The story of the Maybury family in Kerry is very much part of the tumultuous history of modern Ireland. Don Collins' book, 'The Mayburys', contains the most comprehensive published study of the family. This summary of the family's history includes some very recent research that will soon be published on the Maybury website.1
The First Kerry Mayburys The Mayburys of County Kerry are sometimes identified as one of the Cromwellian Protestant settler families of Ireland. Although the first Mayburys were Protestants, there is no evidence that any of the Mayburys who worked or settled in Kerry saw service in the forces sent by Oliver Cromwell to invade Ireland in 1649 during one of the last phases of the English Civil War. The Cromwellian subjugation of Ireland did, however, provide opportunities for Sir William Petty (1623-1687), a doctor, scientist, inventor and professor at Oxford University. Petty was made physician-general to the parliamentary army in Ireland in 1652. He later conducted a mapped survey of all Ireland, known as the Civil or Down Survey, designed to facilitate the redistribution of confiscated Irish Catholic lands to English Protestants. As a reward, Petty was granted large areas of land in the baronies of Glanarought and Iveragh in Kerry. He hoped to establish a thriving colony or plantation near the present town of Kenmare, based on agriculture, fishing, forestry and, especially, an ironworks that he established around 1668. It was the opportunity offered by Petty's plantation that attracted Mayburys to Kerry, and Petty and his successors were their employers and landlords.______________
1 Referencing in this article provides a general introduction to the sources used in Kerry Maybury research. For detailed references, see the paper on the Kerry Mayburys in New Research and Don Collins', The Mayburys.
The first Mayburys known to have lived in County Kerry were three hammermen: Thomas, Francis and John Mayberry. They were employed in Sir William Petty's ironworks around 1671. The few records mentioning them suggest that one, probably Thomas, was a very skilled iron-working technician and a leader among the ironworkers. Unfortunately, Petty's dreams for Kerry foundered on harsh realities. His ironworks struggled and, in 1675, he was forced to admit that… our iron, it seems, is ill-made and but little of that, and what is made is squandered away. It's made at excessive charge and sold at less rates'.2By late 1672, the poor management of the ironworks caused the Mayberry hammermen and many of their fellow workers to leave Glanarought and return to their previous workplaces. For at least one Mayberry, this was at Enniscorthy, Wexford, Ireland. In 1677, Petty closed the Glanarought ironworks and relied on rents and timber to extract an income from Kerry.William Mabury It is not until 1686, more than a generation after Cromwell's war had ended, that another 'Mabury' is recorded in Kerry, paying a bond to Richard Orpen, Petty's agent. This was almost certainly William Mabury who, in an affidavit of 1692/3, stated that he had leased a farm at Dromoughty in the parish of Tuosist before 1688. 3 William was the progenitor of the Kenmare Mayburys and, possibly, most of the Kerry Mayburys. Although William Mabury arrived at the same time that Orpen was attempting to reinvigorate iron-working in Glanarought, there is no conclusive evidence that William was an ironworker. Nor is there any conclusive evidence that he was related to the Mayberry hammermen of the 1670s. Petty apparently brought them from Enniscorthy, while William stated clearly that Petty brought him from England. Research is still continuing to establish William's origin and relations. Struggles for Power and Land William Mabury's position as a leaseholder on the Petty Estate was short-lived. In 1688/9, Ireland - and William - was caught up in 'The Glorious Revolution' during which King James II lost his throne to William of Orange. Irish Catholics supported James II and rose in revolt. In Glanarought, Protestant settlers, including William Mabury, fortified the area around Richard Orpen's residence, the 'White House'. They were soon besieged by 3000 Irish Jacobites, forced to surrender and, after some mistreatment, fled from Ireland to Bristol, England.4 After James II (and the Irish Catholic cause) was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne, William Mabury returned to Ireland. He found Richard Orpen locked in a struggle with a Captain Topham to secure the position of agent to the late Sir William Petty's son, Charles Petty, Lord Shelburne. William, at some stage, had married Orpen's sister, Rachel, and he rallied