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COLONIAL OCCUPATIONS

Our early American colonists did not have quite the same employment opportunities as we do today. There were no TV producers, car salesmen, rocket scientists, and certainly no computer programmers. The first emigrants to America had occupations concerned primarily with simple, basic survival in the New World. They were, for the most part, skilled laborers, who could make things most of us now only dabble in as hobbies.

Some occupational names were self-explanatory such as a blacksmith, locksmith, and gunsmith. Of course there were also occupations with names that are recognizable today - coroner, bookkeeper, barber, cabinet-maker, weaver, baker, brick-layer, accountant, printer and musician.

Other occupations included:

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  • ACATER: supplied food provisions, such as a ships chandler

  • ACCIPITRARY a falconer or keeper and tamer of hawks

  • ACCOMPANT: an accountant

  • ACCOUCHEUR / ACCOUCHEUS: one who assisted women in childbirth

  • ACCOUTREMENT MAKER / ACCOUTRE: a supplier of military accessories

  • ACRE-MAN / ACKERMAN: a man who ploughed or cultivated the land

  • ACTUARY: a statistician who computed insurance risks and premiums

  • AGENT: a person who acted on behalf of a company or another person

  • AGRICULTURIST: a person involved with land cultivation or animal husbandry

  • ALABASTERER: one who worked with alabaster

  • ALCHEMIST: a medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold

  • ALE DRAPER: [obsolete] an ale-house keeper

  • ALE TASTER: an English officer appointed in every court leet, and sworn to inspect ale beer, and bread, and examine the quality and quantity within his precints

  • ALE TUNNER: a person employed by the brewery to fill ale casks called "tuns" with ale

  • ALEWIFE a woman who kept an alehouse or tavern

  • ALL SPICE: grocer

  • ALMONER: an officer who distributed charity or alms; by ancient law every monastery was to disperse a tenth of its income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were obliged to keep an almoner

  • ALMSMAN: a person supported by charity or one who lived on alms

  • ALNAGER: official who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval

  • AMANUENSIS: one who is employed to take dictation or to copy manuscript

  • AMBER CUTTER: a person who cut ambergris

  • ANCHOR SMITH: one who made anchors

  • ANCHORESS: a female hermit or religious recluse

  • ANCHORITE: a person who has retired into seclusion for religious reasons

  • ANKLE BEATER: a young person who helped to drive the cattle to market

  • ANNATTO MAKER: a person who worked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing

  • ANTIGROPELOS MAKER: a person who made waterproof leggings

  • ANVIL SMITH: a person who made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths

  • APIARIANA: beekeeper

  • APOTHECARY: a druggist

  • APPRENTICE: one who was bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade

  • APRONMAN: [obsolete] a laboring man; a mechanic

  • AQUAVITA SELLER: liquor seller

  • ARBITER: a witness or judge

  • ARCHER: a person skilled in using a bow and arrow

  • ARCHIATOR: a physician

  • ARCHIVIST: one who kept historical records

  • ARGOLET: a mounted bowman

  • ARKWRIGHT: a skilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests or coffers)

  • ARMIGER: one entitled to bear arms, such as knight or esquire

  • ARMOURER: one who made suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships

  • ARPENTEUR: a land-surveyor

  • ARTIFICER: a blacksmith; one who made fuses, grenades, shells, etc.

  • ARTISAN: a skilled tradesman

  • ASHMAN: a dustman

  • ASSAY MASTER: a person who determined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins

  • ASSAYER: one who examined characteristics (weight, measure or quality) to determine a value

  • AUGER MAKER: one who made the carpenters augers for boring holes in wood

  • AULNAGER: See Alnager

  • AURIFABER / AURIFEX: a goldsmith

  • AVENATOR: a hay and forage merchant

  • AVOWRY: term for the lord of the manor

  • AXLE TREE MAKER / AXLE TREE TURNER: one who made axles for coaches and waggons

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  • BACKMAKER: a person who made "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper

  • BACKSTER: [obsolete] originally, a female baker; later, a baker of either sex

  • BACK'US BOY: kitchen servant

  • BADGER: a licensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter "P" on it and could only work in a defined area; a corn miller or dealer; an itinerant food trader

  • BADGY FIDDLER: a boy trumpeter in the military

  • BAGMAN: a travelling salesman; one who showed samples and solicits order for a manufacturer

  • BAGNIOKEEPER: a person in charge of a bath house or brothel

  • BAILIFF: [1] a court attendant entrusted with duties such as the maintenance of order in a courtroom during a trial; [2] an official who assisted a British sheriff and who had the power to execute writs, processes, and arrests; [3] (chiefly British) an overseer of an estate; a steward

  • BALISTER: [obsolete] a cross-bowman

  • BAIRMAN / BAREMAN: pauper, beggar

  • BALANCER: a person employed in the coal mines to operate the "balance" which is a slope with a pulley at the top where empty coal tubs pulled full tubs up the slope

  • BALER: one who bales of hay

  • BALLAD MONGER: one who sold printed ballads on the street

  • BALLAST HEAVER: a person who loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships

  • BALLER UP: a person who assisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay

  • BAND FILER: a metal worker in the gun making industry

  • BANDSTER: [obsolete] one who bound sheaves after reapers during a harvest

  • BANG BEGGAR: [slang] a constable who carried a strong staff

  • BANKER: a person who dug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge

  • BANKS MAN: [1] an overseer at a coal mine; [2] a bank manager

  • BANQUETER: a broker or banker

  • BARBER-CHIRURGEON - a person who practiced surgery and was a barber; in the 18th century an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting

  • BARD: a poet or minstral

  • BARGEMAN: one who worked on or owned and operated a barge

  • BARKEEPER: a tollkeeper

  • BARKER: [obsolete] a tanner

  • BARKMAN: a bargeman

  • BARM BREWER: a person who made yeast

  • BARREL FILER: a person employed in the gun manufacturing industry

  • BARTONER / BARTON: a person in charge of the monastic farm, also known as a barton

  • BASIL WORKER: a person who worked with sheep and goat skins

  • BASKETMAN: person who made baskets and furniture from wicker; one employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges

  • BATHING MACHINE PROPRIETOR: one who owned and hired the changing huts used at the seaside in the 18th and 19th centuries by bathers

  • BATMAN: an officer's servant in the army

  • BATTLEDORE MAKER: a person who made the beaters used on clothes, carpets, etc. to remove the dust

  • BAWD: a procurer or procuress for a house of prostitution

  • BAXTER: [obsolete] a baker

  • BAYWEAVER: one who wove bay, a fine woollen fabric also known as baize

  • BEADLE: a town crier or warrant officer; a lowly parish officer appointed to keep order in church, punish petty offenders, and act as a servant or messenger of the parish

