in the colonies shortly before May 11, 1774 when he was bound over to the Governor.
Note: Andrew Jarrett in the county of Sussex, NJ was bound to Governor William Franklin (with others) on May 11, 1774. There are many such references regarding folks bound to the Governor and I believe that this was a legal process that was initiated upon first arrival in the province.
In Sussex Co, Somerset, New Jersey, on 10 August 1780, Andrew Jarrard' signed as witness to the will of John Marlatt. Lydia Marlatt, wife of John Marlatt, is presumably a sister to Andrew Jarrard and it is believed that they also had brothers, John and Thomas but this has not been documented. No further evidence of relationship has been found for these families but relatives, such as brothers-in-law who were not themselves heirs often signed as witnesses to wills.
The earliest settlements in Brooke Co., West Virginia and Beaver
Co., Pennsylvania occurred between 1770-1780; however, the development
of the Ohio Valley frontier was interrupted by the Revolutionary War. To
fight the British, men and materials were needed elsewhere and could not
be spared to protect and expand the Ohio Valley area. When the hostilities
started, frontier forts established between 1766 and 1770 as part of the
frontier system from Fort Pitt to Fort Henry in Wheeling played an important
role against the British. Men went over the mountains to the east to enlist
when the war broke out and returned to the frontier when hostilities ceased.
The victory of the American Colonies brought peace to the frontier, and the Ohio River soon marked the line between settled and unsettled areas. The Indians generally recognized the Ohio River as the boundary between themselves and the pioneers.
A number of Revolutionary War veterans including Captain Oliver Brown, who had led the party which carried off the lead statue of King George II from the battery of New York, found their way to Brooke Co. and received land as their GI rights for military service. Since these land warrants were easily transferred by merely signing them over to someone else, it is not known for sure whether Thomas Jarrard received his land grants by virtue of his own military service at a very youthful age or as a result of his father Andrew's service. Thomas did serve in the Pennsylvania militia, but volunteers who protected the frontier were not entitled to land grants. While it is possible that they were purchased from others, the continued association with high ranking military officers indicates that Thomas obtained these on his own merit or as an heir of his father. Andrew appears to have purchased most of his land and the land warrant issued to him apparently was not redeemed in the area where he lived within his lifetime.
Under the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution, the development
of the upper Ohio Valley was rapid with Brooke Co., and Wellesburg, West
Virginia, sharing in the progress with Pittsburgh, Pa. and Wheeling, W.
A Bounty Land Warrant #9704-100 was issued 7/7/1789 to Andrew `Jarrett' of Pennsylvania for serving as a private in Proctor's Artillery during the Revolutionary War. This warrant was issued 7/7/1789. Land transactions found in Ohio Co., West Virginia (later Brooke Co.) involving Andrew Jarrard have his name spelled as Garrard, Jerrad, Jarard, Jarrett and Jerratt. On May 3, 1790, a land transaction for 132 acres on Tomlinson's Run between John and Catharine Cowen and Alexander McCoy was witnessed by the signature of Andrew Jerred.
Andrew's name is listed on the 1800 tax list as Andrew Jarrett, Washington Co., Pennsylvania, and his sons Samuel and Thomas `Gerard' are listed in Beaver Co., Pennsylvania, neighbors to Joseph Marlatt, who was a son of John Marlatt, whose will Andrew witnessed. Relatives who were not named as direct heirs frequently witnessed wills. Neither Thomas nor his brother Samuel had a dwelling at the time the census was taken in Brooke Co., West Virginia in 1810; where both were listed as heads of households. In 1810, Thomas had one son under ten and another male between 26-45 in his household, possibly one of his younger brothers or perhaps a hired man. Many people of this era lived in forts and went out during the day to work the land and retired to the fort at eventide. Although the two known Jarrett (Garrard) Forts were in Greene County, Pennsylvania and Virginia, there was a closer fort, Fort Atkinson, where they may have lived. By 1810, the ever changing dividing line of counties had now separated the land of father and sons. The local historian of the area assured me that Thomas and Samuel probably had not moved, but that only the boundary line had changed.
