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Vol I File 16: The Paternal Ancestry of Homer Beers James
Early German Ancestors (King of Bavaria, Dukes of Saxony, Kings of Germany, Holy Roman Emperors, Dukes of Swabia, and Dukes of Brabant) to Margaret of France, Second Wife of Edward I., King of England
Ref: Canning, "100 Great Kings, Queens,
and Ruler of the World," pp. 222-227. (Otto I.)
Ref: Previte-Orton, "The Shorter Cambridge
Medieval History, Vol. II., The Twelfth Century to the Renaissance"
Ref: Thompson and Johnson, "An Introduction
to Medieval Europe" (1937)
It is interesting to note that the following
lineage originates in France with Louis I., son of Charlemagne.
It then continues through many generations of Germany nobility
and royalty and finally returns to France with Margaret of France,
second wife of Edward I. of England.
1. Louis (Ludwig) I., the Pious, the Debonaire,
son of Charlemagne, King of Aquitaine, 778-840, and Holy Roman
Emperor, 814-840, married in 798, (1) Ermengarde of Hasbania, and (2) Judith of Bavaria. See elsewhere for
the ancestral lineage of Judith. From the first marriage, there
were the following children:
2. Louis II., the German, King of the
East Franks, about 805-876, married Emma of Bavaria, who died in 876. They
had the following children:
2. Louis the Young, King of the East Franks,
died in 882.
3. Charles II., the Fat, King of the West
Franks, and Holy Roman Emperor, 881-887.
King of Bavaria, about 828-880, married Litwinde.
They had a son, Arnulf.
4. Arnulf of Carinthia, (illegitimate)
King of Germany, 881-899, and Holy Roman Emperor, 896-899), married
Oda of Bavaria.
He was born in 850 and died in 899. They had the following children:
1. Louis (Ludwig) III. the Child, King of
Germany, 899-911. He was born in 893 and died in 911.
2. Zwentibold (illegitimate), King of Lorraine,
died in 900.
married Otto the Great of Saxony,
son of Ludolph, Duke of Saxony and
his wife, Hedwige, daughter of Eberhard, Count of Burgundy, son
of Henrok, Duke of Frioul, and his wife, Gisela, daughter of Louis
I., the Debonaire, King of France. Details are not available
of each generation of descendants but it is recorded that Gisela
was also the grandmother of Duke Burkhardt, who died in 911, from
whom descended Ulrich von Uerikon, Swiss knight, born in 1259.
Otto of Saxony reigned in Germany
from 880 to 912. Otto and Hedwige had a son, Henry.
6. Henry I., The Fowler, of Germany,
Duke of Saxony, who in 919 was chosen as King of Germany by the
other German rulers, reigned over Germany, 919-936. During his
reign Germany was something like a confederation of such territories
as Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia, and Lorraine. He was known as
the "City-Builder." He is named as the head of the
Saxon dynasty. He was born in 876, died in 936. He married (2)
Matilda of Ringelheim.
They had the following children:
1. Hedwige (Hedwig), married Hugh Magnus, Duke of France, and they
were the parents of Hugh Capet.
Hugh Capet married Adela,
daughter of Otto I.
See this lineage elsewhere in the Kings of France above in Vol.
2. Otto I., The Great, Emperor. See below.
3. Henry I., Duke of Bavaria. Henry was
favored by his mother, Matilda, to succeed his father, Henry I.,
to the throne, but Henry I. was successful in having Otto I. as
his successor. Only after the death of Otto was Henry allowed
to become the ruler. In fact, he led an insurrection against
Otto I., joined by Giselbert, Duke of Lorraine, and the Duke of
Franconia. Henry was defeated and fled to the court of King Louis
IV. of France. Later he was forgiven by his brother, Otto I.,
and was appointed Duke of Bavaria and became a loyal follower
of his king and brother. He married Judith, daughter of Arnulf,
Duke of Bavaria, and granddaughter of Liutpold, Duke of Bavaria,
who died in 907. They were the parents of Henry II., Duke of
Bavaria, the Quarrelsome (the Wrangler), who died in 995, and
Hedwig, who married Burkhard, Duke of Swabia. Henry II., the Quarrelsome
(the Wrangler), was father of Henry II., the Saint, King of Germany
(1002-1024), the last of the Saxon line, who married Cunigunde.
4. Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne, 953-965,
and arch-chancellor of the realm. Later he was made Duke of Lorraine
by his brother, Otto I. He also acted as a kind of regent for
the young Carolingians of France, whose uncle he was. After the
king he was the most important man in the kingdom.
married (1) Gilbert (Giselbert), Duke of Lotharingia (Lorraine),
who died in 939, and (2) Louis IV,
King of France, who died in 954. See this lineage above in Vol.
I. They were parents of Lothar, King of France (941-986), and
Charles of Lower Lorraine (954-986). Gerberga is reported to
have married Giselbert, who died October 2, 939, Duke of Lorraine,
lay Abbot of Echternach (915-939), son of Regnier I., Count of
Hainault, lay Abbot of Echternach (Luxembourg) (897-915), and
his 1st wife, Hersent, daughter of Charles II.
