Subject: Contests with Indians pp 104-110 Resent-Date: Fri, 17 Jul 1998 20:48:04 -0700 (PDT) Resent-From: SCROOTS-L@rootsweb.com Date: Fri, 17 Jul 1998 23:47:07 -0400 From: "Steven J. Coker"
Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: http://members.tripod.com/~SCROOTS To: SCROOTS-L@rootsweb.com [...continued] RAMSAY'S HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT IN 1670 TO THE YEAR 1808. by David Ramsay, M.D. Volume I Preface dated "Charleston, December 31st, 1808" Published in 1858, by W.J. Duffie, Newberry, S.C. Reprinted in 1959, by the The Reprint Company, Spartanburg, S.C. CHAPTER V, Section II, pp 104-110 -=-=-=-=-=-= It might now have been expected that the vindictive spirit of the savages would be satisfied, and that they would be disposed to listen to terms of accommodation. But this was not the case. They intended their treacherous conduct at fort Louden should serve as a satisfaction for the harsh treatment their relations had met with at fort Prince George. Dearly had the province paid for the imprisonment and massacre of the Indian chiefs at that place. Sorely had the Cherokees suffered, in retaliation, for the murders they had committed to satisfy their vengeance for that imprisonment, and the massacre of their chiefs. Their lower towns had all been destroyed by Colonel Montgomery. The warriors in the middle settlements had lost many friends and relations. Several Frenchmen had crept in among the upper towns, and helped to foment their ill-humor against Carolina. Lewis Latinac, a French officer, persuaded the Indians that the English had nothing less in view than to exterminate them from the face of the earth; and furnishing them with arms and ammunition, urged them to war. At a great meeting of the nation he pulled out his hatchet, and striking it into a log of wood called out, "who is the man that will take this up for the King of France?" Salonč, the young warrior of Estatoe, instantly laid hold of it, and cried out, "I am for war. The spirits of our brothers who have been slain, still call upon us to avenge their death. He is no better than a woman that refuses to follow me." Many others seized the tomahawk and burned with impatience for the field. Lieutenant Governor Bull, who well knew how little Indians were to be trusted, kept the Royal Scots and militia on the frontiers in a posture of defence, and made application a second time to General Amherst for assistance. Canada being now reduced, the Commander-in-Chief could the more easily spare a force adequate to the purpose intended. Lieutenant Colonel James Grant, with a regiment from England, and two companies of light infantry from New York, received orders to embark for Carolina. Early in the year 1761, he landed at Charlestown, where he took up his winter quarters until the proper season should approach for taking the field. In this campaign, the province exerted itself to the utmost. A provincial regiment was raised, and the command of it given to Colonel Middleton.* Presents were provided for the Indian allies, and several of the Chickesaws and Catawbas engaged to co-operate with the white people against the Cherokees. All possible preparations were quickly made for supplying the army with everything necessary for the expedition. Great had been the expense which this quarrel with the Cherokees had already occasioned. The Carolinians now flattered themselves that, by one resolute exertion, they would free the country from the calamities of war. As soon as the Highlanders were in a condition to take the field, Colonel Grant set out for the Cherokee territories. After being joined by the provincial regiment and Indian allies, he mustered about 2,600 men. On the 27th of May, 1761, he arrived at fort Prince George; and, on the 7th of June, began his march from it, carrying with him provisions for thirty days. A party of ninety Indians, and thirty woodsmen, painted like Indians, under the command of Captain Quintine Kennedy, had orders to advance in front and scour the woods. When near to the place where Colonel Montgomery was attacked the year before, the Indian allies in front observed a large body of Cherokees posted upon a hill on the right flank of the army. An alarm was given. Immediately the savages rushing down began to fire on the advanced guard, which being supported repulsed them; but they recovered their heights. Colonel Grant ordered a party to march up the hills and drive the enemy from them. The engagement became general, and was fought on both sides with great bravery. The situation of the troops was in several respects deplorable, fatigued by a tedious march in rainy weather - surrounded with woods so that they could not discern the enemy - galled by the scattering fire of savages who, when pressed, always fell back, but rallied again and again. No sooner was any advantage gained over them in one quarter than they appeared in another. While the attention of the commander was occupied in driving the enemy from their lurking place on the river's side, his rear was attacked; and so vigorous an effort made for the flour and cattle, that he was obliged to order a party back to the relief of the rear-guard. From 8 o'clock in the morning until 11, the savages continued to keep up an irregular and incessant fire; sometimes from one