1. ANDREW JARRARD
b. ca. 1720-1730 in New Jersey or New York
d. betw. Mar 4, 1807 and June 17, 1807
spouse: unknown (May be descendant of Gershom Buell.)
Children not necessarily in order of birth:
Jarrard, eldest son b. before. 1774
3. Samuel Jarret, b. ca. 1776
4. Joseph Jarrard, b. January 6, 1786 (Bible records of Joseph Jarrard family.)
5. Mary Jarrard, b. ca. 1770 m. Joseph Dilts. Living in Champaign Co., Ohio in 1810
It took a personal trip to Pennsylvania to document Andrew's relationship to Thomas Jarrard, who was living in St. Clair Co., Ill. when he died in 1823.(1). Records pertaining to the estate settlement were found a few miles away across the State line in the Brooke Co., West Virginia courthouse(2) among other entries of various spellings, Jarret, Jarratt, Jerratt, Jarrard, all listed together in the estate settlement of a man named Andrew Jerrard (or Jerratt). When a copy of that estate settlement was obtained, Thomas Jarrard(3), and the names of his brothers and sister were all recorded in the court records(4) as `heirs of their father Andrew Jerrard'.
On May 6, 1793, Andrew Jarrard purchased land in Washington Co. Pa., from the heirs of Duncan McGeehan. The land transfer record in Washington Co., read -- to Andrew Jarrard and the heirs of Gershom Buell(8). This leaves some speculation as to why he made this distinction instead of saying wife or children until we see his will and subsequent transactions between his heirs. The heirs of Duncan McGeehon transferred their remaining interest in this property to Thomas Jarrard, 18 November 1816.
By virtue of a land office treasury warrant No. 9452 originally issued the 30th day of November 1781, the land in question was granted to Duncan McGeehan of Ohio County as an assignee of Henry Magasson, assignee of John MaCune, assignee of James Galbraith, assignee of Joseph Hood, who was assigned of Fortinacus Crutchfield, a certain tract or parcel of land containing 400 acres bearing date the 2nd day of September 1785 lying and being in the county of Ohio, formerly Yohogania on Tomlinson's Run adjoining the lands of Robert Barr, Hugh, William, and John Cowan..... These multiple assignees show how easy it was to transfer these early warrants by merely signing your name and giving the certificate to someone else in payment of a debt of another nature. Nearly four years had passed before it was actually redeemed for land.
Thomas Jarrard paid Samuel, Joseph, and Mary for real estate in 1810. Therefore, this was not the personal property mentioned in the will but was the property owned by Andrew and the heirs of Gershom Buell. From the estate papers, it appears that Andrew may have married more than once. With the evidence here, it appears that the younger children, namely John, Andrew, Jr. Jenny, Nancy, and Betsy were Mary's children and named in the will to receive the personal property. Samuel, the second son between Thomas and Joseph, had remained at home caring for his parents until their death; thus, he received the home plantation. Andrew's children of an earlier marriage and heirs of Gershom Bull would then be Thomas, Samuel, Joseph, and Mary. Joseph was unmarried in 1800 and still living on the home plantation with his mother (or stepmother) and Samuel had not received any prior property or education. This explains the omission of the other children listed in the census record who were heirs of Gershom Bull. Property had been purchased for them father after the death of their mother and/or a grandparent. This may have been their mother's dowry that was invested at the time of Andrew's second marriage. No marriage record that could be proved as Andrew's has been found.
In the documents filed in the settlement of this estate, there were seven different spellings of the name Jarrard. One entry showed Thomas Jerratt transferring his own share to Thomas Jarrard (Jarratt). This was done to legally clarify the different spelling of his name. His land transactions in later years often contained both spellings.
Thomas had married in 1799 at the age of 28 years old in Montgomery Co., Md. By 1800, he and Samuel were both listed as heads of households in Beaver Co., Pa., which had been formed from Alleghany and Washington Counties in 1796. Including John who lived next door this implies a total of fourteen children. At this point, we can positively identify Thomas, Samuel, Joseph, John, and Andrew, Jr. as his sons and Nancy, Jenny, Elizabeth (Betsy) and Mary as his daughters from his will and estate settlement. Another possible son, Joel, surfaces in the Breckenridge County, Kentucky, census records of 1810 that has not been placed in other Garrard families.
