Listings in City Directories provide early clues regarding where he worked and where he lived.
Newton (MA) Journal 24 Jun 1882: Wedding Ceremony in the Open Air. The recent wedding ceremony uniting for aye the hands and hearts of Mr. Charles A. Richardson of Chicago and Miss Emma C. Rand of this village, daughter of the late George C. Rand, took place under the trees on the estate of Mr. A.L. Rand. A large company of friends were present and the novelty of the scene was heartily enjoyed.
Newton (MA) Journal 24 Jun 1882: Marriages - At Newton Centre June 13 by Rev. D.L. Furber, D.D., Charles A. Richardson of Chicago, and Emma C. Rand, daughter of the late Geo. C. Rand of Newton Centre.
January 1936 letters from Wilford Douglas York to his parents and sister:
(First letter): Last night we learned that Mr. Richardson is nearing the end. He has suffered from anemia for many years and apparently it has weakened him now to a fatal extent. He would be eighty this spring and has been spending a half day at his office regularly until just a few weeks ago. However, he has had almost no exercise and no interest in gardening or anything of that sort, so that he just sat in his chair when he gave up more and more of his business activity. While that sort of thing can be made harmful by over-exertion, I think a little activity and sunshine would perhaps have enabled him to live many years longer.
Helen Parker is in bed with a blood count of 42, so they have their hands full. They thought it best for the family not to come, so Peggy is waiting here wondering what will happen. Her father has had two attacks of angina and could not recognize anybody yesterday. There has never been a death in the whole group of six families, although two of the grandchildren have finished college, so it is all very strange to her. Her uncle is coming on from New York to take charge of everything. So fortunately the children will not have to struggle with agreeing on a great many unaccustomed details.
(Second letter): As you have probably noticed in the papers, we have been having a terrific cold spell all week. The official temperature was 21 below at noon on Thursday and 10 below this morning. The change followed the heaviest snowfall we have had in a long time, piled on top of several others which have not melted. There has been considerable drifting since because of the high winds, and many people have been marooned within a few miles of Milwaukee.
The blizzard began a week ago Friday evening, making Saturday a day of anxiety as to transportation. When the Oak Park services were over at 10:45 it was still snowing and the funeral director had planned driving through to Pewaukee. The rest of us went up by train but as it turned out I was the only one who did go, aside from the four people who had come down from Pewaukee. Peggy stayed with her mother and an uncle, and Douglas who had come from his forest work near Superior was going back directly from Chicago. The train we thought he had taken was reported snowbound but he walked in just in time, having taken another train.
We took the Hiawatha, supposed to make the run to Milwaukee in 75 minutes, but coming out of Chicago the streamlined locomotive "threw" a tire and we were delayed for an hour. Fortunately we were going about 40 miles an hour rather than 100 and no damage was done.
When we arrived in Milwaukee, we found that the funeral car had last been heard from at the state line at two o'clock. At one of the several places where we had to stop during the drive to Pewaukee, we learned that it was ten minutes ahead of us.
Some of the drifts were as high as the car. Abandoned cars and trucks were scattered along the highway where people had left them. In many places there was one-way traffic and most highways were not open at all.
The service at the cemetery was an hour late and it was sunset when we went up the hill but we were much relieved that there had been no mishaps. The country was a beautiful sight, like the pictures of old-fashioned winters, and the sun had come out earlier in the afternoon.
Helen, who has always been the mainstay there, learned out of a clear sky on Sunday that she was leaving for the hospital Monday morning for removal of her uterus, with only a little better than an even chance of recovery because her blood count was so low. Her Father had been stricken on Thursday and that meant a crisis in both households.
Helen's operation was on that Tuesday and just when she was out of danger on Thursday Mr. Richardson died. Mr. Richardson passed away peacefully and with very little suffering and Helen seems to be recovering.
(Sunday [27 Jan 1936] - when told that his father was dying) The situation is developing much as it did with Peggy's father. He was given up early in November but was actually ill for only a little over two weeks before the end. I saw him ten days before his death and his manner did not seem much different than usual although he was very still and obviously weak.