  • BEAMSTER: the man who worked at the beam in a tannery

  • BEAVER: one who made felt used in hat making

  • BEDMAN: a sexton

  • BEDDER: [1] an upholsterer; [2] one who took care of the breeding or birthing of cattle; [3] a bed-maker

  • BEDWEAVER: a person who made the webbing for bed frames, also a person who wove quilts

  • BEESKEPMAKER: beehive maker

  • BEEKEEPER / BEEMASTER: a person who raised and kept bees for their honey

  • BELL FOUNDER: one who made bells

  • BELL HANGER: the person who installed bells in churches

  • BELLMAN: a town crier employed to make public announcements in the streets

  • BELL RINGER: one in charge of ringing the town's church bells

  • BELLOWFARMER: person responsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ

  • BELLOWS MAKER: a person who made bellows used for organs or blacksmiths' fires

  • BELLY BUILDER: a person who built and fitted the interiors of pianos

  • BENDER: a person who cut leather

  • BERNER: [obsolete] a man in charge of a pack of hounds

  • BESOM MAKER: [obsolete] one who made brooms

  • BIBLIOTHECARY: a librarian

  • BIDDY: female servant usually of Irish stock

  • BID-STAND: [obsolete] one who bade travelers to "stand and deliver"; a highwayman or robber

  • BILL POSTER: a person who put up notices, signs and advertisements

  • BINDER: one who bound items such as books

  • BIRD BOY: a person employed to scare away birds from crops

  • BIRD CATCHER; a person who caught birds for selling

  • BIRDS NEST SELLER: a person who sold birds nest collected from the wild complete with eggs; these were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets

  • BLACKING MAKER: a person who made polish for shoes

  • BLACK BORDERER: a person who made black edged stationery for funerals

  • BLADESMITH: swordmaker or knife maker

  • BLEMMERE: a plumber

  • BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKER: a person who made wooden blocks used in the hat trade; a person who laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid

  • BLOCK MAKER: a person who engraved the blocks used in the printing trade

  • BLOCK PRINTER: a printer who used wooden blocks for printing

  • BLOODLETTER / BLOODMAN: the person who used leeches for letting blood, thought to be a cure for many ailments

  • BLOOMER: a person who produced iron from ore

  • BLOWER: [1] a glass blower; [2] a person who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade; [3] a person who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths

  • BLUESTOCKING female writer

  • BLUFFER: a landlord

  • BOARDING OFFICER: one who inspected ships before entering port

  • BOARDWRIGHT: a carpenter

  • BOATMAN: a person who worked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals; boat repairer

  • BOATSWAIN: an officer in charge of the sails and rigging

  • BOBBER: [1] a person who polished metals; [2] person who helped to unload fishing boats

  • BOCHER: [obsolete] butcher

  • BODEYS MAKER / BODY MAKER: a person who made bodices for womens garments

  • BODGER: a craftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars

  • BOILERMAKER: one who worked with metal in any industrial setting

  • BOILER PLATER: a person who made rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines

  • BOLTER: a person who sifted meal

  • BONDAGER: a female worker on a farm who was bonded

  • BONDMAN: a person bonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade

  • BONE BUTTON TURNER: a person who made buttons using a lathe

  • BONE LACE MAKER: one who made pillow lace

  • BONE PICKER: See Rag Picker

  • BONESETTER: a person who set broken bones

  • BONIFACE: an innkeeper

  • BOOK GUILDER: one who decorated books with gold leaf

  • BOONMASTER: a surveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road

  • BOOT-CATCHER: the person at an inn whose business was to pull off boots

  • BOOTBINDER: one employed to operate the machines which bound footware

  • BOOT CLOSER: an employee who worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper

  • BOOTHMAN: a corn merchant

  • BORLERA: a person who made cheap coarse clothing

  • BOTCHER: a cobbler; a tailor; an unskilled laborer

  • BOTTILER / BOTTLER: a person who made leather containers for holding liquids such as wine flasks or water bottles

  • BOTTLE BOY: a pharmacist's assistant

  • BOWLER: [1] a person who made bowls and dishes; [2] one who made the rounded part of spoons before casting

  • BOWLMAN: a dealer in crockery

  • BOWYER: [archaic] a person in the bow trader; an archer

  • BRABENER: a weaver

  • BRACHYGRAPHER: a person who wrote short hand

  • BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMAN: a person who operated the winch at the pit head; a person who operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams

  • BRASIATOR: a brewer of ale

  • BRASS FINISHER: one who polished brass goods

  • BRASS CUTTER: a person who made copperplate engravings

  • BRASS FOUNDER: one who cast brass

  • BRAYER: a person who ground things up in a mortar

  • BRAZIER: one who works in brass

  • BREACH MAKER: a person who made the breach for guns

  • BREWSTER: a female brewer

  • BRICKBURNER / BRICKMAKER: a person who used a kiln to make bricks

  • BRICKMAN / BREAKMAN: a bricklayer

  • BRIDEWELL KEEPER: the person in charge of a lock-up or jail

  • BRIDGEMAN: toll keeper at bridges

  • BRIGHTSMITH: tinsmith

  • BROADCLOTH WEAVER: a person who operated a wide loom

  • BROAD COOPER: a person employed as a go-between for the brewery and the innkeepers

  • BROGGER: a wool merchant

  • BROOM DASHER: a dealer in brooms

  • BROOM SQUIRE: one who made brooms from birch

  • BROWDERER / BROIDERER: an embroiderer

  • BROWNSMITH: a person who worked with copper or brass

  • BUCK WASHER: a laundress

  • BUCKLER / BUCKLESMITH: a person who made buckles

  • BUCKLE TONGUE MAKER: a person who made the metal points that go in the holes of a belt

  • BULLWHACKER: a bullock or oxen driver

  • BUMBOAT MAN: one who met ships at anchor, with goods for passengers and crew to purchase

  • BUNTER: a rag and bone woman

  • BURLER: one who dresses or readies cloth for sale by removing flaws, knots, or imperfections

  • BURMAIDEN: [also BOWERMAIDEN] - a chambermaid or lady in waiting

  • BURYEMAN: a grave digger

  • BUSHELER: a tailor's assistant

  • BUSKER: [obsolete] a hair dresser

  • BUSS MAKER: a maker of guns

  • BUTNER: button maker

  • BUTTON BURNISHER: one who polished buttons

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  • CABBIE: driver of a small horse drawn passenger vehicle

  • CAD: a person employed to feed and water horses at coach stops

  • CADDY BUTCHER: horse meat butcher

  • CADGER: a beggar

  • CAINER: a person who made walking sticks

  • CALCINER: a person who burnt bones to make powdered lime

  • CALENDER: a person who listed documents

  • CALKER: an astrologer or magician

  • CAMBIST: a banker or one who dealt in notes and bills

  • CAMBRIC MAKER: a person who made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric

  • CAMERIST: a lady's maid

  • CANDLE MAKER / CANDLER: one who made and sold candles

  • CANDY MAN: [1] an itinerant candy salesman; [1] {England} a bailiff or process server

  • CANER: a person who made the seats for chairs out of woven cane

  • CANTER: a beggar or vagrant

  • CANTING CALLER: an auctioneer

  • CANVASER: a person who made canvas

  • CAPE MERCHANT: the head merchant in a factory

  • CAPER: a cap maker

  • CAPTAIN: [1] a person in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers; [2] an overseer

  • CARDER: one who carded wool

  • CARDMAKER: [1] A person who made the handheld implement used for carding wool and cotton; [2] the maker of playing cards

  • CARNIFEX: [obsolete] an executioner or butcher

  • CARTER: a wagoner, stable headman, or charioteer

  • CARTOGRAPHER: a map maker

  • CARTOMANCER: a fortune teller who used cards

  • CART WHEELER: one who made cart wheels

  • CARTWRIGHT: one who made carts or wagons

  • CASTER / CASTOR: maker of small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar, etc.

  • CASTRATOR: [also GELDER] one who castrated farm animals

  • CATTLE JOBBER: a person who bought and sold cattle

  • CAULKER: a person who made boats watertight by caulking the seams

  • CELLARMAN: one who looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse

  • CHAFFERER: a dealer in chaff

  • CHAISE MAKER: wicker cart maker

  • CHALONER: blanket maker

  • CHAMBERLAIN: a steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household

  • CHAMBERMAID: a female servant who attended to the bedrooms in a house or inn

  • CHAMBERMASTER: a shoemaker who worked in his own home

  • CHANDLER: originally, one who made or sold candles; a retail dealer in provisions, groceries, etc.

  • CHANTY MAN: the sailor who led the singing on board ship

  • CHAPELER: a person who made and sold hats

  • CHAPMAN: an itinerant peddler or one who kept a booth in a marketplace

  • CHARCOAL BURNER: a person who made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut

  • CHARWOMAN: a cleaning woman hired by the day

  • CHASER: engraver

  • CHEESEMAN / CHEESE MONGER: cheese dealer

  • CHRONOLOGIST: one who recorded official events of historical importance

  • CLICKER: a merchant's servant who would stand at the door and invite customers into the store; a foreman in a shoemaker's shop

  • CLOD-HOPPER: a ploughman or agriculture laborer

  • CLOGGER: one who made wooden shoes for sale

  • CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN: a person who made or sold clothes

  • CLOWER: a person who made nails

  • COACHMAN: a person who drove any coach

  • COAL HEAVER: one who unloaded coal from ships

  • COALMAN: a person who sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house

  • COALY: a coal heaver

  • COBBLER: a shoemaker

  • COCKFEEDER: a person who looked after fighting cocks

  • CODMAN: a fish seller

  • COGMEN: men who bought and sold a coarse cloth called cogware

  • COILLOR: [obsolete] a collector

  • COISTSELL: a groom in charge of the care of a knight's horse

  • COLLAR MAKER: a person who made collars

  • COLLIER: a coal miner or coal merchant

  • COLPORTEUR: an itinerant book salesman, most often one employed by a society to travel about and sell or distribute Bibles and religious writings

  • CONEY CATCHER: a rabbit catcher

  • CONFECTIONERY: a maker of sweets; sometimes, one who made medicines or poisons

  • CONNOR: one who tested, examined, or inspected

  • COOPER: one who made or repaired wooden casks, kegs or tubs

  • COPEMAN - [1] a dishonest merchant, especially in horses; [2] a receiver of stolen goods

  • COPER: a horse dealer

  • COPPERSMITH: one who worked with copper

  • CORDER: a colonial official whose duty was to verify cords of wood before sale

  • CORDWAINER: a shoemaker or worker of leather

  • CORK CUTTER: one who worked with cork

  • CORN CUTTER: a podiatrist

  • COSTERMONGER: originally, a seller of apples; a fruiterer, especially in the open street

  • COTELER / COTYLER: one who made and repaired knives

  • COUPER: one who bartered, dealt, or bought and sold

  • COURANTEER: a journalist, reporter, or newspaper publisher

  • COURTIER: the owner and driver of a horse and cart known as a court

  • COWHERD: a cow keeper; one who tended cows

  • COWPER: one who made wooden items

  • CRACKER BOY - a boy employed to clean and sort slate and other impurities from the coal crushed by the crackers (machines that crush anthracite coal)

  • CRAFTIMAN: a craftsman

  • CRAMER: a peddlar who sold books in the marketplace; a hawker

  • CRATE MAN: a person who sold eathenware door to door

  • CRIMPET MAKER: a person who baked crumpets

  • CROCKER: one who made crockery; potter

  • CROFTER: a tenant who worked a small piece of ground, having another vocation, such as fishing

  • CROOKMAKER: a person who made shepherd's crooks and walking sticks

  • CROPPER: a tenant who worked a piece of ground and got a portion of the crop in payment

  • CROWNER: a coroner

  • CURER: one who cured tobacco

  • CURRIER: a craftsman who treated animal skins with oil or grease

  • CUTLER: one who made, dealt, and sharpened knives, scissors, and other cutting instruments

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  • DAIRYMAN: a man who rented, owned, or managed a dairy and made his living by selling dairy products

  • DAMSTER: in logging operations, one who supervised the building of a dam

  • DAY LABORER: a man who worked on a hire-by-the-day basis

  • DECOYMAN: a person employed to decoy the wild fowl, animals, etc. into a trap or within shooting range

  • DELVER: ditch digger

  • DIKER: one who built dikes or dug ditches or trenches

  • DISHER / DISH THROWER: a person who made bowls and dishes

  • DISH TURNER: one who made wooden bowls or dishes

  • DOCK MASTER: a person in charge of a dockyard

  • DOG BREAKER: dog trainer

  • DOG LEECH: a veterinarian

  • DOMESMAN: a judge

  • DOOR-KEEPER: a janitor, porter, or guard

  • DOWSER: a person who claimed to be able to find water using a forked stick or dowsing stick

  • DRAINER: a person who made drains

  • DRAPER: originally, a maker of woolen cloth, later a dealer in cloths of all kinds

  • DRAWER: one who drew and served liquor for tavern customers

  • DRAYMAN: one who drove a cart carrying heavy loads, often used in connection with a brewery

  • DRESSER: [1] one who dressed another (a tirewoman); [2] surgeon's assistant in a hospital

  • DRESSMAKER: clothing maker

  • DRIVER: the overseer of a group of slaves

  • DROVER: a driver of sheep and cattle

  • DRYSALTER - one who dealt in salted or dried meats, pickles, sauces, chemical, and dyes

  • DUFFER: a peddler or hawker who sold cheap or trashy goods

  • DUSTMAN: a janitor or garbageman

  • DYER: one who dyed material

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  • EARER: a ploughman

  • EGGLER: an egg or poultry dealer

  • ELYMAKER: oilmaker

  • EMBOSSER: a person who moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material

  • EMPRESARIO: a man who performed a specific deed, such a importing a certain number of settlers, in return for land grants and power; land broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman

  • EMPTOR: a buyer

  • ENGRAVER / ETCHER: one who cut or carved designs or lettering in metal or stone

  • ENUMERATOR: census taker

  • EREMITE: hermit

  • ESSENCE PEDDLER: one who sold medicines, flavorings, elixirs, etc.