to his brother-in-law's cause, spurred on by Topham's refusal to restore William's lease over Dromoughty. By 1694, Topham had been toppled and William regained Dromoughty - land held by his descendants for almost the next two centuries. William, now in debt, sublet Dromoughty to its original Irish tenant at an increased rent, thus becoming the first Maybury middleman landlord in Kerry - one whose income is derived from subletting leasehold land.Dromoughty, parish of Tuosist, the first land held by the Mayburys in Kerry.In 1697, Richard Orpen in Glanarought and John Mahony in Iveragh negotiated a 'Grand Lease' over the Petty estate with James Waller. Waller was acting for Henry Petty, Lord Shelburne, a minor who had succeeded his elder brother Charles in 1696. Orpen, in turn, sublet a proportion of the Glanarought estate.5 William Mabury became one of Orpen's sub-tenants, leasing Dromoughty and the townlands of Currabeg, Gortnadullagh and part of Gortalinny, and earning himself the appellation, 'gentleman'. A reverse in the fortunes of Richard Orpen and his subtenants came just over a decade later. As social and political conditions settled in England and Ireland, Henry Petty, Baron (later Earl) Shelburne, came to regret granting the 'Grand Lease' and mounted a legal challenge. Land owned by Trinity College Dublin had also been caught up in the 'Grand Lease' and the College began legal proceedings in 1713 to recover its land. William Mabury was forced to accept Trinity College's chief tenant as his landlord over part of his lands in 1714. The threat to his possession of other lands from Lord Shelburne was unresolved when William died sometime between 1719 and 1721/22. The Early Kenmare Mayburys Researching the family history of the early Kerry Mayburys is challenging. Church of Ireland records in Kenmare were destroyed by fire in the early nineteenth century and civil registration of births, deaths and marriages did not begin until 1845 (1864 for Catholics). Census records are only available for most individuals from 1901. Luckily, several genealogies dealing with Kenmare Mayburys were created in the nineteenth century; even so, establishing the accuracy of these has been difficult.6 Much of what is known about early Mayburys has come from piecing together fragments of information gleaned from various public and private records, scattered from England to North America. It is a difficult and on-going process, requiring constant correction and reinterpretation as new evidence emerges. There were probably more children in the first three Kenmare Maybury generations than are identified in the historical record. Researchers know that William Mabury and Rachel Orpen had a son, Richard Maybery of Gortalinny. He leased land in Gortruska townland from Richard Orpen in 1716 and, in the 1740s, was perhaps the first Maybury involved in the Kenmare timber industry. Little else is known of him, except that he had died by 1763 when his three sons were negotiating with Lord Shelburne over the fate of their leases. The most recent research has dismissed a commonly-held belief that he married Petra Duckett. He did marry a Duckett, but not Petra. There is also some evidence that Richard had siblings: probably a sister, Agnes, and possibly a brother, William Maybury. Richard's possible brother, William Maybury, has for some time confused our picture of the third Kenmare Maybury generation. In 1763, Richard's three sons: Augustus, William and John, together with other Protestant sub-tenants under Richard Orpen's 'Grand Lease', surrendered their 'Grand Lease' lands to William Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of Shelburne. Over the next decade, the Maybury brothers signed several documents seeking to obtain secure possession of their land. In 1773, another Maybury: Francis, a gentleman acting for a 'William Maybury, Gent., deceased', joined them as signatories. It was assumed that the 1763 brother William Maybury had died and had been replaced by his son and heir of the same name. Recent research has uncovered documents that have shown this to be incorrect - brother William Maybury of 1763 was alive and well in 1773 and the deceased William was a totally new Maybury.7 Richard's three sons: Augustus Maybury of Gortescrehane or Kilgortaree (Gortree), William Maybury of Cledagh or Cleady (d.1794) and John Mayberry of Greenlane (d.1792), became the heads of three main branches of the Kenmare Mayburys. Various theories have been advanced to explain why John adopted the Mayberry spelling of the surname, none conclusive, but it may have been an attempt by John to socially differentiate his family.A good deal is