He asked for Shirley and that was the reason, not explained in the family letter I just wrote, for my taking her down. She carried it off very well - sat on the edge of the bed and jabbered and did not seem at all frightened. I had hoped that her California grandfather might see her too but apparently it is now too late for that unless a miracle happens.
Chicago (IL) Daily Tribune: p.21 Death notices - Charles A. Richardson, at his residence, 308 S. Grove Av., Oak Park, beloved husband of Emma C. and father of Curtis R. and Douglas H. Richardson, Mrs. Vilas Parker, Mrs. J.B. Ely, and Mrs. Wilford York. At rest and services at chapel, 523 Lake st., Oak Park, Saturday, 10:30 a.m. Interment Pewaukee, Wis. Euclid 1643.
Waukesha (WI) Freeman (Pewaukee), 22 Jan 1936: Charles A. Richardson of Oak Park, Ill., father of Mrs. J.B. Ely and Curtis Richardson of this village, died in Illinois and was brought here for burial in Forest Hill cemetery Saturday afternoon.
Besides his wife and the two children mentioned, there are two daughters, Mrs. Vilas Parker of Oak Park, Mrs. Wilford York, Milwaukee, and the son, Douglas R. Richardson, Brule, Wis.
Waukesha (WI) Freeman (Pewaukee), 2 Aug 1944: Mrs. Emma C. Richardson, 83, died Monday in Milwaukee. Mrs. Richardson (nee Emma Rand), formerly of Oak Park, Ill., was the wife of the late Charles A. Richardson. She is the mother of Mrs. J.B. Ely, Pewaukee, Mrs. W.D. York, Wauwatosa, [Mrs.] Vilas Parker of Oak Park, and Douglas Richardson of Duluth, Minn. [forgot to list Curt - he may have been the one to provide the obituary]
Funeral services will be held Thursday at 3 p.m. from the William R. Hansen funeral home in Pewaukee. Dr. Lee of Milwaukee Congregational church will officiate. Burial will be in Forest Hill cemetery. Friends may call at the funeral home after 4 p.m. Wednesday.
Correspondence from John Fletcher provides a personal perspective on the U.S. Civil War.
Some more personal correspondence gives us a view of his family life.
Chicago (IL) Daily Tribune, Friday 17 Mar 1916, p.15, Death Notices:
Funeral services over the remains of Mr. Rand were held at the First Congregational church at Newton, Thursday afternoon at one o'clock. A special train left Boston at 12:15, carrying a large number of friends and associates of the deceased, who braved the severe snow storm to show the last tribute of respect to one who had been so intimately connected with them for such a long period of years. A short service at the house was conducted by the Rev. Bradford K. Pierce, D.D., the life-long friend of Mr. Rand, after which the public services took place.
The remains, in a plain, black-covered casket, ornamented with silver, were placed in the chancel; a cross of exquisite white flowers stood at its head, another of green with white intermingled stood at the foot, and on the casket was a white pillow with the word "Rest" arranged in green, and long, trailing sprays of smilax fell from it to the floor. As the casket was brought into the church the organist, Mr. George H. Brenna, played an appropriate selection. The pallbearers were Mr. A.I. Benyon, Mr. E.M. Fowle, Mr. R.R. Bishop, Mr. E.F. Waters, Mr. W.H. Wardwell, Mr. Alden Speare, and Mr. C.W. Pierce.
The services were impressive from their extreme simplicity, and consisted of reading of the scriptures by the Rev. Mr. Jackson, an address by the Rev. Bradford K. Pierce, D.D., and prayer by the Rev. Dr. Furber. During the services the hymns, "Nearer, my God to thee," "Jesus, lover of my soul," and "Abide with me" were sung by the choir, Mrs. Clara L. Johnson, Mrs. William H. Pratt, Mr. Francis E. Tuffts and Mr. George M. Stone.
Among the persons present were Mr. H.O. Houghton, the Hon. Willard Rice, Mr. J.F. Edmands, Mr. S.D. Warren, the Rev. Mark Trafton, Mr. J.F.C. Hyde and Mr. J.S. DeWitt. Delegations were present from the DeMolay encampment, the Boston Lodge of Odd Fellows, the Franklin Typographical Society, the Newton and Watertown Gas Company, the Pacific National Bank and the Union Mutual Insurance Company.