  • EXCISEMAN: a government official who collected excises (taxes)

  • EYER: a person who made eyes in needles used for sewing; also called a Holer

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  • FACTOR: a commissioned agent; one who sold goods for another in his own name and received a commission

  • FAGETTER: a person who made up faggots into bundles; seller of firewood

  • FANNER: one who winnowed (separated the chaff from the grain by means of air movement) grain with a fan

  • FARRIER: a blacksmith or horse-shoer

  • FASHIONER: one who fashioned or formed anything, especially clothing

  • FEATHER-BEATER: one who cleaned feathers

  • FEATHER-DRESSER: a person who cleaned and prepared feathers for sale

  • FEATHERMAN: a dealer in feathers and plumes

  • FELLER: a woodcutter

  • FELLMONGER: one who removed hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making; a dealer in animal skins and hides, especially sheepskin

  • FELTER: a worker in the hatting industry

  • FENCE VIEWER: a person legally appointed to inspect and report on the condition of fences.

  • FERRER: a smith who worked in iron

  • FISH FAG: a woman who sold fish

  • FLAX DRESSER: one who prepared flax prior to spinning

  • FLESHER: [1] a butcher; [2] one who worked in a tannery

  • FLESHMONGER: one who dealt in flesh; a pimp

  • FLETCHER: a maker of and dealer in bows and arrows

  • FLOATER: a vagrant

  • FLUSHERMAN: a person who cleaned out water mains

  • FLYING STATIONER: a street broadsheet seller

  • FOGGER: [1] a peddlar who carried small wares from village to village; [2] a low-class lawyer; [3] a middleman in the nail and chain trade; [4] an agricultural laborer who fed cattle

  • FOOT-BOY: a servant or attendent in livery

  • FOOT-MAIDEN: a female attendant

  • FOOTMAN: a servant who would run errands among his other duties

  • FORGER: blacksmith

  • FORESTALLER: one who bought goods before they come to market with the intention of raising the price

  • FOSSETMAKER: a person who made faucets for ale-casks

  • FRAME SPINNER: a worker on a loom

  • FRINGEMAKER: one who made fringes or ornamental borders of cloth

  • FRIPPERER: one who bought and sold old clothes

  • FRISEUR: a hair dresser

  • FRUITERER: a person who bought and sold fruit

  • FRUITESTERE: a female fruit seller

  • FULKER: a pawnbroker or money lender

  • FULLER: a person who fulled cloth by increasing the weight and bulk of fabric by shrinking, beating, or pressing it

  • FURBISHER: a person who polished armor

  • FURNER: a baker; one in charge of the ovens

  • FURRIER: one who bought, sold, and/or made furs

  • FUSTIAN WEAVER: a maker of corduroy

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  • GAFFER: a headman or foreman of a work gang

  • GANGREL: a vagrant or roving beggar

  • GANNEKER: an alehouse keeper

  • GAOLER: [obsolete] a jailer

  • GARCION: a servingman or groom, usually a young man or boy

  • GATER: a watchman

  • GATWARD: a goat keeper

  • GAUNTER: a glover

  • GELDER: castrator of animals, especially horses

  • GILDER: one whose occupation was to overlay an item with gold leaf

  • GINOUR: an engineer

  • GIRDLER: one who made girdles

  • GLAZIER: a glass cutter; a person who glazed pottery, paper, etc.

  • GOLDSMITH: a banker; one who dealt in articles made of gold; a craftsman who makes vessels and ornaments of gold

  • GOOSE HERD: one who herded geese

  • GOOSE HERDER: an itinerant tailor

  • GRACE WIFE: a midwife

  • GRAFFER: a notary or scrivener

  • GRAINER: one who produced artifical grain in wood

  • GRANGER: a farmer, bailiff, or steward of a farm

  • GRAVER: one who carved or engraved letters or figures in stone

  • GRAZIER: one who pastured and raised cattle for market

  • GREEN GROCER: a retailer of greens

  • GREENSMITH: worker in copper or latten

  • GRINDER: one who operated a grinding machine in any of several trades

  • GUMMER: a person who improved old saws by deepening the cuts

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  • HABERDASHER: a person who sold men's furnishings such as hats, shirts, neckties, handkerchiefs, gloves, etc.

  • HACKNER: one who made or used hoes, mattocks, etc.

  • HACKNEY MAN: one who rented horses and carriages

  • HAIRWEAVER: weaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair

  • HAND WOMAN: a midwife; a female attendant

  • HARLOT: [1] loose woman; [2] vagabond, beggar, rogue; [3] male servant, attendant or menial

  • HARPER: a performer on the harp

  • HATCHELER: one who cleaned or dressed flax

  • HAWKER: an itinerant peddler or huckster

  • HAYMONGER: a dealer in hay

  • HAYWARD: an officer formerly charged with the repair of cattle fences and the retention of cattle in the town common.

  • HEDGER: one who planted or trimmed hedges

  • HEELMAKER: one who made shoe heels

  • HENCHMAN: a horseman or groom

  • HEWER: a miner who cut coal, stone; a face worker in a mine

  • HIGGER: a person who peddled merchandise

  • HIGHWAYMAN: a robber who worked the public roads

  • HIND a farm laborer, household or domestic servant

  • HOBBLER: [1] a soldier on horseback; [2] one who towed a boat with a rope along a river bank

  • HOD: a bricklayer's laborer

  • HODMAN: a mason's helper

  • HOGGARD: a pig drover

  • HOOPER: a cooper; one who put the hoops on casks or tubs

  • HORNER: a worker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns

  • HORSE-CAPPER: a dealer in worthless horses

  • HORSE COPER: a horse dealer or breeder

  • HORSE COURSER: a man who keeps race horses

  • HORSE LEECH: veterinarian

  • HOSIER: a retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps, etc.