Thomas, Samuel, and Joseph may have been counted twice in the 1810 census records, both in Brooke County, West Virginia, and in Breckinridge, Kentucky. The census records were nearly identical in these two counties taken a few weeks apart. The one exception was a female between 10-16 in the home of Samuel. Since Samuel had no female children in 1800, it is assumed this is one of his younger sisters who was visiting them at the time of the settlement of their father's estate. Lending credence to the theory that the sons of Andrew Jarrard moved to Breckenridge County, Kentucky are that their former neighbors in southwestern Pennsylvania were also their neighbors in Breckinridge Co., namely, Vachel Hinton, Samuel Stuckey and Peter, Henry P., John, and Peter, Jr. Peckinpaugh. Vachel Hinton(5) and the Stuckey name show up again as buyers at the sale to settle the estate of Thomas Jarrard in St. Clair Co., Illinois. These same men are found in Beaver Co., Pa. and in the eastern states. Thus, we can conclude that they traveled down the Ohio in late November to Kentucky and crossed over into Ohio shortly thereafter. A normal immigration travel pattern. It was not unusual for sons to move westward soon after receiving their inheritance. It is believed that our family's sojourn in Kentucky was very brief as they moved on across the river into Ohio and on to Illinois.
Joseph and Samuel and their families obtained the cash to move to Ohio by transferring their interest in the Gershom Bull heirs' land to their brother Thomas. Thomas sold one plot of land to Thomas Bailey for one dollar, probably a relative to Robert Bailey, who was a son-in-law of Thomas Jarrard and planning to move to Ohio with Tom Jarrard and his family. When Thomas Jarrard (age 38 in 1810 according to tombstone records, age 51 in 1823 and the Brooke Co. census, age 26-45) purchased property from Samuel, Joseph(6), and Mary Dilts , all were named as heirs of their father, Andrew `Jerrard', late of Brooke County, deceased, although their surnames were each spelled differently in the signatures of the transfers. Andrew's land originally lay in Ohio County, West Virginia, which later became Brooke Co. and eventually Hancock Co., West Virginia. Joseph Diltz and Mary, his wife, were living in Champaign Co., Ohio. Of those who were named in this transaction, only Andrew's son, Samuel, had been named in his will filed 17 June 1807. These three transactions took place, 25 September 1809, 9 November 1809 and 28 May 1810. In the transaction between Thomas Jarrard and Joseph and Mary Diltz it specifically states that for the sum of twenty five dollars they were conveying to Thomas all right, title and interest whatsoever to the said Joseph and Mary Diltz ascended of in and to the real estate of Andrew `Jerrard', late of Brooke county deceased, the `father of the said parties'. (May term, 1810) Joseph signed his name, Mary had to sign with an `X'. Typical of the women of her era.
Samuel Jerrett (26-45 years of age in the 1810 Brooke Co. census; 16-26 in 1800; approximate birthdate 1774) transferred the interest of Samuel and Ruth to Thomas `Jerrat' for twenty dollars and signed with a mark (S) to the name of Samuel Jeratt. Samuel's wife, Ruth, did not sign. Again, it clearly states that Andrew Jerratt, late of Brooke County was the father of the said parties involved in the transaction. (September term, 1809)
Joseph Jerratt (between 16-26 yrs of age in 1810 Brooke Co. census, born January 6, 1786 according to Bible records.) and Rachel (Prosser) his wife transferred their interest for twenty dollars, but in this instance Joseph signed with a mark (J. his mark) and Rachel Jerratt clearly signed her name with a flourish, the only female that apparently could write. This leads to the speculation that she may have been a school teacher or the eldest daughter in a family of all girls.
Andrew, Sr. had signed his own name in the will but not with an `X' as many others of that era did. He may have also been the oldest son or may have copied the name from one written by the county recorder which would explain the different spellings of his last name. His eldest son, Thomas, was well educated and consistently wrote his name, Thomas Jarrard, in a fine penmanship. Although his two brothers and sister, Mary, signed their respective documents with a mark, Tom had evidently taught his brothers to make the first initial of their name instead of the usual `X' of the uneducated.