known of these three Maybury family branches. Augustus Maybury of Gortree's line was short-lived. He died in 1785 and his only son Bastable died some months later. It was Bastable who married Petra Duckett in 1779 and they only had one daughter, Mary. She inherited certain Maybury lands that found their way into the possession of Hawkes family after her marriage to Cornelius Hawkes. William Maybury of Cleady's very extensive line includes the Kingston Mayburys of Slatefield and Firgrove; the solicitor Richard Maybury (d.1886) whose descendants still live at Tubrid, Kenmare; and the descendants of Dr. William Augustus Maybury (1809-1892) who married Clara Constable in 1838 and established his residence in Frimley, Surrey, England. Of the Greenlane Mayberrys, Dr. George Mahony Mayberry (b. c.1814-1816) is the best known. He began his medical career grappling with disease in the midst of the Irish Potato Famine and died in 1880 as one of the largest Maybury landholders in Kerry. Mayburys Elsewhere in Kerry Circumstantial evidence has for some time pointed to a relationship between the Kenmare Mayburys and a Maybury family living at Cloghereen and, later, Lackabane, Killarney. As discussed above, recent research has focussed on a mysterious 'William Maybury, Gent., deceased', who entered the affairs of the Kenmare Mayburys in 1773. He is possibly the father of brothers William (d.1803-7) and Francis Maybury of Cloghereen, Killarney. This would explain the role played by Francis Maybury, gentleman, as his administrator in 1773 and the surge in Maybury investments in Killarney after 1773. Further research is needed and the affairs of perhaps two generations of William Mayburys at Cloghereen in the mid 1700s need to be unpicked. The Mayburys of Cloghereen shifted their interests closer to Killarney after 1773 and the family produced several doctors, solicitors and army and militia officers. The best known of this family are George Maybury of Lackabane (d.1846), solicitor and lieutenant in the Kerry Militia; Dr. Thomas Duckett Maybury (c.1816-1877), a surgeon with the British Army and the Kerry Militia who was twice decorated for bravery, and Lieutenant Richard Maybury (b.c.1824), who died during the Indian Mutiny in c.1857. Another Killarney Maybury family lived on the Herbert Estate, near Muckross, in the 19th century. They appear to have been descendants of William, son of William Maybury of Cleady, and were employed largely in the reforestation of the estate. The best known is the extensive family of James Maybury (1799-1870) and Maria Matilda Shaw (1810-1888).The first four generations of Mayburys at Kenmare, Kerry. Previously, a William Maybury II was thought to have been the father of William Maybury of Cleady. Recent research has found that he was not a member of this family group.The valley of the Roughty River, homeland of the Kenmare Mayburys.Many other Maybury individuals appear in Killarney historical records, but little is known of their family connections or affairs. Certainly, there is not enough evidence to link them with William Mabury of Kenmare. The same can be said of Mayburys living in the Castleisland, Ballyheige and Killorglin-Tralee areas of Kerry. In some cases, enough is known to reconstruct families, such as that of Alexander Maybury and Julia Flynn of Killorglin and Tralee. Their son, Richard (bp. 1828) was a private in the 17th Regiment of Foot and deployed to Canada where he married Jane Miller in Québec in 1856. He apparently returned home with his regiment, then emigrated back to Canada. On the 19th September 1889, Richard, Jane and their young son Richard were tragically killed in the catastrophic Québec Landslide of 1889. Richard was survived by at least four of his children. Maybury Middlemen, Merchants and Mariners During the 18th century, Augustus and William Maybury and John Mayberry held land in the Kenmare area from the chief tenant of Trinity College Dublin and from Lord Shelburne. Probably most of this land was sub-let. As such, the Mayburys were classed as middlemen landlords. By 1853, there was some diversity among Maybury landholders. Mayburys at Gortnadullagh and Gearhanagoul were tenant farmers making a comfortable living. James Kingston Maybury (1810-1875) of Slatefield, later Firgrove, sublet farms, but he also worked his own substantial farm. Rents from sub-tenants supported Margaret Maybury of Cleady and her sisters. Rents also supplemented the incomes of the Kenmare merchant Samuel Kingston Maybury (1809-1863) and solicitor Richard Maybury (d.1886). However, of all the Mayburys, the Greenlane Mayberrys had expanded their landholdings most considerably.John Mayberry of Greenlane did not rely only on tenant rents for his income. During the 17th century, the family became part of a wider economic system, the provisions trade, in which the port of Cork supplied casks of salted beef, pork and butter to the West Indies and to Atlantic shipping. In 1769 John and three partners invested heavily to lease Lord Shelburne's woods, some of which were used to manufacture staves for casks. At least one, possibly two, of John's sons became coopers in Cork and another became a ship's captain, noted for his high-seas adventures. John himself was referred to as a merchant of Cork. In Kerry, John invested in land and a modern building in Lord Shelburne's revitalised town of Kenmare. It appears that John and his son, Duckett, also loaned money to fellow landholders and held their land in mortgage. In 1788, John and Duckett spearheaded a successful campaign to obtain a high measure of security for the sub-tenants of Trinity College's Gortagass Estate.8 John Mayberry's descendants reaped the benefits of all this activity, holding about 4,000 acres around Kenmare in 1852 as well as various lands in Cork. The Greenlane Mayberrys were not the only Mayburys to head to County Cork. Augustus Maybury, a vintner of Cork and probable descendant of William Maybury of Cleady, appears to have invested in property in the Kenmare area. Another member of the Cleady branch of the family, Charles Maybury (c.1816-1878) established a family in Ballyvourney, County Cork. Francis Maybury, son of William Maybury of Cloghereen, Killarney, married into the Hillgrove merchant family of Cork who were also related to the Dumas family, old business partners of John Mayberry of Greenlane. As a result, the Killarney Mayburys acquired substantial property in Cork city. It is expected that future research will trace the ancestry of still more Cork Mayburys back to County Kerry.Woods at Kilgortaree, near the home of Augustus Maybury of Gortescrehane and Kilgortaree (Gortree). The woods of Kilgortaree were harvested in the late 18th century by Duckett Mayberry (d.1804) of Greenlane.
Not all Kerry Mayburys were engaged in farming or sub-letting. Mayburys were also involved in a range of business enterprises. One of the most prominent was Charles John Maybury (1842-c.1908) who, by 1881, operated a bakery, grocery, insurance agency and a flour and meal dealership. Charles established the Kenmare Woollen Mills before losing all in the Munster Bank collapse of 1885. Mayburys also entered the trades. John Maybury (b.1848), the son of John Maybury (d.1880), a tenant farmer of Gortnadullagh, worked as a carpenter at Kenmare. His sisters worked at the Kenmare Workhouse and it was there that John met his wife, Catherine Phelan, whom he married in 1874. Maybury women also made their mark in business. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Catherine (Kate Aldworth) Maybury (1852-1928) was a driving force behind the Maybury family retail business at Kilgarvan and Agnes (Aggie) Mayberry (b.1864) managed the Lansdowne Hotel in Kenmare for many years before inheriting it. Famine and Emigration In 1845 the Irish potato crop failed after being infected by an introduced fungus and serious outbreaks of the 'blight' occurred for several years afterwards. Potatoes were a cheap source of food and the crop had underpinned the Irish rural economy and society and a growing population. The blight caused a famine that claimed the lives of around one million people and transformed Ireland. While there are no records of Mayburys among the starving in Kerry, all Irish suffered the effects of the Famine. The impact of the Famine can be illustrated with reference to the oldest Maybury landholdings at Dromoughty. In 1792, the Maybury and Hawkes families collected rents from about 49 tenants, representing a total of 306 people living at Dromoughty. Approximately four-fifth's of this rent was passed on to Lord Lansdowne (William Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of Shelburne, was created Marquis of Lansdowne in 1784). By 1841, the population at Dromoughty had risen to about 504 persons. However, in the midst of the Famine in 1851, the population fell to about 273 persons. By then, it seems that one Maybury had surrendered land at Coolanaroo, Dromoughty, and the Hawkes family surrendered all of Augustus Maybury of Gortree's old holdings at Dromoughty in 1855. In 1848, Duckett Mahony Mayberry (c1805-1854) of Greenlane's Kenmare Poor Law Union rates were in arrears. Margaret Maybury of Cleady and her sisters had to plead with Lord Lansdowne to meet their rates.9 Elsewhere, descendants of William Maybury of