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The Hardy Family ©

Our family tradition tells us William, our emigrate forefather, is from Down County Ireland and Margaret is the daughter of Lord Ray. They were suppose to be of Scotch-Irish decent. I have received copies of our tradition from sources all across the United States, they all have the same information.

Who were these people who became known as Scotch-Irish? They were Lowland Scots who were encouraged to emigrate into northern Ireland by the English, who were in a long process of conquest against that turbulent island. It had been invaded and partially conquered in the 12th century and was increasingly subjected to English rule from then on. The province of Ulster in northern Ireland became impoverished by this warfare and by the displacement of its wealthier class. Into this depleted land came the tough and thrifty Scotch people and they made it bloom again. They rapidly established villages, schools, churches, producing farms and general prosperity. By 1672 there were about 100,000 of these people later known as Scotch-Irish in Ulster and it was the most prosperous area in all Ireland.

The English's actions towards the settlers of Ulster, whom they had, in essence, placed there, started to turn against them. The land owners repeatedly raised the rent of the Scotch settlers and the Church of England placed humiliating restrictions on non-members, which included the almost entirely Presbyterian Scots.

It was because of these persecutions and a number of poor harvest years that caused the Ulster Scots to look elsewhere for better opportunities in America. From 1717 to 1790 they left Ireland, about 80,000 of them went to Pennsylvania. They came to Cumberland Valley and Juniata Valley.

They were somewhat "clannish" and didn't care to be close to care to either the Germans or the English Quakers. The founder of Raystown which became Bedford was a Robert Ray, he was a Scotch-Irish, the name which was given them to distinguish them from those of pure Irish heritage. Was this Ray father of Margaret Ray?

I have seen the name spelled in our American records many different ways, Hardey, Harding, Hardon, Harder, Harty, and Harden. Mostly it is recorded Hardy and Hardey.

The Hardy or Hardie name is of French, Scottish and English origin, a descendant of Hardi, a short form of Harbouin meaning bold friend and one who came from Hardy (Hard's Island) in Lancashire.

William Hardy Sr

William Hardy's birth I estimate was somewhere around 1750. It seems that William Sr. did not record much with the county which might suggest he was a backwoodsmen. Even so both his sons William and Joseph could read and write, they show up in the county records in different legal matters.

William had a cabin with horses, horned cows, and a still. The settlers back in those days needed a still for household and medicinal reasons along with being a drink. William Sr also eructed a tobacco house on their place. William used this to dry the fresh tobacco leaves he bought from the south, possibly Maryland.

Before William Sr moved to Southampton it is possible that he had 60 acres on the north forks of Turkeyfoot sense 1778, a patent his son William Jr obtained suggested this. William Sr was listed in the 1784 Cumberland Valley tax roll as having 25 acres of cleared land. One year later Londonderry was created from Cumberland Valley. William cleared 25 more acres of his land in this new township by 1787.

In the 1790 census William was listed in Bedford County as head of the household. His son Joseph was nine years old and William Jr was about eleven. There were other females besides their mother Margaret listed in William Hardy Sr's household. Who they are is still a mystery to me, were they Joseph and William's sisters and grandmother? On the 23rd of December in 1793 William Hardy Sr paid off the money owed on his land on the water of Gladden Run and a deed was drawn up. William paid 14 pounds and 10 shilling to James Clark of Bedford for the 330 acres. In all he had 330 acres on the waters of Gladdens Run in what is now Southampton, Somerset County.

In 1795 when Somerset was created from Bedford county, Londonderry was divided in half. Half went to Somerset county and was named Southampton in 1801. The other half stayed Londonderry township in Bedford county. Somerset is located between the Great Allegheny mountain and Laurel hill. It is composed of what they call glades. These glades are level wet lands from the head-waters of the numerous streams that are in this area.

There was some coal mining in Somerset. History of Somerset and Bedford County says the following of the area.......... "The township contains considerable good farming land and is rich in mineral deposits. The coal veins extend throughout the township. In this locality a thickness of coal measure of more that six hundred feet including more that twenty-four feet of coal. The coal is of excellent quality and has been pronounced by experts the equal of any in the state. There are several seams known to exist which have not been fully proved."

A 1814 land deed between Samuel Riddle and William Hardy and others tell us William and Joseph's land was a one time part of a large scale survey called the Great Survey and Smith Lands belonging to Samuel Riddle Party and Trustees of the Juniata Coal Company. It was surveyed and those settlers who had their farms on these lands was required to make deeds in accord to the new survey and patient their land. All mineral rights belonged to Samuel Riddle Party and Trustees of the Juniata Coal Company.

William Sr in the 1820 census was alone, his wife Margaret died between 1810 and 1820. Before William disappears from the tax records in 1822 it appears that the two sections of land he claimed, Turkeyfoot and Gladden Run he turned over to his sons William and Joseph. Turkeyfoot was in William Jr possession and Gladden Run in Joseph's. Only record of William Sr's death is in a release of a quit claim recorded 15 September 1830 between Joseph and William Jr regarding the legacy William Sr left.

William Jr Hardy

William Jr was born about 1779 possibly in Turkeyfoot, Bedford County, Pennsylvania. William Jr was a blacksmith and could have very well entered into an apprenticeship as a young man in Stoneycreek. He was in Stoneycreek from 1800 to 1805. He served time in jury duty and assisted the family in legal matters.

William Jr moved back to Southampton in 1806. He acquired a cabin in Southampton and married Margaret Mull daughter of Henry and Elizabeth Mull. It appears William Sr gave his claim on the North Fork of Turkeyfoot to his son, William. In 1808 William and Margaret moved to Turkeyfoot and raised a family.

William Jr and Margaret had six children Joseph, John, William and possiably three daughters, whose names I do not know. I found in the 1860 census William III, a wagon maker, in Pontoosue, Hancock County, Illinois. I would think he learned his trade from his father the blacksmith.