Education was considered part of an inheritance as it was a custom among the pioneers to educate one son so he could cast accounts and handle the family's business affairs. Thomas already owned considerable property and had less financial need for his father's inheritance than his siblings at this time although after his death his children were less fortunate.
Andrew, Jr. is identified with the location of a 1797 will of John Sharp, of Hopewell Twp., Washington Co., Pa., that was filed in Champaign Co., Ohio. naming his children, Mary Girvin, Agnes Ramsey, John, Margaret, Janet, and Thomas. He also mentions his son-in-laws, Andrew Garret and Joseph Sharp presumed to be the husbands of Margaret and Janet. John Sharp was still living in Washington Co., Pa., but his will was also filed in the county where his children were living. An Andrew Jarrard was located in the Ohio census records. Presumably, Andrew, Jr. married either Margaret or Janet Sharp and moved to Champaign Co., Ohio. John Gerard married Mary J. Osborn, June 5, 1848 in Champaign Co. and Ruth E. Jerard married Hamilton J. Hodges, December 17, 1847. Apparently, these were Andrew's children. However, it is possible that Ruth may have been Samuel's widow as we lost track of him after 1820.
Joseph and Mary (Jarrett) Diltz were living in Champaign Co. when Joseph died in 1824. In his will, Joseph Dilts(z) named his wife, Mary, and sons John, Samuel, Wesley, Jarrard, and Wilkinson and daughters Susannah Crone, Sarah, Rebecca, Elizabeth, and Cynthia. Elizabeth married Samuel B. Clark, March 15, 1849 and John Diltz married Mary Ann Adams, September 14, 1843. Descendants of this family have been located and contributed their families to my research
Another reference(7) states that "John Jarrett, the first of the family of whom we have knowledge, was of English descendant, a native of New Jersey, who came to Monongalia Co., West Virginia, at an early day. He lived near Ice's Ferry, and by trade was a millwright. He constructed a waterwheel which propelled the blast of the `Old Furnaces' at Quarry Run on the Brandonville and Morgantown Pike Road. He married and had eight children: William N., b. 9-27-1812, d. November, 1892; George B. died in 1908; John N. died in Pittsburgh; Andrew M. died in Missouri; Thomas M. d. 1910 in Pennsylvania leaving 81 descendants; Henry D., deceased; Sarah, deceased; Elizabeth, deceased; Nancy, still living in 1912; and Ellen, deceased." The children's ages and names, similar to the children of Andrew and Thomas, leads me to believe this may be Andrew's son, John, mentioned in his will.
Another John Jarrard, of Sussex Co., New Jersey, where Andrew was in 1780, married Mary Parke 15 February 1785. Thomas would have been only thirteen at the time so this is believed to be an uncle, not his brother since the estate settlements indicate he was the eldest son. John had a son Jonas, b. 4 June 1786 m. Mary Bird on 2 August 1807. She died and he m 2) Eriminah Dalrymple 22 Sept 1821. She was born 17 March 1793 and died 1 July 1844. Jonas remained in New Jersey raising a family of eleven children from his two wives.
The multiplicity of duplicate names found in this area makes it necessary to clarify some family relationships early in our story. Elias Garrard was an old Indian fighter who lost several of his sons fighting in the Revolutionary War and in the many Indian skirmishes. Joseph was his youngest son and was well known for his mediation as an Indian interpreter, and should not be confused with the Joseph who was also the youngest son of our ancestor, Andrew and yet a minor at the time of his father's death. Whether the three elderly gentlemen bearing similar last names were related remains unknown. Clearly, these names underwent deliberate changes in spelling to distinguish between the families, however; their names have appeared interspersed as witnesses on opposing family documents and indications are that Elias, John, and Andrew may have been related, but what that relationship may be has not been determined. Names as common as John, William, and Benjamin are of little help in separating these families.
During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a long drawn out border dispute left many people uncertain as to whether they lived in Pennsylvania or Virginia. It was during this era that members of the Jarrard family came to live in this narrow little peninsula area. Originally, this whole area had been granted to the London Company which later became the Virginia Company after its dissolution. When William Penn received his grant, it included the same territory causing considerable friction between the Virginians and the Pennsylvanians. A petition was circulated in 1784 to create a new state called Pennsylvania. A number of the names on this petition are familiar to the author and members of her family. William and Hugh Fulton (uncles of our Harvey Fulton, who was the father of our great grandpa, Hugh Fulton), Benjamin Jennings, my husband's ancestor, and Elias, John, and Joseph Garrard all signed that petition.