Newton (MA) Journal 4 Jan 1879: THE LATE GEORGE C. RAND
Mr. Rand was until last April one of the heads of the firm of Rand, Avery & Co., of Boston. He was a native of Vermont, born at Woodstock [Other evidence indicates that he was born in Danville VT] December 13, 1819. His father was the well known Christian minister, John Rand, who married Miss Betsy Marden [other evidence indicates that John Rand married Betsy Babcock] of the Essex county Massachusetts family by that name. George Curtis was the fifth of eleven children.
When about eleven years old he made his way to Boston and found employment as boy with Homer and Beals. Here he learned the trade of a printer. As an apprentice he worked on the hand-bill which was printed in that office designed to inflame the populace against William Lloyd Garrison at the time Mr. Garrison was put in jail to save him from the rioters. Mr. Rand, at that time, shared the popular prejudice against abolitionists, but afterwards became an ardent and consistent anti-slavery man.
On the formation of the republican party he joined it, and was always to be depended upon to do his share. He would sometimes say, when giving for the cause, "Come again if you need more."
He went into business very soon after leaving his first employers, and with little capital. For some years his struggles were hard. The late W.J. Reynolds, and notably Mr. W.H. Hill, were his business friends and advisors. His first venture was with another graduate of the trade on a joint capital of $200, opening an unpretentious job office on the second floor back of No. 3 Cornhill.
Young Rand's frankness, his persistency in looking up "jobs," his close and quick competition on prices, the in those days astonishing promptness in delivery, with full count and perfect work, gave the concern a good start. Eighteen months after the formation of the partnership Rand, borrowing $100, bought out his partner, and for a time continued the business alone, gradually increasing it, until in 1851 it employed four men and kept busy three small presses.
In 1850 [they were actually married 16 Jan 1851] Mr. Rand married his third wife, the widow of the Rev. John Roper, and through this union formed the friendship of her brother, Mr. Abraham Avery. A year later Mr. Avery resigned his situation as a book-keeper with the shoe manufacturing firm of Allen, Harris & Potter, and entered into partnership with Mr. Rand, bringing to the concern experience, good judgment, cash and a thorough knowledge of financial management.
The firm, George C. Rand & Avery, at once took a leading place. The little 20x50 room was enlarged by leasing the whole second floor; the little high desk jammed under the stairs was set by a front window; a new Adams press was bought, steam power hired, new type purchased, and Mr. Rand's ambition was beginning to be realized.
Before Mr. Avery's advent the business had, in a small way, secured the confidence of one or two book publishers. One day in 1852 a gentleman still doing business in Boston, but then in charge of the book work of the publishing house of John P. Jewett & Co., brought in the manuscript of Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Toms' Cabin" for an estimate on a two and a five thousand edition. Mr. Rand after figuring a minute, passed his notes to Mr. Avery, who, after a brief close scrutiny, remarked: "That's all right, George, we can swing it."
A price was given and a time for delivery; these were accepted, and the result was that for six months, night and day, these printers were kept busy with this work. The editions followed each other with unexampled rapidity, and author, publisher and printer, reaped a golden harvest.
Messrs. Rand & Avery further extended their business, added new machinery, and showed tact, energy and steadfast honesty. It was not long before their shafting and beiting [sic] stretched from Brattle street steps in Cornhill down to Dock square. A large number of establishments, publishers, printers, electrotypers, binders, gilders, etc., hired power of them, or did work for them, or depended in some way upon them. They pushed out for business in every city of the Union, making a specialty of large orders as well as small.
When it was proposed to extend Washington street, the improvement cut right through their premises. They were in great anxiety about it. About this time they were burned out. They got their insurance, or a good portion of it, and they were finally bought off by the city for a considerable sum. They then removed to their new premises in Franklin buildings, Franklin street, at present occupied by their successors, Mrssrs. Rand-Avery & Co.
For the past fifteen years Mr. Rand has been an intense sufferer from neuralgia. He has tried every known remedy, and it might almost be said in every known clime, for he has been a great traveler. Of late years he has found some relief in subcutaneous injections of morphine, but so conscientious has he been that he would only allow himself to use the drug as administered by his physician in person.