While still in Turkeyfoot in 1812 William Jr's father-in-law Henry Mull died. William was bondsman in the probate. All the Mull children received a 13th share of 215 acres from the estate. At the end of the probate William Jr took out an application for a warrant on his Turkeyfoot land in 1815, surveyed in 1816 and patented the claim one month later on Feb 13, 1816.

William Jr and his family moved in 1807 to 307 acres called "Thomas Edwards" on the Bush Creek branch of Will Creek in Allegeny, Somerset County. He bought this land from Samuel Shoemaker, attorney of Philadelphia and acquired the deed in 1817.

In 1819 Catharine Mull, William's sister-in-law, was having problems obtaining her part of land that she received from her deceased father's estate. William Jr with the power of attorney she granted him 12 February claimed back the land that was rightful hers from her brother David Mull.

William Hardy Jr was a tavern owner in the 1822 tax records and by 1826 he was operating a saw mill.

William was one of the administrator of probate for Elizabeth Mull, mother of his spouse Margaret who died in 1828. William Jr in 1836 caused some sort of disruption against his spouse. On the 25th of April Margaret entered a complaint, William was arrested and charged with surety of peace. The court fined him one hundred dollars, and held him until he could pay his fine. J. S. Black acted as his surety. The next day William paid his fine and released on the condition he keeps the peace for one year.

Three years later William Jr and Margaret gave Jeremiah S. Black power of attorney to sell their land Thomas Edward. What to them after this is a mystery. Did they follow their sons and brother and go west?

Joseph Hardy

Joseph Hardy was born in 1781 in Pennsylvania, son of William Hardy and Margaret Ray. It is possible like his brother he was born in the north fork of Turkeyfoot.

In 1808 Joseph built a cabin for his new wife Nancy White, my third great grandmother. Nancy was born in Virginia in 1788 and went by the name Ann. Joseph and Nancy had seven children, Margaret who married Levi Baker, Elizabeth who married John Logston, James who married second great grandmother Minvera Tomlinson, Susan who married Erastis Haskins, Joseph Jr who married Betsey Lownsbury, and Lloyd Hardy who married Ann.

Juliana their last child was baptized 28 May 1826 at the Zion's Lutheran Church in Southampton. She is the only one of their children I found to be a baptized.. Was she was sickly and they were afraid she would die on the wagon trail they were about to go on to the West. Juliann died in Jackson, Steuben county Indiana 17 Sept 1838 age 12.

Joseph with his new family farmed what he could. The climate in that region is too cold and the summers too short for raising corn and the principal crops that would be for a ready market. The glades made productive dairy farms. The well-known glade's butter is of this area. William Jr had a good occupation as a blacksmith. The short growing season would not have bother him. Being Joseph was a farmer, I wonder if that was why he chose to go west in search of better growing season.

On 27 of May 1815 Joseph paid off the money owed on his 330 acres in Southampton and a deed was drawn up. This land was adjoining to his father William's land. Joseph then had it patent May 5, 1817.

By March 31, 1830, William Sr had died. Joseph then sold all his land and paid his brother William Jr his part of the inherence. Joseph was now in a position to fulfill his desire to go west.

Joseph and Nancy packed their family into a wagon and left for Logan Ohio. Joseph's daughter Susan married in Logan 10 Feb 1834 to Erastis Haskins. After three years in Logan they packed again in 1836 or 1837 and went to a newly created county in Indiana called Steuben county.

Joseph lived in a village that he owed called Winchester in the Township of Jackson for the rest of his life. He did quite a few improvements to his farm. Joseph's son Joseph Jr helped him build up the farm. They built a barn, planted apple trees and tilled the land to raise wheat. He raised sheep, hogs, cows, turkeys and guinea hens.

Joseph was 66 when he died on 21 Jan 1847. They paid three dollars for his coffin and one dollar eighty-seven cents for the funeral. His estate went to probate and settled in 1850. The estate was auctioned and Nancy received her 1/3 dower which ended up being $150.00, and 16 lots in Winchester. Item that went to auction was one horse and a small wagon. Household items included a bureau, cupboard, dishes, a stand, a table, nine chairs, a clock, looking glass, 2 beds and 3 bedstands. Kitchen items like flour, kitchen furniture and lard were just important and valuable. Other items like bags, box, chest, wheel, flax, 2 cows, one bull, 20 sheep, 27 pounds of scrap teeth, five togs, carpenters tools shovel, 2 hoes, drag, bell, rings, grindstone, guinea hens, turkeys, 6 hogs, pork, wheat and winter wheat told me Joseph was a carpenter and a farmer, total self sufficient.

Three years after Joseph death his beloved spouse Nancy died. Both are buried at Jackson Prairie Cemetery in Jackson Township, Steuben County, Indiana





Judge James Hardy


My great, great grandfather James Hardy, son of Joseph and Nancy, was born April 13, 1813 in Southampton town, Somerset county, Pennsylvania. He spent his earlier years as a boy in Southampton. Before marriage he went to business school







James married Minerva Tomlinson, daughter of Samuel and Margaret Matthew's on Nov 10 1833. They then headed west from Pennsylvania to Logan County, Ohio, joining his father Joseph. James engaged in farming for three years.





James moved his family in 1836. The family included his father, mother and siblings to Steuben County, Indiana One year later Steuben county was created from Lagrange county, Indiana making him one of the first settlers of Steuben county.

James lived in Steuben County for about 14 years. He was a farmer. He was appointed the first constable of Jackson town in 1837. He was also first bailiff in charge of the grand jury in 1838.

James's father Joseph died in 1847, and his mother Nancy a few years later. Joseph's probate was settled in 1850. James then moved his family farther west across the Iowa border to Coonsville, Pottawattamie County, now Glenwood, Mills county.