Cloghereen, Killarney, fell into debt and lost their Killarney and Cork properties. The humanitarian impact of the Famine around Kenmare was horrific. In 1847, the dead littered the countryside and the starving struggled into Kenmare town. In 1849, 10,000 people were in receipt of relief and the Kenmare workhouse was overcrowded and overflowing. The newly graduated Dr. George Mahony Mayberry took over medical supervision at the workhouse, which was experiencing outbreaks of disease, and made available the old Mayberry house at Greenlane to house orphaned girls.However, Dr. Mayberry won less acclaim for associating with Lord Lansdowne's agents, the William Steuart Trench and his son, John Townsend Trench. In 1850, William Steuart Trench conceived of a program whereby paupers of the Lansdowne Estate would be offered free emigration to America. The program was poorly planned and executed. The harsh conditions experienced by the emigrants, combined with a history of overbearing management of the estate, gave the Trenches a terrible reputation.10 Emigration had been common enough among Mayburys before the Famine. In the early 1840s Augustus Kingston Maybury of Slatefield (c.1815-1894) and Richard Mahony Mayberry of Greenlane (c.1813-1864) had emigrated to England, the former becoming a surgeon and the latter was a manager of Bass's brewery at Burton-on-Trent. After the Famine, the Kerry Mayburys were caught up in a wave of Irish emigration. Among the Mayburys of Muckross, the family of James Maybury and Maria Shaw favoured Canada as their destination. The young author of a Maybury genealogical paper, Richard Hawkes Maybury (1845-c.1926), chose the United States, as did James William Maybury (1850-1927), one of the Lackabane Mayburys of Killarney. Two sons of John Mahony Mayberry (c.1809-1870) of Greenlane and Mucksna and their neighbour James Purdon Maybury (1865-1953) of Slatefield sailed to Australia. Some Mayburys ventured only a little distance from Kerry: John Maybury, the Kenmare carpenter, took his family to County Laois, Ireland. A few Mayburys later returned to Ireland. Daniel Maybury (1849-1934) of Gearhanagoul returned from England to establish a business and a farm at Peafield, Kenmare. Revolution and Decline In 1852, about a dozen members of the Maybury family controlled, as occupiers or immediate lessors, just over 20% of all the land in the parish of Kenmare. An enormous social and economic gulf separated one of these landholders, Dr George Mahony Mayberry, a Protestant, from his tenant Patrick Sullivan of Currabeg, a Catholic. Patrick had nine acres of land and his house was valued for rating purposes at 5 shillings. The value of Dr George's house, 'Riversdale', was almost fifty times that of Patrick's and Dr. George held about 1400 acres (3160 acres by 1876). Dr. George, his father and his son were all magistrates. He, his son and his grandson attended Trinity College Dublin while eighty percent of Dr. George's tenants at Currabeg were illiterate.11 It was understandable that, for poor Catholics, landholding Mayburys represented the dispossession and injustices of the past: of Cromwell, penal laws and the Protestant Ascendancy - the cause of their powerlessness and poverty.Riversdale in its heyday: Dr George Mahony Mayberry in his trap.Yet two hundred years in Ireland had changed the Mayburys. Dr. George Mahony Mayberry's father, like many Mayburys, had married a Catholic and her surname was bestowed as a middle name on sons and grandsons; two of the former publicly supported 'The Liberator' Daniel O'Connell's campaign for Catholic emancipation in 1829. Dr. George, a sister and a brother were Protestants, but two of his brothers and a sister were Catholics. The sister, Catherine (c.1817-1862), married Denis Brennan, a Catholic, and, after his death, the brother of David Moriarty, the Catholic bishop of Kerry. They were not the only Maybury family in transition: over half of all Mayburys in Kerry were Catholics by 1901 and most Mayburys were not landlords. Indeed, some were less than sympathetic to the landlord class. George Maybury (b.c.1838), boatbuilder and son of a tenant farmer, was moved to join the revolutionary Phoenix Society at Kenmare and was arrested in 1858.Riversdale today, built into a modern hotel, both now closed up and ravaged by vandals and decay.Dr George Mahony Mayberry died in 1880 on the eve of a revolutionary struggle that would destroy landlordism in Ireland and culminate in the Easter Rebellion of 1916 and the declaration of the Irish Free State in 1922. Tenant campaigns, launched under the auspices of the Irish National Land League, aimed to reduce rents, protect