  • HOSTLER: [1] a stableman or groom; [2] one who serviced railroad engines

  • HOSTELER: one who received and lodged guests

  • HOUSE JOINER: one who built house frames

  • HOUSEWRIGHT: a carpenter or house builder

  • HOYMAN: a person who engaged in the carriage of goods and passengers by water

  • HUCKSTER: a peddler or salesman

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  • ICEMAN: an ice dealer; one who delivered ice to customers

  • INFIRMARIAN: a person in charge of an infirmary

  • INNHOLDER: an innkeeper

  • INTELLIGENCER: a spy

  • INTENDANT: a director of a public or government business

  • INTERFACTOR: a murderer

  • IRONMASTER: the owner or manager of an iron foundry

  • IRONMONGER: a dealer in iron and hardware

  • IRON SMITH: blacksmith; worker in iron

  • IVORY WORKER: one who made such things as piano keys, combs, billard balls, and buttons

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  • JACK: a young male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack

  • JACKSMITH: a maker of lifting machinery

  • JAGGER: a carrier, carter, peddler or hawker; in mining, a man who carried ore on a pack-horse from a mine to the smelter; a boy who had charge of the jags or train or trucks in a coal mine

  • JAKES-FARMER: one who emptied cesspools

  • JOBBER: [1] a person who bought in quantity and sold to individual dealers; [2] one who worked by the job or did piecework; [3] a person who worked in an official capacity and was dishonest, using the office for his own gain

  • JOBMASTER: Supplied carriages, horses and drivers for hire

  • JOINER / JOYNER: a carpenter who did interior finish work by joining pieces of wood

  • JONGLEUR: an itinerant minstrel

  • JOURNEYMAN: one who served an apprenticeship and was no longer bound to serve a master

  • JOUSTER: hawker or peddler of fish

  • KEDGER: a fisherman, or one who peddled fish

  • KEELMAN: a bargeman

  • KEMPSTER: a wool comber

  • KIDDIER: [1] skinner; [2] dealer in young goats

  • KNACKER: [1] one who made harnesses; [2] one who bought old horses and sells the flesh for dog meat, etc.; [3] one who bought and wrecked old houses and sells the various parts

  • KNELLER: a chimmney sweep who solicited customers by knocking on doors

  • KNOCKKNOBBLER: a person whose duty it was to chase dogs out of church if they became a nuisance

  • KNOLLER: bell toller

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  • LACEMAN: a dealer in lace

  • LACEWOMAN: a lady's maid

  • LAGGER: a sailor

  • LANDS JOBBER: one who bought land on speculation and sold it to others

  • LANDSMAN: an inexperienced sailor

  • LAND WAITER: a customs official who examined, weighed, and took account of goods that had just been landed (off a ship)

  • LASTER: one who worked or shaped shoes on a last [the mold of the human foot made of wood and used to shape shoes]

  • LATTENER: a maker of or worker in latten, a mixed metal of yellow color, either identical with or closely resembling brass

  • LAUNDERER: a person who washed linen

  • LAVENDAR: a washerwoman

  • LEECH or SAWBONES: physician

  • LEGERDEMAINIST: magician

  • LEIGHTONWARD: a gardener

  • LIGHTERMAN: one who owns or is employed on a lighter, a large flat-bottomed barge used to unload and load ships where the water is too shallow for the ships to dock

  • LIMNER: one who illuminated books or parchments; one who paints or draws

  • LINENER: a linen draper; shirtmaker

  • LINKERMAN: a person who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee

  • LISTER: one who kept a list of persons being taxed and their property

  • LITSTER: a dyer; one who dyed fabrics

  • LOADSMAN / LODESMAN: a pilot of a ship or boat

  • LOBLOLLY BOY: a ship's doctor assistant

  • LOCK KEEPER: overseer of canal locks

  • LONGSHOREMAN: one who worked on the waterfront loading and unloading ships

  • LORESMAN: a teacher

  • LORIMER: a maker of bits and metal mounting for horse bridles, generally a maker of small ironware and a worker in wrought iron

  • LUNGS: a servant whose duty was to blow the fire of an alchemist

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  • MADERER: one who gathered and sold garlic

  • MALEMAKER: a maker of 'Males' or travelling bags

  • MALENDER: a farmer

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  • MALSTER: one who made or dealt in malt

  • MANGLE KEEPER: a woman who offered use of the mangle to others for a fee

  • MANTUAMAKER: a dressmaker

  • MASON: a stonecutter; one who worked with stone or brick

  • MASTER: a skilled workman or one in business on his own

  • MASTER MARINER: the commander of a ship

  • MASTER OF THE ROLLS: an equity judge

  • MATCHET FORGER: knifemaker, or machete maker

  • MEADER: a mower

  • MEALMAN: dealer in meal or flour

  • MECHANIC: [1] Manual laborer; [2] Operator of a machine

  • MEDICINE PEDDLER: an itinerant salesman who dealt in herbs, elixers, pills, etc. which were bought in large batches and sold under his own label

  • MELDER: a corn miller

  • MENAGE-MAN: an itinerant vendor who sold goods to be paid for in installments

  • MERCATOR: a merchant

  • MERCER: a person who dealt in costly fabrics, especially silks

  • MERCHANT: an occupation that might mean anything involving the buying and selling of a variety of products

  • MESSENGER: [1] (Plymouth Colony) a constable; [2] (England) one who was appointed by a court to handle certain duties in a bankruptcy case

  • METALMAN: a worker in metals

  • METERER: a poet

  • MIDSHIPMAN: usually, a wealthy second or third son who could not inherit

  • MIDWIFE: a woman experienced in the birthing process who helped other women in the birth of a child

  • MILLER: one who owned or operated a flour mill

  • MILLERESS: miller's wife

  • MILLINER: [1] a seller of fancy wares and articles of apparel; [2] a maker of ladies hats and bonnets

  • MILLWRIGHT: one who planned and built mills or mill machinery

  • MINER: a worker in a mine, such as coal, iron, etc.

  • MINT MASTER: the person in charge of a mint

  • MIXER: bartender

  • MONEY-SCHRIVENER: a person who raised money for others

  • MOULDER: one who made molds for casting or one who molded clay into bricks

  • MUDLARK: sewer cleaner, riverbank scavenger

  • MUFFIN MAN: itinerant seller of muffins

  • MULESKINNER: a mule driver

  • MULETEER: one who drove a team of mules

  • MULTURER: a miller

  • MUSIKER: a musician

  • MUSTARDER: one who made and dealt in mustard

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  • NAVIGATOR: a laborer digging canals and later, railways

  • NECESSARY WOMAN: servant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots

  • NECKER: a worker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine that makes boxes

  • NEDELLER: one who made needles

  • NETTER: a net maker

  • NIGHT SOILMAN: one employed to empty cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets

  • NIGHT MAGISTRATE: a constable

  • NIGHTWALKER: a watchman or bellman

  • NIMGIMMER: doctor, surgeon, or apothecary

  • NOB-THATCHER: one who made wigs

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  • OCCUPIER: a tradesman

  • OILMAN: a person who sold the oil for lamps

  • OLITOR: a kitchen gardener

  • ORDERLY: a non-commissioned officer or private in the miitary service assigned to look after the needs of superior officers or to carry orders or messages

  • ORDINARY KEEPER: innkeeper

  • ORFEVER: a goldsmith

  • OSTREGER: a keeper of goshawks

  • OSTLER: See Hostler

  • OUT-CRIER: an auctioneer

  • OWLER: a sheep or wool smuggler

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  • PACKMAN: a peddler, or person who travelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack

  • PACKER: one who packed goods for preservation, such as pickles or herring

  • PAINTRESS: a woman employed in the pottery industry to hand-paint the finished articles

  • PALING MAN: one who dealt in eels; fishmonger

  • PAN SMITH: one who made pans; metalworker

  • PANTER: keeper of the pantry

  • PARKER: one who kept a park; a caretaker

  • PASSAGE KEEPER: a person who kept passages and alleys clean

  • PASTELER: a pastry maker

  • PASTOR: a shepherd or herdsman

  • PAVER: one who maintained pavements; a person who laid paving stones

  • PAVYLER: one who put up pavilions or tents

  • PAWNBROKER: one who loaned money with interest against items of value left for security

  • PEAGER: a toll-keeper

  • PEDAILE: a footman; a foot soldier

  • PEDDLER: a person who traveled from place to place selling small goods

  • PELTERER: a person who worked with animal skins

  • PERFUMER: a maker or seller of perfumes

  • PERCHEMEAR: one who made parchment

  • PERIWIG MAKER: a wigmaker

  • PESSONER: a fishmonger

  • PETERMAN: a fisherman

  • PETTIFOGGER: a small time lawyer retained by a small or mean business

  • PETTY CHAPMAN: an itinerant dealer in small goods, a peddler

  • PEW OPENER: a person hired to open the doors to private pews in church

  • PHARMAOPOEIST: a person who sold medicines; an apothecary

  • PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER: a maker of scientific instruments

  • PICAROON: a pirate, or a pirate's ship; a thief, adventurer, or rogue

  • PIECE BROKER: one who sold material remnants

  • PIGMAKER: a person who made pig or cast iron; pottery worker

  • PIGMAN: [also MUGGER] a seller of crockery

  • PIKELET MAKER: baker who specialised in making small pancakes or crumpets

  • PIKEMAN: a miller's assistant

  • PIKER: tramp or vagrant

  • PILL BOX LIDDER: one responsible for making the lids of pill boxes in the pottery trade

  • PILLER: a robber

  • PILOT: one licensed to steer ships through difficult waters

  • PINDER: a person whose duty was to catch and confine stray animals

  • PINER: [1] a pioneer; [2] a laborer

  • PINNER: a pin maker

  • PINNER UP: [1] a dressmakers assistant; [2] person who sold broadsheets or ballads in the streets

  • PIPER: an innkeeper

  • PITMAN: a coal miner; one who worked in a pit

  • PLAIN WORKER: one who performed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer

  • PLAITER: one who made straw plaits used in making hats

  • PLANKER: one who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting

  • PLOUGH JOGGER: a plowman

  • PLOWMAN: a farm worker; a husbandman

  • PLOWRIGHT: one who made or repaired plows

  • PLUMASSIER / PLUMER: a person who made or sold plumes, ornamental feathers

  • PLUMBUM MAN: a plumber; one who worked with lead pipes

  • POINTER: someone who sharpened needles or pins

  • POLEMAN: a surveyor's assistant

  • PONDERATOR: an inspector of weights and measures

  • PORTABLE SOUP MAKER: a person who converted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place

  • PORTER: [1] a pallbearer; [2] a doorman

  • POSTILLION: one who worked on long distance coaches and whose duty it was to change the horses at stops

  • POST RIDER: one who carrierd mail over a post road

  • POTATO BADGER: a potato seller

  • POT BOY: person who worked in public houses washing and removing dirty pots and other menial jobs

  • POTTER: one who made or peddled pottery or earthenware vessels

  • POTTER CARRIER: a chemist or pharmacist

  • POUCH MAKER: a person who made pouches or purses

  • POULTER: one who dealt in poultry

  • POYNTER: lace maker

  • PRESTIDIGITATOR: a magician; a juggler; one who juggles words

  • PRICKER: witch hunter

  • PUBLICAN: [1] an inkeeper or tavern keeper; [2] a person who collected fees of any kind such as tithes, tolls, tributes, customs, etc.

  • PUGGER: usually a woman or child employed by brick manufacturers to produce clay paste by treading

  • PULLEYMAKER: one who made pulleys for hoists

  • PUMPMAKER: a person who made pumps

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  • QUARRIER: a quarry worker

  • QUARRYMAN: quarry worker

  • QUILLER: a person who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools

  • QUILTER: a person who quilted material

  • QUISTER: one who bleached things

  • RAG CUTTER: someone who cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper

  • RAG GATHERER: usually children, employed to clear the rags from the machinery in the mills

  • RAG MAN: a person who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags

  • RAG AND BONE MAN: one who went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish

  • RAG PICKER: a person who sorted through the leftover rags to find reusable ones

  • RATONER: a rat catcher

  • REDSMITH: goldsmith

  • REVENUER: taxman who enforced tax laws on liquor

  • RIGGER: one who worked with the rigging of a ship

  • RIPPER: a person who brought fish inland to the market

  • RIVERMAN - unlicensed employee of a river boat, such as agent, barker, bartender, clerk, cook, deck hand, etc.; usually does not refer to the owner, master, mate, or pilot, however, it is not always the case

  • RODMAN: a surveryor's assistant who carried a leveling rod

  • ROPER: a rope or net maker

  • ROVER: an archer

  • RUGMAN: rug dealer

  • RUNNER: [1] a smuggler; [2] a messenger, collector, or agent

  • RUSTLER: a cattle thief

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  • SADDLER: one who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles, etc.

  • SADDLE TREE MAKER: one who made the frames for saddles that the saddler used

  • SALOONIST: a saloon keeper; one who promoted the idea of having saloons for drinking

  • SALTER: a maker of and ealer in salt; a drysalter

  • SANDESMAN: a messenger, envoy, or ambassador

  • SAPPERS AND MINERS - soldiers who belonged to the engineer corps whose duty was to make trenches or saps

  • SARTOR: a tailor

  • SAWYER: one who cut timber into logs or boards

  • SAY WEAVER - a weaver of say, a cloth of fine texture resembling serge

  • SAYER: a poet

  • SCAVELMAN: one who kept the waterways and ditches clear

  • SCHOOLMASTER: teacher

  • SCHRIMPSCHONGER: one who carved bone, ivory, etc. into pieces of art

  • SCRIBE - an official clerk transcriber; one who copied manuscripts before printing was developed

  • SCRIMER: a fencing master

  • SCRIPTURE READER: A person employed by the local clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encourage people to attend church;also read scriptures during some services

  • SCRIVENER: a clerk or notary; formerly, a moneylender; a broker

  • SCULLERY MAID: a female servant who performed all the menial tasks

  • SCULLION: a male servant who performed all the menial tasks

  • SEALER: an inspector who was elected by the town to put his "seal" or stamp of approval on items he inspected, tested and certified

  • SEARCHER: one who was employed at a custom-house station to inspect incoming goods; a customs-man

  • SEEDSMAN: one who dealt in seeds; a sower

  • SEMI LORER: a person who made leather thongs

  • SEMPSTRESS: seamstress

  • SEWSTER: a seamstress

  • SHANTY-MAN: a lumberman

  • SHARECROPPER: a person who would farm ground owned by another, and divide the crops or the profits with the owner

  • SHEARER: one who removed the fleece from sheep

  • SHEARGRINDER: one who sharpened shears, scissors

  • SHEARMAN: one who sheared cloth, metal, etc.

  • SHEATH MAKER: a person who made scabbards for swords

  • SHEEPMAN: a person whose business was raising sheep; a sheepherder

  • SHEPSTER: a female pattern cutter; a dressmaker

  • SHINGLER: a roof tiler who used wooden tiles or shingles

  • SHOESMITH: a cobbler; one who shod horses

  • SHIP MASTER: the owner or commander of a ship

  • SHIPWRIGHT: a carpenter skilled in building and repairing ships

  • SHOE-FINDER: a person who sold shoemakers' tools and appliances

  • SHOE-WIPER: a servant whose duty it was to clean shoes

  • SHORESMAN: a person who made his living on the shore in the fishery business; a shore-gunner

  • SHRAGER: a person who trimmed and pruned trees

  • SILK THROWSTER: a person who wound, twisted, spun, or threw silk fibers in preparation for weaving

  • SILVER SMITH: a person who worked with silver

  • SKEPPER: a person who made and sold beehives

  • SKINKER: a tapster; one who drew ale

  • SKINNER: one who dealt in animal skins; a mule driver

  • SLATER: one who slated roofs

  • SLOP SELLER: a person who sold cheap, ready-made garments

  • SMELTER: [1] one who worked in a smelter melting down ores; [2] a fisherman who fished for smelts

  • SMITH: one who made or repaired metal items

  • SNOBBER: a shoemaker or cobbler

  • SNOW WARDEN: a person whose duty was to make sure the snow was evenly dispersed on the streets so the sleigh runners could move easily

  • SNUFFER MAKER: one who made the candle snuffer for putting out or "snuffing" candlelight

  • SOAPBOILER: a soap-maker

  • SOJOURNER CLOTHIER: a traveling clothes salesman

  • SOUTER: a shoemaker

  • SPALLIER: a tin works laborer

  • SPERVITER: a keeper of sparrow hawks

  • SPICER: a grover or one who dealt in spices

  • SPINNER: one who spins yarn

  • SPLITTER: one who operated a splitting machine or who split things by hand

  • SPOONER: a person who made spoons

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  • SPURRIER: a person who made spurs

  • STAMPMAN: a person who worked with an ore-crushing stamp mill

  • STAPLER: a dealer in various goods

  • STATIONARY TENDER: see STOKER

  • STATIONER: a bookseller; one who sold paper, quills, ink stands, pencils, and other writing items

  • STAY MAKER: a corset maker

  • STEERSMAN: the helmsman of a ship

  • STEP BOY: one employed to help passengers to enter or leave a coach

  • STEVEDORE: a workman employed either as overseer or laborer in loading and unloading the cargoes of merchant vessels

  • STEWARD: a person entrusted with the care and management of another's estate or household

  • STITCHER: one who sewed, decorated with stitching, etc.

  • STOCKINGER: one who knitted, wove, or dealt in stockings

  • STOKER: a person who tended a furnace; stokeed the fire in a furnace; shoveled coal to feed a furnace.

  • STONE CUTTER: one who cut and dressed stones

  • STONER: a person who cut stones

  • STONEMAN / STONEWARDEN: a surveyor of highways

  • STONE PICKER: one hired to remove the stones from the farmers' fields before planting

  • STONE WORKER: one who worked with stone such as masons or quarriers

  • STRAW JOINER: a person who thatched roofs

  • STREAKER: one who prepared the body for burial

  • STREET CLEANER: a street sweeper

  • STRINGER: a person who made the strings for bows

  • SUCKSMITH: a person who made ploughshares

  • SURVEYOR: one who determined the boundaries, area, or elevations of land or structures on the earth's surface by means of measuring angles and distances, using the techniques of geometry and trigonometry

  • SUTLER: a person who followed an army camp peddling provisions and supplies

  • SWAIN: [1] a herdsman; [2] a servant; a young man who was a knight's attendant

  • SWAMPER: [1] a laborer who cleared roads in a swamp or forest; [2] a person who did odd jobs in a saloon

  • SWEEP: chimneysweep

  • SWINEHERDER: a pig keeper

  • SWORD CUTLER: one who made and mounted swords

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  • TABLER: one who boarded others or was a boarder himself; boarding house operator

  • TAILOR: one who made or repaired clothes

  • TALLOW CHANDLER: a person who made and sold tallow candles

  • TALLY-CLERK: a person who counted votes; one who kept track of cargo or merchandise

  • TALLYMAN: a person who sold goods on credit and was paid by installments

  • TANKARD BEARER: a person employed in the drawing and carrying water from public pumps and conduits

  • TANNER: one who tanned or converted hides into leather

  • TAPER WEAVER: a person who made candlewicks

  • TAPISER: one who made tapestry; an upholsterer

  • TAPSTER: a barmaid or bartender

  • TAPPER: a tavern-keeper

  • TAVERNER: an innkeeper

  • TAWER: one who made white leather

  • TEAMSTER: one who drove a team for hauling cargo

  • TENTER: one who looks after machinery in a factory, such as a loom tenter

  • THACKER: a thatcher

  • THATCHER: one who covered roofs with straw or reeds

  • THRESHER: a person who separated the grain from the husks and straw

  • THROWSTER: one who threw (wound or twisted) silk into thread

  • TICKNEY MAN: a person who sold earthenware from town to town

  • TIDE GAUGER: a person who monitored the tide

  • TIDE WAITER: a custom house officer

  • TIEMAKER: one who made wooden railway ties

  • TILER: a person who put tiles in place either on the roof or floor

  • TILLER: a farmer; a cultivator

  • TILLMAN: a farmer; a ploughman

  • TINKER: an itinerant repairman who mended pots and pans; a jack-of-all trades

  • TINNER: a worker in a tin mine; a tinsmith; one who made tinware

  • TINTER: an artist skilled in tinting

  • TILTMAKER: a person who made canvas awnings or canopies

  • TIMEKEEPER: a person responsible for making sure things happened on time such as workers arriving or departing, trains, coaches, etc.