Mills county was created from Pottawattamie on the first Monday in August of 1851 and James was elected the sheriff and county assessor of this new county. Record shows James was still sheriff of Mills co. in June 1852.

James was not total satisfied in his present location in Mills County. James moved further north in Pottawattamie county in the autumn of 1852. He moved to the site of what is called Magnolia, Harrison County, Iowa. Again he was one of the first settlers of the counties of Iowa.

James entered 160 acres of land in Magnolia and a quarter of Section 15 in Calhoun in 1852. That first winter James rented a house in Calhoun town while he built a log cabin on his 160 acres.

In 1853 James laid out what is known as "Hardy's Addition". In March of the same year James assisted the county seat commissioners in locating the county seat of Harrison county to this place in Magnolia.

By the first Monday of April a full copra of county officials were elected. The return was to be carried to the house of Stephen King to be counted. James Hardy and Thomas B Neeley were appointed to take the poll books from this west side of the county to Judge King's place. Upon this journey they arrived at the banks of the swollen Boyar river. They needed to cross and there was no bridge. They staked out their horses and undressed. They swam the river, keeping their scanty wardrobes and record books above the high water. They dressed and went on to Judge King's place on foot.

James was elected the county's second judge in 1854 and served to 1857. In those days Harrison county was under the county judge system---- a one man power. As a general rule these county judges were men of exceptional integrity. They was held in high esteem , good judgment and were of a high and honorable order - above suspicion.

The county judge system was abolished in 1869 and the county seat was relocated to Logan in 1875. Memories of those days are seen in a large framed picture of the old pioneer courthouse at Magnolia. Surrounding the courthouse are pictures of it's county judges whom served 1853 to 1869.







Under Judge Hardy's administration the first courthouse was built in 1856 in the county's seat of Magnolia, and the town of Clay was organized in 1856. Judge Hardy always took active part in any enterprise that in his judgment would build the interests of Harrison county. He donated land and money to help such matters along. No man was more popular in the county than Judge Hardy as he was always called.

James belonged to a society styled "regulators" that consisted of an organized band of pioneers that became a law of itself. No one would dare to question their authority. The formation of this society was to protect their fellow settler from claim jumpers or land sharks from stealing their land. In their way they sought to see that honorable men seeking homes in their county should not be imposed upon and beaten out of their rights. These claim jumpers were given formal notices that if they did not relinquish all supposed rights to a certain piece of land that they would receive free transportation the great unknown country, whence claim jumpers were never known to return. Sometimes one would presume that this was not legal, but in such cases "judge lynch" tried the case with but little argument, and sentence was at once executed in a near by grove. Those cases of that degree were rare and seldom. The usual outcome was a speedy flight from Harrison county, then a kingdom in itself.

Our Great Grandfather James was noted for his coolness when threatened by Indians. In 1853 visiting Omaha's who were camping along the banks of the Willow. By reason of treaty these were Nebraska Indians. These Indians would annoy the settlers by milking their cows, stealing chickens and begging for several years. Companies frequently were organized to drive the Indians off. Sometimes there would be shooting. Usually no one would get hurt. There was about 150 Omaha's in this band. About 20 warriors that was going up the Willow was made to surrender and sent back to their own country beyond the big muddy. The rest out of the 150 Indians going up the Boyar was much stronger and would not consent to surrender. James Hardy and 25 of the white settlers came upon their camp and demanded a surrender. Realizing they where out numbered the settlers sent for reinforcements, but even then they were out numbered. The settlers then high tailed it out of there, when a few more Indians surprised them from the rear.

James Hardy and Jacob Huffman built one of the first grist mills in Harrison county in 1854. The Hardy mill was erected on the banks of the Willow, on section 15 in Calhoun . Farmers came from a 75 mile radius to have their wheat grind at the Hardy mill. Huffman sold his interest in the mill to James Hardy in 1863. James kept the mill operating until his eye sight failed them in 1880, making it impossible for him to run the mill. The old mill was left still and the waters that once gave the mill life, cut its way under the supports, collapsing the mill into the Willow. It was never repaired but the lumber was used for various buildings. In 1915, the old burrs and part of the machinery still remain at the once prosperous mill.

In 1859 Harrison county agricultural society held its second annual fair near the old courthouse in Magnolia. Their attractions were the products of soil and barn-yard, homemade goods and domestic articles. Some the games played was horse and foot races. There were premiums awarded. James took first place for the best two years old steer winning two dollars.

December 1, 1860 James and Minerva platted out Magnolia city and was recorded and filed January 10, 1861. This was to the west of the original platting which was done under the Authority of commissioners and County judge. Three years later James donated to the town land for a cemetery. Magnolia by 1869 had a population of about 300, with three dry goods store, two hotels, ten carpenters, four blacksmiths, one tailor, a shoe shop, two physicians, two ministers, six attorneys, two jewelers, artist who took daguerreotypes, a copper shop and one plasterer. In the immediate vicinity there was two gist mills and a number of saw mills in operation. Nine mails arrived each week by stage coach.

In 1864 James moved to Calhoun by the Willow. He spent his last years farming and running the mill in Calhoun. Lou told of days as a child growing up around his grandparent and the mill.

In about 1880 James lost the use of his eyesight as a result of sickness and from that time on he gradually grew weaker. Finally he fell into a dreamless sleep. He died May 10,1885. He is buried in the same Magnolia town cemetery he donated to the town.

The history books of Harrison County tell us that of all the pioneer men none were more highly respected than Judge Hardy. He was an industrious man. A good citizen who has filled with credit the highest offices in the county. James was a good, kind father and a considerate husband. A trustworthy friend to all who lived within the radius of his acquaintance.