6. Another daughter, unidentified.
There was one illegitimate son as follows:
1. Thankmar, who died in 938, and who led
a revolt of Saxony against his half-brother, Otto I.
7. Otto I. the Great, the eldest son
of Henry I., at the age of twenty-four was crowned as the King
of Germany in Aix-la-Chapelle in 936, and reigned from 962 to
973. (Check dates?) To emphasize the subservience he demanded
from all the German nobles, Otto had the Dukes of Bavaria, Swabia,
Franconia, and Lorraine wait upon him at the banquet which followed
the coronation ceremonies in the cathedral, indicated that henceforth
they would be his vassals and that power would be vested in his
person alone. The dukes naturally resented this decrease in their
influence. Soon some of them gathered together bands of armed
followers and revolted against Otto. One of his half-brothers,
Thankmar, went so far as to rebel against Otto in Saxony itself.
Eberhard, the Duke of Franconia, came to Thankmar's assistance,
but Otto succeeded in quelling this rebellion with the help of
the Duke of Swabia who, luckily for Otto, had quarreled with Eberhard.
Under him the Holy Roman Empire was reestablished
and strengthened by the inclusion of Italy. He ruled as the Holy
Roman Emperor, 962-973. He was born November 23, 912. He married
at age seventeen (1) Edith,
daughter of Edward the Elder, King
of England. See elsewhere for her ancestral lineage in Volume
I. Otto fought against both Louis
IV. of France and later Hugh the Great of France, both of whom
were his brothers-in-law. He was later associated with Wenceslas,
Duke of Bohemia, eventually making him the King of Bohemia, and
avenged his murder by executing Wenceslas' mother, who had plotted
the massacre. See elsewhere for the details on Wenceslas. Later
Otto I. married (2) Adelaide of Burgundy, widow of Lothar (Lothaire),
King of Italy, becoming as in the right of his wife, the King
of Italy. From 954 to 968 she was Abbess of Quedlinburg. Otoo
I. was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on January 31, 962, in St. Peter's
in Rome, by Pope John XII. Otto I. made himself the head of the
Church. For he forced the Pope to swear an oath of allegiance
to himself, and John XII. thus became Otto's vassal. Later, when
John showed signs of regretting this oath, Otto deposed him.
Otto selected Pope Leo VIII. as John's successor and decreed that
henceforth no Pope should be elected without his consent. Later,
following the death of Leo VIII., Pope John XIII. was imposed
by Otto on the Church. The closing years of Otto's life were
rather peaceful and he died on May 6, 973, and was buried in the
Cathedral of Magdeburg which he had built. He had accomplished
what he set out to do; he had reestablished Charlemagne's Holy
Roman Empire, he had forcefully subdued the turbulent German tribes
and instilled in the Germans the beginnings of national pride.
He had spread Christianity and had brought the Papacy under his
Otto I. and Edith were the parents of the
died in 955, married Conrad the Red., killed in 955, Duke of Lotharingia
(Lorraine), 944-953. They had a son, Otto.
Duke of Carinthia, 978-983, 995-1004, died in 1004. He had the
2. Bruno, who later became Pope Gregory
3. Conrad I., Duke of Carinthia, 1004-1011,
married Matilda, daughter of Herman II. of Swabia. They had two
sons as follows:
1. Conrad of Carinthia, rival to Conrad
2. Bruno, Bishop of Toul, and later Pope
Leo IX, 1048-1054.
4. William, Bishop of Strasbourg, 1028-1047.
died before 1000, married Adelaide.
They had two sons as follows:
11. Conrad II. the Salian, Holy Roman
Emperor, 1024-1039, married as her third husband Gisela,
Duchess of Swabia, who died in 1043, daughter
of Herman II. of Swabia, and his wife Gerberga, who died in 993,
daughter of Conrad of Burgundy and his second wife, Matilda, daughter
of Gerberga, and her second husband, Louis IV., King of France.
Conrad II. was the first of the Salian or Franconian line, chosen
after the death of Henry II. He was one of the strongest and
most far-sighted of all the German kings, dying in 1039. Conrad
and Gisela had a son, Henry III.
12. Henry III. the Black, Duke of all
the duchies except Lorraine and Saxony at the time of his father's
death, later Holy Roman Emperor, 1039-1056. He was another very
strong ruler among the German emperors. He married (1) Kunigunde
(Gunnhild), died in 1038, daughter of Canute the Great, King of
England, 1016, King of Denmark, 1019, King of Norway, 1028, died
in 1035; and sister of Harthacut, King of Denmark, 1035, King
of England, 1040, died in 1042; and (2) Agnes of Aquitaine, who died in 1077,
daughter of William of Aquitaine.
From the second marriage there were several children as follows:
1. Beatrice of Quedlinburg.
2. Matilda, died in 1060, married Rudolf,
Duke of Swabia, 1057, Anti-king, 1077, killed at Elster in 1080.
3. Judith, died about 1094, married (1)
Salomon of Hungary, who died in 1087; and (2) Valdislav I. of
Poland, who died in 1102.
4. Adelaide, Abbess of Quedlinburg, form
1062-to about 1095.