  • TIMES IRONER: a servant responsible for ironing the daily newspaper

  • TINCTOR: a dyer

  • TINKER: a travelling repairer of pots and pans

  • TINSMITH: a person who worked with tin

  • TIPPER: person who put the metal tips on arrows

  • TIPPLER: a person who kept an ale house

  • TIREWOMAN: a woman who assisted in the dressing room, especially in the theater; a dressmaker; a costumier

  • TOBACCO SPINNER: cigar maker

  • TOLLER: a person who collected tolls

  • TOLLGATE KEEPER: one who worked at the toll gate to collect fees for use of the road

  • TONSOR: a barber

  • TOOL HELVER: a person who made tool handles

  • TOPMAN: a sailor who served in the top mast station; the man who stood at the topmost point when sawing lumber

  • TOPSMAN: the foreman or head cattle drover

  • TOWN CRIER: a person who made public announcments in the streets

  • TRADESMAN: a shopkeeper or skilled craftsman

  • TRAMPER: [1] a vagabond; a tramp; [2] a person who trampled or walked on clothing in the wash to clean them

  • TRAMPLER: an attorney

  • TRANQUETER: a person who made hoops

  • TRANTER / TRAUNTER: a peddler with a horse and cart

  • TREEN MAKER: a person who made domestic articles from wood

  • TREENAIL MAKER: one who made the long wooden pins used in shipbuilding

  • TRENCHERMAKER: a person who made wooden boards or platters for serving food from or cutting and slicing food on

  • TRENCHERMAN: a cook

  • TRUCHMAN: an interpreter

  • TRUGGER: a person who made long shallow baskets

  • TUBBER: a person who made tubs and barrels

  • TUBEDRAWER: a person who made tubes

  • TUNIST: one who tuned musical instruments

  • TURNER: a person who worked with a lathe

  • TURNKEY: a prison warden or jail keeper

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  • UPHOLDER: upholsterer and also a seller of secondhand goods

  • UPHOLSTERER: one who finished furniture by putting on the padding and cloth

  • UPRIGHT WORKER: a chimney sweep

  • VALET: a male servant who attended a nobleman or gentleman

  • VATMAN: [1] a person employed in the paper making industry to put the paper pulp into the moulds; [2] a person who worked with vats in beer and wine making

  • VERGE MAKER: a person who made the spindles used in clocks and watches

  • VERRIER: a glazier

  • VERSER: a versifier; a poet

  • VICTUALLER: a grocer

  • VINTAGER: grape farmer, wine maker

  • VINTNER: a wine merchant

  • VIRGINAL PLAYER: one who played a musical instrument similar to a harpsichord

  • VULCAN: blacksmith

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  • WAFERER: one who made and sold wafers or thin unleavened cakes

  • WAGONER: a driver of a wagon; a carter

  • WAINWRIGHT: one who built or repaired wagons

  • WAITMAN / WAKEMAN: night watchman

  • WALKER: a cloth-worker

  • WALLER: [1] a person who built walls either brick or dry stone; [2] one who worked making coarse salt

  • WANTCATCHER: a person employed to catch moles

  • WARDER / WARDEN: a person in charge of prisoners

  • WARPER: [1] one who set the warp thread on the looms; [2] one employed to move boats by hauling on the warps (the ropes attached to the boats)

  • WARRENER: a person in charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game

  • WASHMAN: a person who applied the wash (or coating) of tin when making tinplate

  • WATCH FINISHER: a person employed to assemble watches and clocks

  • WATCHMAN: one whose job it was to guard the streets at night

  • WATER BAILIFF: an official in charge of the fishing rights on a stretch of water; a river policeman or in coastal towns a customs official

  • WATER CARRIER: a person who carted and sold fresh water

  • WATER GILDER: a person who trapped water fowl

  • WATER LEADER: a person who carts water for sale

  • WATERMAN: person who worked with or on boats usually on rivers

  • WATTLE HURDLE MAKER: a person who made a type of fence from wattle to keep the sheep, i.e. construction of poles intertwined with twigs, reeds, or branches

  • WAY-MAKER: a person employed to make roads

  • WAY MAN: surveyor of roads

  • WEATHERSPY: an astrologer

  • WEBBER: a weaver

  • WEEDER: a person employed to remove the weeds from the gardens of the rich

  • WEIGHER: a person employed on the docks to weigh the cargo as it was unloaded

  • WELLMASTER: one in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village

  • WELL SINKER: a person who dug wells

  • WELLWRIGHT: a person who made the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in a well

  • WET GLOVER: a person who made leather gloves

  • WET NURSE: a woman employed to suckle the child of another

  • WETTER: [1] a person employed to dampen paper during the printing process; [2] a person in the glass industry who detached the glass by wetting

  • WHACKER: one who drove a team of oxen, horses, etc.

  • WHARFINGER: the person who owned or managed a wharf

  • WHEELER: [1] a wheel maker; [2] a person in the textile industry who attended to the spinning wheel; [3] a person who led the pit ponies that pulled the tubs underground in the mines

  • WHEELWRIGHT: a person who repaired and made wheels and wheeled vehichles

  • WHEERYMAN: a person in charge of a wheery (a small, light rowing boat)

  • WHIPCORD MAKER: a person who made whips

  • WHIPPERIN: one who handled the hounds in a hunt

  • WHITEAR: a cleanser of hides

  • WHIT COOPER: one who made barrels from tin

  • WHITE LIMER: a person who plastered walls using lime and water plaster

  • WHITENING ROLL MAKER: a person who made the whitening used in whitening walls of cottages

  • WHITENER: a person who bleached cloth

  • WHITE SMITH: a maker of utensils in tin, especially dairy utensils

  • WHITE TAWER / WHITTAWER: a saddler, harness-maker

  • WHITEWING: a street sweeper

  • WILLOW PLAITER: one who made baskets

  • WINDER: in the textile industry, a person who transferred the yarn from bobbins onto cheeses or into balls ready for weaving; in the mines a person who operated the pulley or winch

  • WINDSTER: a silk winder

  • WIRE DRAWER: one who made wire from metal by drawing the metal through various size holes in a template

  • WOODBREAKER: one who made wooden water casks

  • WOODRANGER / WOOD REEVE: a person in charge of the forest or woods

  • WOOLCOMBER: one who operated the machines that separate the fibers ready for spinning

  • WOOL DRIVER: one who brought the wool to market

  • WOOL GROWER: sheep farmer

  • WOOL SORTER: a person who sorted the wool into different grades

  • WOOLSTED MAN: a seller of woollen cloth

  • WOOL WINDER: one who made up balls of wool for selling

  • WORSTED MANUFACTURER: a person who made worsted

  • WRIGHT: a skilled worker in various trades, i.e., shipwright, wheelwright, cartwright, etc.

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  • YARDMAN: rail road yard worker

  • YATMAN: a gate keeper

  • YEARMAN: a person contracted to work for a year

  • YEOMAN: farmer who owns his own land

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