place, and sometimes from another, while the woods resounded with hideous war-whoops frequently repeated, but in different directions. At length the Cherokees gave way and were pursued. What loss they sustained in this action is unknown, but of Colonel Grant's army there were between fifty and sixty killed and wounded. Orders were given not to bury the slain, but to sink them in the river to prevent their being dug up from their graves and scalped. To provide horses for those that were wounded, several bags of flour were thrown into the river. After which the army proceeded to Etchoe, a large Indian town, which they reached about midnight, and next day reduced to ashes. Every other town in the middle settlements shared the same fate. Their magazines and cornfield were likewise destroyed; and the miserable savages, with their families, were driven to seek for shelter and provisions among the barren mountains. Colonel Grant continued thirty days in the heart of the Cherokee territories. Upon his return to fort Prince George the feet and legs of many of his men were so mangled, and their strength and spirits so exhausted, that they were unable to march any further. He therefore encamped at that place to refresh his men, and wait the resolutions of the Cherokees in consequence of the heavy chastisement which they had received. Besides the many advantages their country afforded for defence, it was supposed they had been assisted by French officers. The savages supported their attack for some hours with considerable spirit; but being driven from their advantageous posts they were disconcerted. Though the repulse was far from being decisive, yet after this engagement they returned no more to the charge, but remained the tame spectators of their towns in flames and their country laid desolate. It is no easy matter to describe the distress to which the savages were reduced by this severe correction. Even in time of peace they are destitute of that foresight which provides for future events; but in time of war, when their villages are burnt and their fields destroyed, they are reduced to extreme want. The hunters, furnished with ammunition, may make some small provision for themselves; but women, children, and old men must perish from being deprived of the means of subsistence. Soon after Colonel Grant's arrival at fort Prince George, Attakullakulla, attended by several chieftains, came to his camp and expressed a desire of peace. They had suffered severely for breaking their alliance with Britain, and giving ear to the promises of France. Convinced at last of the weakness of the French, who were neither able to assist them in time of war nor to supply their wants in time of peace, they resolved to renounce all connection with them. Accordingly terms of peace were drawn up and proposed. The different articles being read and interpreted Attakullakulla agreed to them all except one, by which it was demanded "that four Cherokee Indians be delivered up to Colonel Grant at fort Prince George to be put to death in the front of his camp; or that four green scalps be brought to him in the space of twelve nights." The warrior could not agree to this article, and therefore the Colonel sent him to Charlestown to see whether the Lieutenant-Governor would consent to mitigate its rigor. Accordingly Attakullakulla, and the chieftains being furnished with a safeguard, set out for Charlestown to hold a conference with Lieutenant-Governor Bull, who, on their arrival, called a Council to meet at Ashley ferry, and then spoke to the following effect: "Attakullakulla I am glad to see you, as I have always heard of your good behavior, and that you have been a good friend to the English. I take you by the hand, and not only you, but all those with you, as a pledge for their security whilst under my protection. Colonel Grant acquaints me that you have applied for peace. I have therefore met with my beloved men to hear what you have to say, and my ears are open for that purpose." A fire was kindled, the pipe of peace was lighted, and all smoked together for some time in great silence and solemnity. Attakullakulla then arose and addressed the Lieutenant-Governor and Council to the following effect: "It is a great while since I last saw your honor. I am glad to see you and all the beloved men present. I am come to you as a messenger from the whole nation. I have now seen you, smoked with you, and hope we shall live together as brothers. When I came to Keowee, Colonel Grant sent me to you. You live at the water side and are in light, we are in darkness, but hope all will yet be clear. I have been constantly going about doing good, and though I am tired, yet I am come to see what can be done for my people who are in great distress." Here he produced the strings of wampum he had received from the different towns, denoting their earnest desire of peace, and added, "as to what has happened, I believe it has been ordered by our father above. We are of a different color from the white people. They are superior to us. But one God is father of all, and we hope what is past will be forgotten. God Almighty made all people. There is not a day but some are coming into and others going out of the world. The great King told me the path should never be crooked, but open for every one