Tombstone inscription
Section 2 row 6
James Hardy
Died May 10, 1885
Aged 72y 1m 1d
Father rest in peace

Missouri Valley Times


Judge James Hardy, one of Harrison counties oldest and most respected citizens, died at his home near Magnolia, on Sunday last. He was buried on Tuesday last. We have not received the particulars May 15,1885






Samuel Tomlinson Hardy

Samuel T. Hardy, fifth son of James and Minerva Tomlinson Hardy was born on May 1,1848 in Angola, Steuban County, Indiana.

At age two Samuel's grandfather Joseph died in Steuban County. James moved the family to Mills County James moved the family one more time when Samuel was four to Harrison County, Iowa, where Samuel lived out his life. Samuel was a miller, a merchant, in the dairy farming business for 15 years and a district court bailiff for about 20 years.

Samuel married Martha Emma Waldon in 1866. They had three sons, Lloyd M, James Fred, and Lewis Waldon. They lived in Calhoun township, kitty corner to James and Minerva's lot. Samuel worked at the family mill. Grandfather Lou tells his story of life near the Hardy Mill.

Samuel was an expert on the violin and played for the square dances held in Harrison county. It was Samuel greatest past time to meet with the old timers and talk of the early days and the experiences that came to them. He had a clear memory and was a good story teller.

Grandpa Lou was only two years old when his mother past away, March 16, 1871, at a young age of 24. Even though Lou was so young when his mother died, he felt a great loss.

Samuel married a second time to Viola M Vincent on 30 June 1872 in Harrison county. I have heard from a Mrs. Blanche Barrett of Arizona, daughter of Drusus N Hardy, younger brother of Samuel's , that Viola was a very wonderful and well liked by everyone.

Samuel and Viola had four sons however two died in infancy, and two daughters. Ella B, one of the daughters, is the grandmother of the famous entertainer Johnny Carson.

When Samuel was 29, he and Viola moved to Logan township in 1877. Samuel engaged in the dairy business for 15 years and mercantile for 10 years. During this time the family experienced yet two more losses. Lou's oldest brother Lloyd died 4 July 1888 at age 21. James Fred Lou's other brother died age 24 on 27 July 1892.

In 1903 to 1923 Samuel served as district court bailiff in Logan, and this being his last employment he retired at age 75.

Samuel Tomlinson Hardy age 85 died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. C.N. Carson in Logan at about noon Friday July 21, 1933. He was one of the oldest Harrison county residents.





Lewis Waldon Hardy



Lewis was the third and youngest son of Samuel Tomlinson and Martha Emma Walden Hardy. He was born December 5, 1869 in Magnolia, Harrison County, Iowa. Lewis's second name was his mother's maiden name. His nickname was Lou. His older brothers were James Fred and Lloyd M. Hardy.

Lou's mother died 16 March, 1871. His father remarried Viola Vincent 28 June 1872. Lou expressed he did not fancy his step-mother. Lou and his brother Fred spent most of their time with their grandparents, James and Minerva Hardy in Calhoun. He had fond memories as a young boy on Willow Creek near his grandfather's farm and mill. His loving grandfather James died in 1885, Lou was just sixteen. Then three years later in 1888, he lost his older brother Lloyd. Again in 1892, he lost his very close and only brother left, Fred.

Lou was married Myra Schofield on 2 April 1893. Soon after they were married they moved to the town of Alliance in Box Butte County, Nebraska. Lou went to school and learned the skill of carpentry. He designed and built their first home.

Lou and Myra had five children. Their first was Roger born in May of 1894. Dorothy the second oldest was born Jan of 1896. Dorothy married Anton Rudd , Emma their second daughter married Ross Tiffany. John married Vera Fuller. Gaylord who at age 21 died in 1922.. Tragically again in 1900, his young wife, Myra, mother of his five small children died.

Lou married a second time to Anna Potter and his sixth child was born in 1902, Paul Waldron Hardy. Soon the marriage ended in divorce. Paul married Margaret Bryant and lived in Bushnell, Florida. They had five children Margaret, Anna, Paul Jr., Hazel and Dorothy. Paul died April 12, 1989

Lou in 1906 took his carpenter skill to California following the San Francisco earthquake. He found work there because of the rebuilding after the quake. His children Roger, Dorothy, Emma, John and Gaylord in Iowa with their aunt and other family members.

By 25 Sept 1907 Lou went to Everett Washington where Walter Hardy his cousin had settled. Lou met our grandmother Ann Elizabeth Hodgen who was a school teacher in the area. Lou and Ann married Dec 20, 1908 in Everett. They lived at 1227 Broadway with Roger and John.. Dorothy stayed in Iowa . Dorothy became a school teacher and stay with her great aunt Josephine. Dorothy eventually came out to where her father was, Emma followed her later and stayed with Lou and Ann until about 1916 when she married.

Lou and Ann first child, Berly was born in Everett but she died the next day, 24 Feb. 1910. June 16, 1911 their second child was born, Dale Hodgen. Hodgen was Ann's maiden name. By 1913 they had moved to Lyndon, just out of Bellingham. Robert Montague was born there on June 30 1913, and named after Ann's Uncle. Arthur L was their next son born 13 Oct 1914. Their next child to born in Lyndon was a daughter, named Ruth Naomi born Oct 13, 1916. Soon after in 1917 they moved to Bellingham Rural Route 1 on the old Hanigan Road. Ruth died there, she was only 6 months old. Martha Blanche was their last child and she was born 15 May 1918. Martha was Lou's mothers name and Blanche was Ann's mothers name.


Lou Hardy as a child in Iowa, written by himself about 1933

My dear wife, Anne and all so my daughter in-law, Vera, who all so is a very good friend, have suggested that I write down some of the incidents in my life. It is much easier to relate to an appreciative listener then to write, to me anyway. Although I have experienced many hardships and discouragement's looking back, my life seems so short. It doesn't seem that many things of interest to any one else could have taken place. Perhaps they would not be to any one that was not particularly interested and know me very personally one who is not in a position to appreciate my intentions and efforts rather that apparent results: especially as success in considered from present day standards.

The greatest reason for my writing down some of the reminiscences of my past in so that some time in the future some of my children, who I think, do not know me as well as I wish they did, may desire to do so. I am in hopes that it will cause them to think of me frequently as a father they can have considerable amount of respect for. My earliest recollection is when I was three years old, about one year after my mother was taken from us: father, two brothers and I, Loyd four years older than I and Fred two years older than I.

I was born in Magnolia Iowa, a small country town, on December 5, 1869. When I was three my father married again and moved to Logan Iowa, a railroad town, Hence my earliest recollection is seeing for the first time a train of real cars. A very impressive sight to a child of three, in fact a never to be forgotten one by me.

My next earliest recollection is, I think, when I was about five years old. We had moved back to Magnolia. I had been in the care of my grandparents most of the time since my mother's death and it was a wonderful home to me and my brother, Fred. Occasionally father would come to grandparents on a visit and would take me home with him if I could be found, which was not often. There was many splendid hiding places in those days. Some times I would be taken home. My step-mother didn't suit me nearly as well as grandma.

On one occasion, when I had been what I consider a prisoner at home for a few weeks, I got desperately lonesome and ran away down to grandma's. It was about four miles. Mostly open prairie and few settlers. I had gone about half way and come into a quite a heard of cattle. Not being very familiar with cattle running at large, they looked like quite a formidable danger, hence my recollection. Well as I remember, I decided on what we might now call a detour, which I managed quite successfully by going considerably out of the way and crawling under a wire fence and finally got back in the prairie road again and arrived safely at grandmas in time for a supper like grandma used to cook. As I remember more they were always just right. Will explain about "just right later. My immediate family already know.

My next remembrances are many things that happened during my next few years which were spent mostly with my grandparents down to the mill. My grandfather owned a large water power flower mill which was the attraction of all the youngsters in the neighborhood from the fact that it was surrounded by what I mean real swimming, trapping, hunting, fishing, skating and unnumerable adventures of many kinds in the mill and around the neighborhood with an ever growing radius as I grew older.

A word about my grandfather, it seem now like grandparents like they have passed on into history like many of the so called old fashioned ways, customs, and things, but I can think of them only as the good old times and they certainly were. Although attended by its share of hardships which surely mane the pleasures all the greater.

The Old mill was operated by rather crude machinery and equipment consisting of a pair of stone burrs which were about three feet in diameter and eight inches thick dressed in such a way that grain entering through a hole in the center of the top one would be thoroughly pulverized by the time it was thrown out to one side by the swift circular motion of the top stone. Finer of coarser products were gaged by raising or lowering the top stone, which was hung from the center very nicely balanced. The four or meal was also graded by running it through a sifting arrangement called a bolter. It was a long cabinet affain about sixteen feet long seven feet high and four feet wide which was made of very good matched lumber. Running horizontal near the top was a cylindrical screened frame about 24'' in diameter also covered with silk cloth which was mounted on an incline causing the ground cerial to gradually work toward the farther and lower end, the finer product coming out through the screens first and the coarser graduated in different bins beneath where it was sacked by hand using a one hand scoop.

The mill was operated on the grist mill plan that is, pay was arranged by taking a certain share of the finished product. I don't remember the amount. The building its self was about sixty feet long by forty wide and two twelve foot story high. Isn't it to bad we don't have a picture of it. There several large high bins upstairs and arrangements for cleaning grain. There was a flat wooded belt wheel about the size of the rear wheel of a wagon about five feet in diameter. It was mounted horizontally about one foot from the floor. The 5" main shaft running through the wheel extended higher up for running other belt wheels.

During some of out experimental work (or play) Fred suggested that we ride on the wheel. Well, he being the oldest and stronger, insisted on the first ride (having thought of it first anyway). I was to go down on the first floor and operate a long wooden lever which opened a gate allowing the proper amount of water for the desired speed. It being my 1st attempt at such a responsible position I guess I was in to a big hurry to get his ride over with, I must have turned on too much juice. I ran up stairs to see the turns. Well, it wasn't so slow ya know how it is he was (as we now say, going rome and afraid to let go). He was sitting down and straddled of the main shaft hanging on with both legs and arms loudly giving orders for less speed. Will of course kid like I was inclined to argue that I thought he would get used to that speed in a few minutes. Well, he was soon getting so dizzy he could not argue very effectively and I was running the whole show with the assistance of a little water. Well, I was loosing my desire for a ride any way. Finally although he being quite light completed, having bright red hair, I noticed he was getting considerable whiter. I got a little worried (which wasn't often) I ran down stairs to put on

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Grandpa kept quite a lot of hogs which he fed his share of the grain (his share for grinding). The hog pen was connected with one end of the mill of which a door opened from the mill out into the hog pen or fields. If that door was left open the hogs would climb up a short set of steps, go into the mill, and help themselves to their choice of several kings of good feed, such as cornmeal, yellow or white, white or whole wheat flour, graham, fine or course, buckwheat, flour, bran, or shorts. Well just about every thing. (of course we didn't know of grapenuts, post tosties, puffed wheat, and such fierce concoctions than.)

Any way the hogs never seemed to mill such things not having been forced to learn it, helped themselves to what there was as hogs usually do, even people have been known to do that. Well, Fred and I were often blamed for leaving the door open and possible we did, any way we never could agree on which particular one might possibly have done it. So we usually both had to go and clean up things, repair torn sacks and sweep up. Well, boys like we got tired of the work end of the job as it was happening every once in a while so we decided to something ought to be done about it. Well boys are boys and they always will be I guess. Will even go to a considerable amount of trouble and experimenting to keep from having to think to shut a door.

Among other things we tried putting a lot of good meal, buckwheat flour, or what have you, that was handiest on the floor about two or three inches covering a space as big as the nearest by sack of stuff would cover and set a plentiful number of good steel traps, which we always had on hand for trapping muskrats, mink, ect. Well, we couldn't seem to train them hogs from taking just one more chance but we rather enjoyed the movement while things were in full circulation. Anyway, one day we made a unusual good catch. We closed the door so they couldn't get out. We had about twenty in all, all sizes breed and dispositions.

Well, we started training them to stay out side where they belonged and we decided to make one lesson do. Hogs was not worth much in those days anyway. Besides we were getting tired of thinking to shut the door. There was lots of good willow sprouts growing along the banks of the creek or stream which was called the Willow Creek. We had gathered in a plentiful supply of good switches about six feet long, (as they were no particular trouble to get). We had placed a big box in the middle of the floor and on this we operated. We soon had things going very satisfactory (to us). We kept increasing the speed (around the room) until we nearly got dizzy ourselves. Well we were just about one half through with the first lesson when one old hog decided to go to the head of the class which he must have thought was up stairs, any how that is where he went without permission and he went on high speed with the whole bunch four a breast neck and neck and the devil take the hindmost well that rather complicated matters. I guess we looked like a couple of April fools with nothing particular to say. It really wasn't a time to talk. I guess tat is where the saying I believe in action not words that Coolage had published with his picture.

Will in the first room up stairs there was some machinery and other obstructions that cluttered up things to much for training purposes there were to many hiding places. So we managed to get the middle door open by climbing over some ears of corn scattered over the floor I guess for drying.

Well, it wasn't very hard to get those hogs to go in there they seemed to be the kind of hog that would try anything once. I guess they hadn't heard about that frying pan to fire talk. Well anyway they were all there at role call awaiting farther orders which again began with action. But it wasn't so good they couldn't get good traction in the loose corn so we got into a huddle the hogs in one corner and we in another will when the dust cleared away sufficiently for us to see anything we decided to call it a day. We also wondered what Grandpa might say if he should happen to appear on the scene. There was plenty of switches handy.

It is very likely he might decide to do some training himself. But what were we going to do with the hogs which assumed the proportion of white elephants. They had jumped down a set of four or five steps into the last room and it seems they were averse to the idea of going up stairs any more they seemed determined with the idea of going down instead of going up. There is one thing about hogs the world over, when they have decided to go in a certain direction, that is exactly the direction they are going, and there is no know method to pursued them to do otherwise. So we went into a committee of two and head a disarmament conference, and believe me it meant more than a scrap of paper.

It was getting to be a serious situation which one of us conceived the idea but it was unanimous from the start, and we got into action soon. As the hogs would go up any more and had to go down wouldn't they? There happened to be an outside door just above the one they came in at below. So we hung some sacks loosely across that doorway leaving enough opening to show the nice sunshine outside then we went around to the opposite side of the room and did an Indian war dance with variations. Well, I guess those hogs thought we were a band of hungry injuns all right. They probably knew they were eventually to be ground up into sausage for small boys and their intermediate family, but probably preferred that chance to being immediately devoured alive by the present band of howling savages. So they done just what any other person would naturally do under the present circumstances. They circled to the left a couple of times before the terrified leader noticed fresh air and freedom through that curtain arrangement. He didn't stop to consider the virtue of going but went.

Well, those hogs went into another huddle, but it was on the ground about twelve feet lower altitude where they lit, and I guess they would be going yet were it not for a very strong old fashioned rail fence between them and a long way off. Well, at that they got off easier and safer than we. Now days one would send for a wrecking crew, but we didn't have such conveniences in those days so we had to do that all by hand, which or did in such a way that no one ever said any thing about it, in our presence anyway. We decided it was to hazardous to try to train the remainder of the herd, so we fastened a small rope to one side of the door, and the other and to a stake and hung a small weight on the rope which answered just as well.

The boys and girls very often come from school during the noon hour to play in or around the mill. It was a wonderful place to play hide and seek. We could even get into some of the large bins and cover entirely with wheat or oats or shelled corn.

Down under the lower floor there was a flume, or rectangular planked room. Which was about as large as an ordinary size dining room, and as deep. The turbine water wheel, that furnished the power for the mill was just under the floor of this flume. The water forced itself through a circular opening through the floor into the turbine generator.

When this opening was closed by a water gate the water would flow over the top of the wall through spill way. That was a free shower bath for the neighborhood. You can imagine it was a very popular place. That flume was a wonderful place for anyone that could swim, but not very safe for anyone that couldn't. I had occasion to find out.

Fred and I were in there one day, he swam around while I hung onto the side and splashed and paddled. He told me he thought I could swim across if I wasn't afraid to try. I wasn't usually in the habit of being afraid to try anything once, so I made a dash for the other side. I got out half way across and not knowing how to swim began going down. Well, I went down for the third and last time. Fred began to realize I was going to need help if I ever got out. Not being big enough himself he ran up into the mill and as father happened to be running the mill that day, he rushed down, dove in and finally found and pulled me out. I have never forgotten how it feels to be drowned.

Grandfather was very strict about fire about the mill. And us boys were warned to never light matches about the mill. Well, I broke two rules for the first time, I decided I was getting big enough to begin smoking a pipe. I got someone's pipe and decided the mill would be a good quiet place to start in. as it was getting dark someone noticed the light from the match and gave the alarm by loudly proclaiming someone was lighting matches in the mill. I began to realize what I was doing. I made a getaway out the back side, and kept going on out into the middle of a cornfield. Well, I stayed out there until I got very cold and hungry, not having had supper yet. That was in the fall of the year and the corn stalks were dry, the corn having been gathered so I built me a little fire, and stayed out there, until Fred finally found where I was, came out and persuaded me to venture in. The folks never said anything to me about it. I think they went on the principle that the fear of a whipping had more affect on us boys that the whipping its self.