the rights of tenant farmers and return land to the tenant farmers. The largest Maybury landholders, Robert Marshall Maybury (1846-1931), son of Dr. Thomas Duckett Maybury of Tralee, and Dr. George's son, Dr. Francis George Mayberry (b.1847) of Kenmare, were obvious targets, despite the latter being sympathetic to reform. The home of Robert Marshall Maybury's mother, Isabella, was attacked and robbed in 1882, an incident of rural violence characteristic of 'The Land Wars'. On the other hand, the various laws enacted to dismantle Irish landlordism in the nineteenth century benefited some Mayburys. Maybury tenant farmers took control of their farms and even old 'middleman' Maybury families were left with viable farms. The Mayburys found themselves sandwiched between contending forces during the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921). Dr. Francis George Mayberry received a series of anonymous death threats from Republicans while Charles Herbert Maybury (b.1885), a farmer, was thrice detained for questioning by English troops. By this time, however, most of Dr Francis Mayberry's estate had been conveyed back to tenants and Dr. Francis generally enjoyed a reputation for fairness in these dealings. Certainly, the Mayberrys did not suffer the attacks on their property commonly meted out to large landowners, such as the Orpens and Lord Lansdowne. Dr Francis died during the struggle in 1920. Sadly, by the turn of the century there were few Mayburys left in Kerry to experience life in the new post-revolution Ireland. Their numbers reduced by emigration, only 43 Mayburys were counted in the 1911 Kerry census, virtually all from Kenmare. As the 20th century progressed, the Maybury houses at Cleady and Greenlane deteriorated and disappeared. Dr. George Mahony Mayberry's residence at Riversdale stayed with the family until the 1960s when it was sold and engulfed by a hotel development; both buildings now languish in a dilapidated state. However, members of the Maybury family remain in Kenmare today and Maybury descendants from across the globe are regularly drawn back to Kerry. __________________________ 1 Petty Papers, British Library, Add. MS 72857, folio 171 recto. 2 W. Petty to P. Bunworth, 15 February 1674(5), postscript to letter, Petty Papers, Vol.19, quoted in T. C. Barnard, ‘William Petty as Kerry Ironmaster’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 82, p. 21. Maybury researchers should also see T. C. Barnard, ‘Sir William Petty, Irish Landowner’, in Hugh Lloyd-Jones et al., History and Imagination: essays in honour of H R Trevor-Roper, Duckworth, London, 1981, pp.206-207. 3 Goddard Henry Orpen, The Orpen Family. Being an account of the life and writings of Richard Orpen of Killowen ... together with some researches into his forbears in England and brief notices of the various branches of the Orpen family descended from him, Butler & Tanner: Frome & London, 1930, pp.99-101. 4 Researchers can access Richard Orpen’s account of these events: ‘An exact Relation of the Persecutions, Robberies and Losses Sustained by the Protestants of Killmare, in Ireland’, reprinted in The Kerry Magazine: a monthly journal of polite literature, Vol.III, No.26, 1 February 1856, p.27. 5 The details of Orpen’s Grand Lease and the subsequent dealings between the Lords Shelburne and Orpen’s subtenants are found in Gerard J. Lyne, Land Tenure in Kenmare and Tuosist 1696-c.1716’, Journal of the Kerry Archaeological & Historical Society [JKAHS], No.10, 1977, pp.19-54; ‘Land Tenure in Kenmare, Bonane and Tuosist 1720-1770’, JKAHS, No.11, 1978, pp.25-55; and ‘Landlord-Tenant Relations on the Shelburne Estate in Kenmare, Bonane and Tuosist 1770-1775’, JKAHS, No.12, 1979, pp. 19-62. 6 The most well-known is contained in John Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.4, London, 1838, pp. vii-viii. 7 This research into the family of Augustus Maybury, Bastable Maybury and Petra Duckett was conducted in the archives of Bowood House, Wiltshire, with the kind permission of the Trustees of the Bowood Collection. 8 Much information concerning the affairs of the Greenlane Mayberrys is contained in manuscripts held by Trinity College Dublin: see Papers relating to College estates, Munster - MUN/P/23/1486; 1486a; 1546. 9 Gerard J. Lyne, The Lansdowne Estate in Kerry under W S Trench 1849-72, Geography Publications, Dublin, 2006, pp. lviii-lvix; 541-542. 10 See Lyne’s account in The Lansdowne Estate in Kerry. 11 Griffith’s Primary Valuation of Tenements and Danny Moriarty, ‘Trinity College Estate in Kenmare parish’ in Kenmare Journal: a bridge to the past, Kenmare Literary & Historical Society, Tralee, 1982.