When I visited this area in 1986, I stayed at a motel near the site of old Fort Henry in Wheeling, West Virginia and spent several days visiting the libraries and courthouses in Wheeling and Wellesburg, West Virginia and Washington, Pennsylvania attempting to relive the history of our forefathers.
Many settlers passed through this area on their way to the west without leaving any evidence of having lived there, but several scraps of information surfaced concerning our Jarrard family, even though their history had been obscured by the misspelled names and the more widely publicized stories of John Garrard, an old Baptist minister who rivaled our modern day TV evangelists in self edification. The descendants of John Garrard and his son-in-law, John Corbly, whose wife was Abigail Bull, ensured the preservation of their names for posterity by erecting huge, elegant, and obviously expensive marble monuments at their gravesites. These elaborate marble monuments appear a bit incongruous in comparison to the simple headstones of earlier Garrards buried in the Garrard Fort Cemetery. The roughly hewn concrete stones with crooked little letters and dates scratched in them with a nail or sharp tool were far more impressive in my eyes when I visited this ancient cemetery. However, I won't be too intrepid with my judgment of this subject, because the appearance of the Bull name in our family records casts some suspicion that they, too, may be our relatives.
John, Elias, and Andrew and their sons all had sons named John according to their wills, thus the positive fate of Andrew's son, John, remains unknown. Andrew's daughter, Jenny, had married a Robinson and was somewhat estranged from the family as she was to receive her portion only if she returned home to claim it. A Robinson family lived next door to John Garrard in Greene Co.; however, the Corbly family claims this John Garrard as the son of John Garrard, the evangelist from Berkeley County, Virginia. One of the men by the name of John Garrard went to Kentucky as a Baptist minister and was killed by the Indians. Another John Garrard moved to western Ohio. At his demise, he owned only his horse and saddle and had been living with his children in recent years. The records did not name these children.
One of John Garrard's daughters, Mehitable, married a John Garrard. Is it possible she married Andrew's son, John? Cousin marriages were common in the pioneer days as that was often the only spouses available in their area. With the meager court records, it was impossible to definitively separate the multiple men named John Garrard.
Local Virginians told me there were two Jarret families (Jarrard is pronounced Jarret or Garred in Virginia as the third `r' is silent in old English), one honorable and the other not so honorable, and the church goers weren't necessarily the honorable ones. The man who now owns the property surrounding the old Garrard cemetery was openly scornful of this particular branch of the family, he did not elaborate on the matter, but contended that many of the heroics depicted in the history books was pure fiction. The little brick church where John Garrard and his son-in-law, John Corbley, preached and solicited generous contributions from their parishioners still stands in the tiny town of Garrard's Fort. Remnants of the old fort and a crude little tepee of weathered boards still mark the entrance to the graveyard, but unpainted as they are, some question exists to their authenticity. Like the huge incongruous granite monuments marking the graves of these two men, the originals may have been replaced at some period in history. The old brick home looks quite authentic, and as a youth, the present owner had known an elderly lady who remembered when it was built after the reign of John Garrard in this tiny little Greene County community. She, too, is now buried in the Garrard Cemetery.
Prior to an expedition by General Braddock, the area in Beaver Co., Pennsylvania was sparsely settled with only a handful of early immigrants mostly from the eastern states. Among the more prominent settlers were the Scotch Irish who did much to give caste to the settlements. These early settlers encountered many hazards and difficulties in what was yet wilderness. Block houses were built for refuge quite different from the Indian forts. These blockhouses, built of round logs, were capable of resisting the Indian arrow. Cabins were also built from round logs, interstices were chinked and dabbed with common clay mixed with grass and straw. The chimney was usually on the outside and was made of split logs dabbed heavily with clay mortar. The fireplace was lined with stone and clay to prevent them from catching fire. If there was a floor to the cabin, it was made with split logs and hewn to shape. One window provided light and there was only one door hung on wooden hinges with a latch and string. When the latch string was drawn inside, it prevented entrance. Thus, the latch string hanging out was a sign of welcome to the cabin. Cupboard ware was of pewter and the bedding was brought to the settlements, but there were no bedsteads except for those made by few tools from split logs after their arrival to their new homestead.