Grandma used to threaten to battle us over the head, I never seemed to care to have her perform that kind of an operation on me, what ever it was. She chased me with a switch a few times of course. She had a family of eight boys and one girl, the girl being the youngest. She made practically all their clothes including three grandchildren she raised.

Fred and I used to have a lot of fun with people from town that came down to skate. When the flume was closed the water would back up the river a quarter of a mile or so, rising perhaps two feet, and during the night would freeze a couple of inches just as smooth as glass it made wonderful skating, we would arrange a skating party.

While the whole bunch was having a wonderful time, one of us (we took turns of course) would slip away and go back to the mill and open a trap door and allow the water to recede very fast from under the ice. Sometimes it would lower a couple of feet before the weight of the ice would cause it to crack, which always began close to the mill, as it was wider there and heavier. It would crack in the middle and that crack and settling process would proceed up the creek at a tremendous speed, making a very terrifying noise, and the ice would settle in the middle leaving each side just steep enough that a scared person would perform on hands and knees fast and furious. Made a person think of a squirrel in one of those revolving cages you have seen, only they made lots more noise and seemed to get real excited and tried to hurry and couldn't, they kept slipping back, howling for help. We usually forgot to tell them there was no danger, I guess it would have reduced their nervousness several degrees had they been sure of that.

I was always very tender hearted about seeing anyone hurt would even fight for them, but guess I must have had a mania for seeing people and other thins scared, I guess the scarred the better. Ye know I think folks must of had stronger hearts in those days. It was really remarkable how much real down right scare they could stand and survive. We done our best but they seemed to be able to come back for more by the rime we were ready for them which wasn't so very long sometimes.

The Willow Creek was a wonderful place for skating when there wasn't to much snow a person could glide along for miles of course one had to keep watch for an occasional air hole or riffle where the ice was not sound. But at the old mill dam was about the most beautiful winter sight I have ever seen. The water took a fall of about twelve or fourteen feet with a great continuous roar, sending up a spray that in very severe cold weather began to freeze and it seemed to freeze in billowy clouds piling higher and higher until it finally hid the waterfall from sight but the roar even continued. The dam was so close to the house that anyone not being used to it found it very difficult to sleep. The creek ran within about thirty or forth feet of the back or kitchen door.

Fred and I used to dare each other who could run from the house and up the creek on the ice the farthest barefooted, by running real fast we could go quite a long way, at least we thought so, before we got back seemed like out toes would just about rattle on the ice. We used to use skates that had a screw sticking up from the center of the heel plate about the fourth on an inch where we could fasten to the heel of the boot or shoe by turning the skate around and round until it was tight up to heel, then buckle a strap around the forward part of foot.

The snow usually was pretty deep and laid on all winter when all wagons and buggies were laid aside for sleds and sleighs of all kinds. The long sled, the shorter pair of bob sled, the cast runners that were put on the wagons in the place on the wheels. The cutter which was a classy affair might be compared to a swanky present day roadster, but instead of using a gas engine we were very well please with a pair of fine spirited trotters with the harness well trimmed with sleigh bells which really sounded better that a smoky exhaust pipe. Of course we didn't go nearly so fast but it suited the young fellows and girls much better and we always got there without having to change any tires. Some of the boys had their teams trained so they would go on slow speed without ever having to hold onto the steering apparatus allowing their undivided attention to other things such as keeping the girls from being thrown out by the terrific speed.

There was another kind of sleigh commonly called just sled which was used mostly by boys and girls but often by the older folks at moonlight courting parties. The sleds mostly used in those occasions was two good stout hand sleds with a plank about eight or ten feet long resting on a rear and forward hand sled forward end fastened by a single bolt allowing sled to turn either way for guiding. I don't know just what speed that outfit would travel but I know it was terrific, the speed depended on the length and steepness of the hill and the number of people on it.

The older people were considerably annoyed by the smaller boys and their ever ready snow balls which were often made a day or two in advance, to season. The snow roads were very useful to the farmer for doing their heavy hauling suchas hauling grain, wood, ice, hogs, ect.

Right now while writing I can look out the window from my son's house on Mercer Island, Lake Washington near Seattle, Washington and see quite a substantial snow storm which is very unusual.

I very much enjoy it thinking of earlier days in Iowa. I don't know which season of the year I enjoyed most, all of them I think, after a long hard winter everyone enjoyed seeing and feeling spring coming, loosing the snow and ice with the increasing rise of water in streams and rivers and the great ice jams. Us boys would often go up stream quite a long distance and watch for a good sized cake of ice and manage to get aboard and have a swell joy ride down to the bridge which was a couple of feet above high water. We had been warded not to do this rather dangerous stunt, as the largess cakes of ice would often break in pieces during transit. But sometimes we forgot.

We had read thrilling stories of lumber jacks riding logs down the roaring torrents and well there were no logs so we had use ice, didn't we? during this spring break up there was many fur bearing animals forced from their winter quarters by the water and we usually managed to get a few beaver, mink, otter and muskrat. Then would come the budding spring days with its budding trees, shrubs, flowers and grass, the many different kind of birds that really knew how to sing. Just north of the house were two rows of very large cotton wood trees where the blackbirds would hold their early spring song feast by the thousands. They would even drown out the roar of the waterfall, they would be coming and gong until they would finally nearly all be gone, some to the far north and many to the nearby swamps, creeks and meadows, where they were very busy attending to family duties. But you could always hear them pouring out their individual song, and hardly a day but there would be a few hundred would gather into the old cottonwood trees to sing awhile.

I would lay down on my back under the trees and listen to them for hours or until I went to sleep, wondering how many there were. The black birds were my favorite, they were the old standbys there were many other son birds, and some that didn't sing so much. I will name a few of them, Yellow Hammer, Woodpecker, Wren, Turtle Dove, Oriole, Brown Thrush, Mocking Bird, Robin, Bluebird, Redbird, Cat Bird, Jay Bird, Rain Crow, Swallow, King Fisher, and others, some I really never learned their true names but I was acquainted with all of them and knew their habits, besides there were many game birds, many different kinds ducks. Some very beautiful with their indescribable bright and various colors and various beautiful shades, it seemed a pity to kill them, but there were so many I guess a few wasn't missed very much.

Also the Bob White Quail and thousands of prairie chicken and scarcely and hour during the day and far into the night gray wedges of geese and Braul, gray and white could be seen or heard. They would settle in the fields in very large numbers gabbling far into the night but would be on their way long before us boys were up. But we managed a surprise attack once in a while with our old army muskets loaded from the muzzle by a ramrod using black powder, paper, leaves, rags or what have you for wadding, and shot and sometimes small nails when shot was scarce, with more wadding. Then the percussion cap that started the fire works going usually winding up with a bloody nose or loss of a piece of skin off the cheek bone.

Speaking of guns, well mustn't get started on that, the variety and model were to great, I had em all. I will say however I enjoyed milling lead and molding bullets for fun, old muzzle loading rifles that we most always used squirrel hunting in the timber. We had the large red or fox squirrel and his cousin the gray squirrel. We preferred the rifle to the shot gun as it seemed more sportsman like a longer range and cheaper. Some of those old oak, elm and walnut trees were very tall and it really required a rifle, a squirrel usually did not expose a whole broadside to be fired at but would very cunningly barely peek over the crotch of the fork of a tall tree and you had to know how to find them and how to shoot, after you did find them.

I remember my uncle had been planning a squirrel hunt quite a distance from out place. He molded a lot of bullets the night before for his muzzle loading rifle. He took Fred with him the next morning, wouldn't let me go said "I might get et up by bears or sump' in".

Well, after they had been gone a while I decided I would take a nice long walk, I didn't have much trouble getting there but was afraid there might be bears or sump' in waiting for me. Well, I stuck round anyway and it wasn't very long till bang went a gun not so far away, which was as welcome to me as a supper horn after a hard days play. Well, I got into high speed at once and ran toward the general direction of the report of the gun. Will sounds are very deceiving in a forest it echoes back and forth so much. Well, it took a couple more shots before I finally came sauntering in on the scene. Well uncle had to compromise by letting me go along and carry game, anyhow how was I going to learn to hunt squirrel unless I made actual observations first hand.

Well, it wasn't long before I was bringing em in also. Wild turkey were not so plentiful, near us anyway, a few miles away an aunt of mine caught a whole flock of them in and old log cabin by scattering grain inside on the dirt floor and closing the door from the outside. I never shot but one a very large one. I must mention the prairie chicken, they were very numerous. It was a very attractive sight to see flocks of about fifty flying along very low and also to see a tree bare of leaves just full of them. They were not hard to shoot or trap. We made traps like a common chicken crate only about three feet high with a couple of wide shingles balanced on the top with an ear of corn stuck up above on a stick. They would reach for the corn, step on the tilting shingles and slip down thorough, it wasn't uncommon to catch ten or more at once. Quill, we would catch by using a small crate upside down with a figure four trap. Cotton tail rabbits were every where, and splendid eating as they had plenty to eat and were always nice and fat.

Duck and rabbits were out favorite hunting. I remember one day while hunting rabbits my faithful rabbit dog treed a cat. I guess it happened to be a neighbors cat. Anyhow the dog didn't stop to find out he didn't seem to care. Just so it was a cat and one that didn't mind running and running fast. Well, the cat came to a small tree and made haste to get up among the branches, guess he couldn't run quite fast enough to suit him.

Well, the dog and I wasn't quite satisfied who could really run the fastest. So I shook the tree pretty hard I guess and the cat fell out of the tree, but didn't wait for the dog to get an even start. Which didn't seem to discourage him much, they both start on high and kept going that way.

Well, we were not so far from the neighbors house where the cat lived and it seemed to know the nearest way to where it was wanting to be. The shortest route was right through under a clothes line where one of the neighbor girls was very busy hanging out the weekly washing. Well, the cat happened to run between the basket of clothes and the busy girl and the dog also being very busy didn't notice the girl. Well, the girl must have heard them coming any how she looked around just as I hollered mad dog. Well, the clothes line was not quite strong enough to hold such a sudden surge and broke allowing her to fall back sitting right down in the nearly empty basket. Well, that didn't interrupt the race any.

The cat made a mad dash for a hole under the house with the dog in full pursuit. If the house hadn't been in the way I am sure the dog would have overtaken mister cat. But the house was in the way and the dog didn't notice it as soon as he ought to. Just as his head was partly under the house his legs was trying to make a very quick stop. Well, he stopped quick enough with his whole body flattened up against the side of the house. He managed to "Ki Yu" a couple of times and decided to let the cat go for that time. he came back to me looking so much as to say I believe you done that on purpose. But I didn't tell him to chase the cat, he done it himself. He should have known that wasn't a rabbit any way. The girl was mad too and wouldn't speak to me, after she said a lot of things just then, for a long time.

So you can see how boys are often blamed for things they were innocent of. Well, we called it a day and went home. I thought supper was nearly ready any way and I didn't want to keep them waiting. Most always in the winter time we would have quit a lot of dressed squirrels and rabbits. Corded up like stove wood and frozen, they would keep nicely that way and were very fine eating.

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