5. Henry IV.
13. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 1056-1106.
His father left him his throne in 1056 when he was but six years
old. His mother, Agnes, was the regent until he reached maturity.
During this period the German nobility rose in opposition to
the throne and appropriated many of the royal holdings, but when
Henry IV. reached his majority he was able to restore much of
what had been taken. He married (1) Bertha of Savoy (Turin), who died in 1087,
(2) Praxedis (Adelhaide, Eupraxis) of Kiev, Russia, who died in
1109. Henry IV. died in Liege in 1106. From the first marriage
of Henry and Bertha there were the following children:
1. Conrad, Associate King, 1087, deposed
in 1093 for rebellion against his father, died in 1101.
3. Henry V. , Holy Roman Emperor, 1106-1125.
He also had rebelled against his father in 1104. In 1105 the
German feudal princes elected young Henry V. king in his
father's place, but the old king never lost the loyalty of the
towns and remained a force to contend with until his death. Henry
V. married as her first husband, Matilda, daughter of Henry I.,
King of England, and his wife, Matilda of Scotland. After the
death of Henry V. Matilda married Geoffrey of Anjou. Their son,
Henry II., became King of England. See the continuation of this
lineage in the Kings of England in Volume I.
died in 1143, married (1) Frederick I. of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia,
1079-1105. They had two sons as follows:
1. Frederick II. See below.
2. Conrad III., King of Germany, 1138-1152.
He was never crowned.
Agnes married (2) Leopold III., Margrave of
Austria, 1095-1136, who died in 1136. From this second marriage
descended the Hohenstaufen dynasty. They had
the following children:
1. Leopold IV., Margrave of Austria, 1136-1141,
Duke of Bavaria, 1139-1141.
2. Agnes, died in 1157, married Vladislaw
II. of Poland, who died in 1159.
3. Henry II. Jasomirgott, Duke of Bavaria,
1142-1156; M. of Bavaria, 1141-1177, married (1) Theodora, died
in 1184, niece of Emperor Manuel; married (2) Gertrude of Supplinburg,
daughter of Lothar of Supplinburg, Duke of Saxony, 1106-1127,
King, 1125-1137, Emperor, 1133.
4. Gertrude, died in 1151, married (1) Vladislav
II. of Bohemia, died in 1175.
15. Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, married
daughter of Henry the Black, Duke of
Bavaria, 1120-1126, and his wife, Wulfhild, who died in 1126,
half-heiress of Magnus Billungand.
Frederick and Judith had a son as follows:
16. Frederick I. Barbarossa (Red Beard),
Duke of Swabia, born in 1122, died in 1190, Roman Emperor, 1152-1190.
He was a nephew of Conrad III. A German king, his rule marked
a happy and prosperous time in Germany. He married (1) Adelaide
of Vohburg, from whom he was divorced in 1152. In 1156 he married
(2) Beatrice Macon,
daughter of Rainald III., Count of
Burgundy, heiress of Franche-Comte.
She died in 1184. He and his second wife were parents of the
following two sons:
17. Philip of Swabia, at the time of his father's
death, the Hohenstaufen party in southern Germany elected him
as their ruler. He was King of Germany, 1197-1208, married (2)
daughter of Isaac II. Emperor of the
East. She died in 1252. In 1208 Philip
was murdered by a personal enemy, one of the few cases of assassination
in the middle ages. They had three daughters as follows:
1. Mary of Germany. See below.
2. Beatrix of Swabia, died in 1212, married
as his first wife, Otto IV., King of Germany, 1198-1218; Emperor,
3. Elizabeth of Swabia, died in 1235, married
Ferdinand III., King of Castile, who died in 1252. Their son
was Afonso X. the Wise, King of Castile, 1252-1284, Titular King
of Germany, 1257, died in 1284.
18. Mary of Germany, married to Henry II, Duke of Brabant, 1235-1248,
great grandson of Stephen, King of
England, who was the son of Stephen of Blois and his wife, Adela,
daughter of William the Conqueror.
They had a son, Henry III.
19. Henry III, Duke of Brabant, 1248-1261,
died in 1261, married Alice Bourgogne.
They had the following daughter:
1. Marie of Barbant. See below.
He is also recorded as married to Adelaide
of Burgundy, Regent, 1261-1267. From this other marriage, they
had two sons:
1. Henry IV, Duke of Brabant, 1261-1267.
2. John I., Duke of Brabant, 1267-1297.
20. Marie of Barbant, married Philip III, King of France, son
of Louis IX. (St. Louis) and brother of Robert, Count of Clermont,
ancestor of the House of Bourbon.
Marie and Philip had a daughter, Margaret of France.
21. Margaret of France, second wife of Edward I, King of England. They were
the parents of two sons:
Expanding the line of Judith of Bavaria, from
the original Welf, we have the following:
7. Welf I, Count in Swabia and in
Bavaria, died about 824.
8. Eticho I
11. Welf II, died in 1030.
who died in 1087, married Azzo II of Este, who died in 1097.
13. Welf IV.,
Duke of Bavaria, died in 1101. He had two sons as follows: