|BARCLAY, c.1351-aft. 1620||Related Families: Keith | Graham | Strachan | Wishart | Irvine | Auchinleck | Auchterlony | Rait | Erskine | Forbes (Fobes)|
It was from the manor of Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, of which he was appointed Provost by Earl William fitz Osbern, the Conqueror's kinsman, that Roger de Berkeley took his name. The castle of Berkeley (in whose dungeon Edward II died) was started by his sons and completed by his grandson. But what was their ancestry? Where were the origins of the de Berkeleys in England, the Barclays of that Ilk in Scotland? Mrs Platts demonstrated that before the Manor of Berkeley gave them their new name, they almost certainly bore that of the family of Adeliza, the first wife of their benefactor, Earl William. Adeliza de Tosny had two brothers, Roger and Ralph, (and nephews also who bore those same two names, traditional in the family). Roger and Ralph are the names recorded as those of the builders of Berkeley Castle, and the Tosny family, of the Flemish nobility exiled from Hainault to the Seine valley, were famous castle builders. (Belvoir was another fine example of their work.)
The influence of the Tosny family in England, based substantially on the success of their military doctrine (and contrasting oddly with the later Quaker traditions of their descendants), was immense. Robert de Tosny built the castle at Stafford, another Robert de Tosny held Berkeley in Somerset (different from the one in Gloucestershire held by Roger) of Roger Arundel (son of Roger de Montgomery "Northmannus Northmannorum", whose descendants were to include the Counts of Ponthieu and the Earls of Eglinton), and another Robert de Tosny, the builder of Belvoir Castle, was the senior guardian at Seaton in Rutland of the future Queen of Scotland, Maud de Lens. When Maud went north as queen of David I, a considerable number of Flemings accompanied her at the king's invitation, and among these were the Tosny cadets bearing the Berkeley name and ifferenced versions of the Berkeley arms.
Mrs Platts proposed a line of descent as follows:
Roger de Berkeley, the first architect of Berkeley Castle, protègé
and either brother-in-law or nephew of Earl William fitz Osbern, m Rissa
dtr of Agnes, Countess of Ponthieu, by Robert de Montgomery, elder brother
of Roger Arundel [see above] and sister of William Talvas, Count of Ponthieu,
(whose son Robert went to Scotland with Walter fitz Alan, founder of the
Stewarts, acquired the barony of Eaglesham and founded the Scottish line
of Montgomery), and had an eldest son, Roger de Berkeley, who continued
the building of Berkeley Castle, and at least one other son, John de Berkeley,
who went north with Queen Maud.
Sir Robert, 6th of Gartley, who was father of:
1st of Mathers 1351, married Katherine
of Sinton. Alexander is the earliest confirmed ancestor of this Barclay
line. Parents of:
5th of Mathers, who, with his uncles Patrick and John, was involved in
the murder and boiling of John Melville of Glenbervie, the arrogant and
unpopular Sheriff of the Mearns 1421. The 5th Laird had Letters of Remission
for his share in the affair, 1 Sep 1421, and died about 1458, father of:
(6) Alexander Barclay, 6th of Mathers, a scholar and poet, (perhaps the first to have the name of Barclay spelt in the modern style) married Catherine, daughter of Wishart of Pitarrow, in Fife, and died about 1497. Alexander left the following advice to his successors:
thou desire thy house lang stand,
And thy successors bruik thy land,
Abive all things live God in fear,
Intromit nought with wrangous gear;
Nor conquess nothing wrangously,
With thy neighbour keep charity.
See that thou pass not thy estate,
Obey duly thy magistrate :
Oppress not, but support the puire,
To help the common weil take cuire.
Use no deceit, mell not with treason,
to all men do right and reason :
Both unto word and deed be true,
All kind of wickedness eschew.
Slay no man, nor thereto consent,
Be nought cruel, but patient.
Allay ay in some guid place,
With noble, honest, godly race :
Hate huirdome, and all vices flee,
Be humble, haunt guid companie.
Help thy friend and do nae wrang,
And God shall cause thy house stand lang.
married 1478, Janet
and died leaving issue one son:
9th of Mathers, married first Mary,
daughter of Rait
He was one of the jury which found Janet Douglas, widow of the 10th Lord
Glamis and daughter-in-law of the 2nd Earl of Argyll, guilty of treason
and witchcraft, whereupon she was burnt alive, 17 July 1537. He died 1560.
Last updated 1998