At the time of the death of President Lincoln, Mr. Rand lay apparently at the point of death. He was saved by the use of vigorous remedies, and, among the rest, by the use of hot water in bottles, which, becoming displaced, were the means of burning his limbs most terribly; but the burns produced the reaction that saved his life.
Amid all his sufferings he retained his interest in public affairs, his kind and neighborly feelings, his strong interest in religious and reformatory movements, and his own sweet and firm religious faith. He was a Methodist of the old school; simple and unpretending, and never thinking of hiding his faith or dodging his responsibility.
Mr. Rand by his first wife had one daughter, now the wife of a woolen commission merchant, by his second wife his son, George C. Rand, now of the New York house, Hurd & Rand; and by his third wife Avery L. Rand, of the present firm of Rand, Avery & Co., and also has two daughters. Mr. Rand was also step-father to Mr. John Roper of Towel [sic] & Roper, Chicago.
Obituary Notes, New York Times, 1 Jan 1879: George Curtis Rand, senior member of the large printing firm of Rand, Avery & Co., of Boston, died at his residence, in Newton Centre, Mass., yesterday, at the age of 57 years. Mr. Rand printed the first edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin, of which 300,000 copies have been issued.
Rand Genealogy p.109–11: In 1825 his father removed to Trinity MA, and the common schools of this town furnished the groundwork of his education. At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed in the office of the Boston Commercial Gazette, where he served the full term of his apprenticeship. He made a record there as a compositor of 1500 ems an hour. At the expiration of his apprenticeship, he spent one year at an academy in Newbury VT. Afterwards he returned to employment in the printing office of David H. Ela.
In 1842 he formed with Mr. Andrew Reid the partnership of Reid & Rand, at No. 3 Cornhill. The two partners constituted the working force, and a single handpress, with a small quantity of type, forming the plant. The firm shortly afterwards purchased The Sunday School Messenger, and later The Sunday School Teacher, both of the publications being sanctioned by the Methodist-Episcopal Church, and they were later on sold to the Methodist Book concern of New York City. At the end of three years, Mr. Rand purchased Mr. Reid's interests and continued under the firm name of George C. Rand & Co.
In 1852 he secured the printing of Uncle Tom's Cabin, the great demand for which necessitated constant enlargement of his facilities -- 800,000 volumes of these were printed at this time. The undertaking involved the running of the office night and day, requiring Mr. Rand's presence the greater portion of the time. Although the work at this time gave him a leading position in the trade, and was undoubtedly the foundation of much of his future success, yet it was gained at the expense of his health, and the overtaxing of his energies developed a physical trouble which for years rendered him a invalid, and which in the end materially shortened his life.
In 1854 his brother-in-law, Mr. Abraham Avery, was admitted to partnership, and from that date until 1867 the imprint of the firm name, George C. Rand & Avery, was known all over New England, and, in fact, in most of the cities of the east where books were published. The entire block, extending from No. 3 Cornhill to Dock Square, and from Cornhill to Brattle Street, a building six stories in height, was required for the business.
In 1867 the firm was changed to Rand, Avery & Frye, by the admission of Mr. Rand's nephew, Mr. Orrin F. Frye, and in 1871, following Mr. Frye's death, to Rand, Avery & Co., another nephew, Mr. John C. Rand, and a son, Mr. Avery Lewis Rand joining the firm. At this time Mr. Rand was compelled by ill health to retire from the active management of the business.
His was the brain to plan, his the energy to execute. A man of strong determination, he made the opportunity to establish himself in business, and he was in no wise daunted by his lack of capital, or by the many obstacles that confronted him.
With deep religious convictions, and with unswerving integrity he began his life work, and these qualities, with his vigorous energy, his evident business ability, and his power to make friends enabled him to establish and maintain his credit equal to his needs. His obligations were always met, many times at great sacrifice, but each successful struggle only strengthened his position.
He served his apprenticeship at a time when all the operations of the business were carried on in one room, and he became thorough master of his trade, so far as it had advanced. He was a growing printer, ever ready to try new methods, adopting such as proved of value, thus keeping in the foremost rank of his profession.
He took great interest in the artistic printing of wood engravings, and spared neither pains nor expense in doing his share towards the highest attainment then possible. An illustrated edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin, with drawings by Hammatt Billings, and engravings by John Andrew, two of the foremost artists in their times, bear testimony to the excellence of work that was performed by Mr. Rand at a time when wood engravings and their printing were very crudely executed.
Patient, persistent, giving unremitting attention to details, he enjoyed the satisfaction of seeing the business grow until it became one of the largest printing offices in the country. His life was given to his work, and only when failing health made it necessary for him to seek to regain it did he relinquish the burden, but so long as he lived, his interest in it never slackened.
Mr. Rand at an early date joined the Methodist-Episcopal Church in Boston, continuing his membership in that denomination until his death. He was a charter member of the Boston Lodge of I.O. of O.F., a member of the DeMolay Encampment of Knight Templars, a director of the Union Mutual Insurance Company, and various other institutions. He never held a political office.
[At about the time of his marriage in 1803] he was brought in contact with the Christian sect, and being much impressed with the truth of their doctrines, severed his connection with the Baptist denomination and became a preacher of the new faith, being ordained in Boston in 1806. For a time his work was chiefly evangelistic in Boston, Salem, Haverhill and other places. In 1806 he settled in Essex MA, and remained there seven years.
In 1814 he removed to Woodstock VT, and while settled there assisted Elder Hazen in compiling a Hymn book for the Christian denomination. He was settled at Danville VT, and at Bradford VT, and in 1822 removed with his family to Milton MA, where the family resided till his death. The old homestead in this place has been retained by members of the family, and is still (18970 a gathering place for the younger generations.
In 1853 he was partially paralized.
He took a deep and active interest in the cause of anti-slavery.
Joseph B. Felt, History of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton, p.268: Christian Society: This was formed April 5th, 1808. Their house was erected 1809. They have not had a constant supply of preachers. At first, Mr. John Rand officiated among them about seven years.
He soon became a strong friend of the educational interests of the day, as he felt the want of those advantages which many of his associates possessed; he was determined to do all that he could to furnish educational facilities to those in moderate circumstances, and this induced him to become one of the founders of the Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, as well as one of its most watchful and earnest workers during all of its early struggles and successes, contributing time and money without stint, until it became one of the most prominent and flourishing schools of that class in the country. (On a visit there in the 1970s, this compiler was told that he had planted the trees along the avenue leading into the campus.) He was also one of the founders and for many years a trustee of the Wesleyan University at Middletown CT.
In town and county affairs he was quite active, having from time to time filled nearly every office in the gift of his neighbors, and he was usually called upon to preside at public meetings. Many times he represented his town in the State legislature at Boston.
He was a stern man, yet fond of story and anecdote, and enjoyed exceedingly, in a quiet way, the comic side of life, as the many anecdotes told of him amply attest. He was quick to decide, firm as a rock, just to a fault, powerful in debate, and it is said that few cared to antagonize him in public assemblies, as he could always carry his audience with him, and he would never be defeated in any measure in which he was interested. He retired from active business in 1842.
The following quote was copied by Sweet from Rev. Dr. Stebbins' Memorial History of Wilbraham. Premising that Mr. Avery had always stoutly maintained that it was unjust to compel citizens to support preaching of the standard order when they did not believe in the doctrines preached, and was determined that the law should be repealed, he took this measure among others of making it obnoxious and unpopular:
"The collectors found it very difficult at times to get the taxes of the heretics in town, and no little cunning, as well as spunk, was sometimes displayed in escaping payment. Abraham Avery was a prominent man in the town, a tanner, saddler and harness-maker; a man of great energy, indomitable persistency, pious and plucky to admiration; from hair to heel a Methodist. He was cunning withal, and liked a practical joke, so be it was worthy of his religious profession.
With such an unusual first name, Partridge Richardson should have been easy to find in records; however, he proved to be unusually elusive. He apparently served in the Revolutionary War. He was a member of the unit of Lt. Joseph Johnson, Cambridge, 1777 [History of Woburn, p.373, 574.]. That unit was guarding stores in Cambridge. In 1778 he was a private in Col Jacob Garish's regiment of guards at Winter Hill, first in Capt. Nathaniel Cowdry's co. and then in Nathan Sargent's co [Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War. 1904, vol. 13 p.259]. However, there is no record of a pension application, he is not listed in the York Co. Maine index of veterans cemetery records and there is apparently no DAR record for him.
His father's estate was probated intestate in 1808 after Partridge's death, but neither Partridge nor his heirs are mentioned. Joshua Harlow, who later became the guardian of two of Partridge's sons, is mentioned along with Andrew Boardman, another son-in-law from Bartholemew's second marriage [Middlesex Co. MA Probate Records, Vol. 110, p.496.].
Partridge Richardson does not appear in the Census Index for 1790, 1800 or 1810 for MA or ME. However, the 1790 Census of Biddeford (York County) Maine has an entry for a George Partridge. The household includes 1 male age 16 or over (born before 1774) [Partridge Richardson was born in 1760], 1 male under age 16 (b1774-90) [George Partridge Richardson was born 1785], and 3 females [Martha (Reed) Richardson was probably born by 1766, Charlotte Richardson was born 1786, and Statira Richardson was born in 1789]. This could very well be the household of Partridge Richardson. A possible explanation for the name confusion: 1) George Partridge was his uncle who later held the mortgage on Partridge Richardson's Biddeford property; 2) Partridge named his oldest son George Partridge Richardson; 3) there is no other evidence of a Partridge family living in either Biddeford or Saco. Note the fit between the members in the census family and the members of Partridge Richardson's family, the latter shown in brackets.
Partridge also appears in the land records in York County. On the 1st of May 1794, Partridge Richardson, of Biddeford, yeoman, bought of Tristram Morrill, of Biddeford, trader, a tract of land in Biddeford, on the road leading from Saco bridge to Rev. Mr. [Nathaniel] Webster's meeting-house, formerly belonging to Rev. Moses Morrill, containing about one and one-half acres, with the dwelling house thereon, formerly the parsonage [York Deeds, lv.435]. On September 16th 1794, George Partridge of Duxborough, Plymouth County, Esquire gave Partridge Richardson of Biddeford, yeoman, a mortgage on this same property [York Deeds, lv.415]. George Partridge sold the property 2 Nov 1810. There is no evidence of other George Partridge land ownership in Biddeford or Saco.
On April 3rd, 1799, Partridge Richardson of Biddeford, yeoman, sold to Thomas Cutts, of Pepperellborough, one acre and seventy poles of land in Biddeford. This land began at Saco River, on the north-west side of the parsonage in Biddeford, on the road from Winter Harbor to Saco Falls. [York Deeds, lxvi.33]. Biddeford and Pepperellborough were on opposite sides of Saco River. Pepperellborough is now the town of Saco, on the east side of the river.
The final (known) record for Partridge occurs on 17 May 1811 when a guardian was appointed for his two younger sons [Guardianship record, Middlesex Co. MA Probate Records, Vol. 249, p.157].
Children of Partridge and Martha Richardson
One document which provided important clues in directing this research bears some description. The document was found among the papers of the author's mother (but not in her handwriting). It is half of a page of lined paper, showing a descendant chart. The first generation on the chart is Bart[holemew] Richardson and Hannah Partridge. The second generation is Partridge Richardson. The third generation shows two children of Partridge's: Charlotte m. Josiah Oakes and Augustus m. Clarissa Brown. The only child shown for Augustus and Clarissa is Charles B[artholemew], the great-grandfather of the author. Four children are shown for Josiah and Charlotte Oakes and three grandchildren.
The whereabouts of Augustus and Bartholemew from 1811 when Joshua Harlow was appointed their guardian, and they were both "of Cambridge" to 1830 when they appear in the Census in their own households has not been determined. They could have been living with their guardian or with their sisters in 1820. Their guardian, Joshua Harlow, was their uncle, the husband of Partridge's half-sister, Phebe Richardson.
1. George Partridge Richardson was born 7 Jan 1785, in Salem MA [Death record George P. Richardson, MA Dept of Public Health, v.212, p.302, #27.]. He died 19 Oct 1868 at Duxbury, age 83 yrs. 9 mo. 12 days, of "hydrothoray" [Death record]. He married (1) Charity Pratt Bush by 1811 when their first child was born. They had six children in all. His first wife died 13 Oct 1832 in Duxbury, age 43 [Duxbury VR p.406 ], and he married (2) Hannah A. [--?--]. She was born c.1801, and died before her husband. They had 2 children.
Mr. Bliss was first engaged to marry Sarah stebbins, but Elizabeth Bartlett said to him she "wanted him herself, and would maintain him in his great arm chair." "Well, he said, he "would see Sarah," which he did shortly after. Sarah said, "You may have her, then, for I won't maintain you in your great chair," whereupon he married Miss Bartlett, and after her death he married said Sarah.
It is related of him that when his first wife, Elizabeth, died, he rapped on all the bee-hives and told them his wife was dead - a superstitious custom in those days to prevent the bees from leaving.
He kept the "Ark Tavern" in Woburn, half a mile north of the Centre Village on what is now (1876) the road to Lowell. This was in 1787 and after.
Will, signed 10 Mar 1802, presented 17 Apr 1805
Bequests: to wife Rachel the use and improvement of real & personal estate while a widow; if she remarries, the use and improvement on 1/2 of my household furniture
to eldest son Joshua, son Loammis and son Leaonard, $100 pd 1 yr after the decease of both parents, plus what is already given
"I give and Bequeath to my Daughter Patty Richardson and to her heirs the sume of Fifty Dollars to be paid by my executor at the same time he is ordered to pay his brothers their respective legacies, and I further give my said Daughter Patty or her Heirs one-half of my Household furniture that may then be found after the decease of myself and wife, and this with what she has had at marriage and other times is to be her full part out of my Estate."
to children of late daughter Polly Poole - Eleazer, Rufus, Billy, Samuel & Polly, $1 each paid with the others plus what was already given to their mother
residue to son George Washington
Inventory, 13 Jun 1805, signed Sam Thompson, John Page, Josiah Converse
Worcester Co. MA Deed Books:
23 Feb 1756, Vol. 37, p.447 - from John Brewer of No one so called, Hampshire Co. to Zebulon Dodge of Lunenburg, husbandman, for £22 13sh, 62 acres, begins at North Westerly corner at a maple tree and runs South 4 deg West 82 rods to a hemlock and heap of stones, then makes an angle and runs east 12 deg North 146 rods to a stake and stones bordering on land of Josiah Dodge Jr., then makes an angle and runs North 82 rods to a stake and stones bounding on land of Thomas Little, then makes an angle and runs west 15 deg South 143 1/4 rods to the maple tree. [FHL 843174]
8 Jul 1768, Vol. 59, p.161 - from Daniel Munjoy, of Westminster, Worcester Co., to Zebulon Dodge of Lunenburg, yeoman, for £100, 1st Division of the right of lot #119, c.60 acres; and meadow lot #54, to the right of #21; and lot of upland lying in eastern part of township - house lot $56, c.60 acrs, bounded Northerly on Mr. Peirce, Easterly on Mr. Merrill, Southerly on common land and westerly on Mr. William Bemis. [FHL 843185]
20 Dec 1768, Vol. 59, p.464 - from Zebulon Dodge to Daniel Munjoy for 5 sh, house lot #119 and sawmill. [FHL 843185]
6 Nov 1769, Vol. 61, p.219 - from Zebulon Dodge to Daniel Munjoy for 5 sh, lot #56. [FHL 843186]
1770, Vol. 61, p.432, from Joseph Chaplin of Leominster to Zebulon Dodge of Lunenburg, for £50, 14 acres in Leominster. [FHL 843186]
On the 5th day of May, 1714, he was a witness for the Mohegan Indians, before the General Court, in a matter where the Indians had made complaint to the Governor, that one Peter Mann had set up a frame of a house on their land, contrary to the laws of the Colony, and against their protests.
In October, 1733, Mr. Avery and Adonijah Fitch were, by the General Court, appointed Grand Jurors for the County of New London. They were authorized, and directed, "specially to make diligent search after, and due presentment of, all breaches of the laws made to prevent the selling of strong drink to Indians." Ben Uncas, then Sachem of the Mohegans, had complained to the Governor, "that, notwithstanding the laws then in force to prevent selling strong drink to the Indians, there was continually much sold to the Mohegans, by means whereof their estates were impoverished, their manners debauched, and themselves rendered more untractable to receive the Christian faith."