Reverend Doddridge remarks in his diary that: "The furniture for a table, for several years after the settlement of this country, consisted of a few dishes, plates and spoons; but mostly wooden bowls, trenchers, and noggins. If these last were scarce, gourds and hard shelled squash made up for the deficiency. The iron posts, knives and forks were brought from the east side of the mountains along with salt and iron on the packhorses.
`Hog and hominy' were proverbial of the dish of which they were the components. Johnny cake and pone were the only forms of bread in use. At supper milk and mush was the standard dish. When milk was scarce as it often was due to the scarcity of milk cows in the area, mush was frequently eaten with sweetened water, molasses, bear's oil or the gravy of fried meat. Rye grains or bread crusts were often used to adulterate or replace coffee."
The primitive mode of navigation on the Monongahela River was a simple Indian canoe and was highly dangerous. Indians lurked on the high bluffs ready to attack and would even dress up in an old man's clothing to lure settlers to shore pretending to be an escaped captive.
An interesting court record in Brooke County gave Jonathan Palmer permission to establish a hotel then called an "ordinary" and ordered the prices be set as follows: Breakfast and supper, twenty cents; lodging, five cents; and one half pint of whiskey for nine cents. MARYLAND CONNECTIONS
In view of the record of Andrew's son, Thomas, and Rebecca (Fee) Jarrard's marriage in Montgomery Co., Maryland, I will include a Thomas Jarrett, who emigrated from Virginia with his wife Elizabeth and three children, Thomas Jr., John, and Mary to Maryland in 1679. We also find a John and Thomas Garratt traveling by ship from New York to Maryland in 1663 and 1666. These two men made several trips around this area. The history books indicate a number of Garratts living in the area around Baltimore, but only a few names have been extracted thus far. Thomas could have returned to the area to visit other relatives and met Rebecca or have traveled there with the militia as the Fees lived in the Baltimore area and Colonel John Fee was prominent in military affairs. William and George Fee had migrated to southwestern Pennsylvania before this marriage took place. Not knowing for a certainty who Rebecca's parents are leaves us up in the air on this matter.
In the inventories of the Prerogative Court of Maryland 1760-1763 we find a will of a Mary Jarrad, widow of James Jarrord, naming John Garrat and Edward Garrett as next of kin and Thomas Garatt as executor. James Jarrord had written his will Jan. 23, 1766 and it was probated in August of the same year. Edward Garatt died in 1767 and again names Thomas Garrett as executor, also written Garret and Garrat.
We also found Rev. Thomas Gerard receiving money for the use of the Roman Catholic Church. We assume then that he was a Catholic priest; therefore, not an ancestor.
Rebecca Jarrard, daughter of John Garrard, deceased, married Benedict Calvert in 1733. And court records show a Joseph Gerard showing up as a witness on records. But no documentation has been located for Andrew's parentage in Maryland. The most frequent names found as parents of other Jarrards in the area are the names George and John.
John Garrard has frequently been credited as the progenitor of those of that name or similar names in that area; however, no evidence of surviving male heirs have been located for Thomas Gerard of St. Mary's Co., Maryland lying on the other side of Baltimore, whose lengthy story is told in Volume I. His son John, had an only son John, who named his wife and young stepsisters and brother in his will. The Maryland Archives indicate that John, Sr.'s brothers had no male heirs.
The 1790 census records of Montgomery County, Maryland show John Garrett, William Jarrett, and Sam Garrot. William Jarrett has 3 males under sixteen, 4 males over sixteen, and 4 white females. John has 3 white males under 16, 2 males over sixteen, and 1 white female. Sam had 3 males under sixteen, 1 male over sixteen and 3 females. John and William both had a number of slaves. I might add that this Sam could not be Thomas' brother who was under 26 in 1800. These men are all of Andrew's generation or older.