to pass and repass. As we all live in one land, I hope we shall all love as one people." After which peace was formally ratified and confirmed. The former friendship of the parties being renewed, both expressed their hope that it would last as long as the sun shines and the rivers run. Thus ended the war with the Cherokees, which had proved ruinous to them, and seriously distressful to South Carolina, without being advantageous or honorable to the contending parties. Nothing was gained by either, and a great deal was lost by both. In the review of the whole, there is much to blame, and more to regret. The Cherokees were the first aggressors by taking horses from the Virginians, but by killing them for that offence the balance of injury was on their side. They violated the laws of natural justice by retaliating on Carolinians for murders committed by Virginians; but according to their code, the whites of both were identified as objects of retaliation. No pains had been taken to teach them better by their neighbors, who enjoyed the superior benefits of civilization and of christianity. When the storm of war was ready to burst on their heads they sent their messenger of peace to apologize, explain, and negotiate for the unauthorized murders of their lawless young warriors; but they were not heard, nor even suffered to speak. Governor Lyttleton, unwilling to be balked of his military expedition, marched with his army into their country with these messengers of peace in his train; ostensibly for their safety, and with a promise that a hair of their heads should not be hurt, but really as hostages for their countrymen, and they were afterwards, without any personal fault, confined as such till twenty-four of their nation should be delivered up to expiate by their death for the murder of the Carolinians. If this demand was right, it was of that too rigid kind which hardens into wrong. Compliance with it was impossible; for no such coercive power could be exercised over these wild and independent warriors, under their feeble system of loose government. A treaty was nevertheless made to that effect, but under circumstances that its observance could not be expected. Treachery begat treachery, and murder produced murder. The lives of these men who came originally as messengers of peace, though afterwards retained as hostages, were barbarously taken away without any fault of theirs, other than their obeying the laws of nature in resisting a military order for putting their persons in irons. A deadly hatred, and a desolating war was the consequence. Both exerted all their energies to inflict upon the opposite party the greatest possible amount of distress. The war, after incalculable mischief was done to both parties, ended in peace; but the hatred of the Cherokees to Carolina continued to rankle in their hearts. In about fifteen years after it broke out, under the auspices of the same John Stuart before mentioned, to the great distress of Carolina in its revolutionary war with Great Britain, which shall be related hereafter. The treaty made by Sir Alexander Cumming with the Cherokees in 1730, had preserved peace between them and Carolina for thirty years. It is highly probable that moderation on the part of Governor Lyttleton would have prevented its interruption to any great extent, and most certainly the horrid scenes which have just been reviewed. The assumption of a hightoned spirit of decision on his part, carried to extremes against ignorant savages, unrestrained by social order and the precepts of religion, together with their vindictive temper and indiscriminate mode of retaliating for injuries received, produced a chain of great and reciprocal distress. The first link of this was the petty theft of a few Virginian horses, for necessary purposes; and the last, the ruin of the Cherokee nation, the desolation of populous settlements and the murder of many Carolinians. A review of the whole demonstrates that civilized people, as well as savages, show more sound policy as well as true wisdom in abating of their just demands to a certain extent than in urging complete and peremptory satisfaction for injuries received with too high a hand, and beyond the point of moderation. -=-=-=-=- * The other field officers were Henry Laurens, Lieutenant-Colonel; John Moultrie, Major. William Moultrie, Francis Marion, Isaac Huger, Andrew Pickens, Owen Roberts, Adam McDonald, James McDonald and William [Meson?] served in this expedition, and were there trained to further and greater services in the cause of their country. They all served in the revolutionary war, and in the course of it, the four first were promoted to the rank of general officers. Bellamy Crawford, John Huger, Joseph Lloyd, John Lloyd and Thomas Savage, also served in this expedition; and afterwards in civil departments, in and after the revolution. -=-=-=-=- [To be continued....] ==== SCROOTS Mailing List ==== ALL QUOTING SHOULD END ABOVE THIS LINE. The default Reply-To is the Forum. Don't quote excessively. ''' (0 0) +-----------oOO----(_)-----------------+ | Send any comments about the Forum to | | | | SCRoots Manager | | SCRoots@geocities.com | | P.O. Box 359, Charleston, SC 29402 | | http://members.tripod.com/~SCROOTS | +------------------oOO-----------------+ |__|__| || || ooO Ooo