"To prevent this destruction of property and indecent manners among them, Abraham Avery and Adonijah Fitch, both of whom were then living in the immediate vicinity of the tribe, were appointed Grand Jurors to complain of and arrest all persons found selling liquor to Indians, and to seize any liquor found in the possession of any Indian and confiscate the same."
The records of the Second Society in the North Parish show that Abraham Avery was a prominent man and held important offices in the society. In the year 1724 he was chosen one of a committee of three "to survey and lay out the minister's land in the parish, and to sell a portion of the same." In 1737 he was chosen one of the society's committee, and also in 1741, he was on the School committee. In 1746, he was chosen one of a committee to arrange with the Indians, relative to their attending public worship at the Parish church. He was last chosen as one of the society's committee in 1770.
He is reputed to have had an iron constitution and great physical strength, and tradition says that he "did carry six bushels of salt on his back, all at one time, and stand under eight." It is said that he cut the path from Springfield to Wilbraham - about ten miles. He received an Ensign's commission unde Col. Worthington of Springfield, which bore the date August 27, 1754. He also received a Justice's commission under the crown from Governor Shirley before 1759.
The nails and glass used in the house were paid for with tar made from pine knots gathered on the farm.
Wilbraham History p.56: ... Abel Bliss, who lived on Mountain Road in a log house, erected a tar kiln. He is said to have gathered pine knots and hearts called candle-wood and made 200 barrels of tar which he sold for $1000.
p.155: It is a wonderful morning in May. The Longstems and Old English pearmains in Ensign Abel Bliss' orchard were masses of pink and white.
p.254-55: About 1736 Abel built a log house "on the west side of the mountain" (Ridge Road), and in 1744 he began to erect a large two-story house (32 x 40 feet) at 182 Mountain Road, the tallest ever built in the mountains to that date. ... The plan for the pretentious new home brough Abel face to face with the strictures of the Worthy Noah Merrick. The pastor, learning what a grand mansion his parisioner was about to build, no doubt feared that at least one of his church family was becoming inflated with worldly pride. On a Sunday morning the text of his sermon was, "Build not your house too high." Abel, properly rebuked and penitent, cut off the upright posts of his house seven inches, lowering the first floor by that much.
See William Wallace Land Records
Peterborough History I:44: Rev. Elijah Dunbar, for long the minister of the church, ... in his Sketch of Peterborough ... says that in 1742, possibly as early as 1739, five men came "each with an axe and a small supply of provisions upon his shoulders," from Lunenburg, Massachusetts and cleared a few small patches of land near the old Meeting House. ... John Todd, one of the early settlers ... gives their names as William Scott, William Robbe, William Wallace. William Mitchel and Samuel Stinson. But any settlement they might have made was shortly abandoned.
New Hampshire State Papers, Vol. 39, Probate 1767-1771, part 9, p.30-31:
Imprim I give and bequith unto my Son in Law Ezablon [sic] Dodge five Shillings Starling money of Great Britten --
Itm I Give and bequith unto my son in Law George McClorg my settling Lot he now Lives upon and five Shillng Starling money of Grait Britten --
Itm I Give and bequith unto my son David wallace A Duble portion of the Remander of my personall Estate if he Lives to Com hom before the Deces of my self or my wife and if not the wholl is to be Equaly Devided Amongst the following persons (viz) John white Jean Hill, John Greyham, Thomas Little, Elizebeth Beard the Daugher of william and Sarah Beard, and the Ears of Arthor and margret Doraugh, and my Gran Daughter Elizebeth Holmes wife to Aberahm Holms -- Note all the Legecis and bequithments is to be Delivered to the Abve Legetees in one yeare after the Decise of my Self and my wife --
and I ordein and Constetut my trustey frends Thomas morrison and Samuel mitchel Gentelmen both of Peterborough in Sd province to be my Soll Exectuers of this my Last will and testment Revocking All other wills bwquithments testments Whatsoever allowing this and no other to be my Last will and testment.
[punctuation added] To the Horourable John Wentworth Esqr Judge of Probate of wills in and for the Province of Newhampshire at Portsmouth Residing. the Humble Petition of Elizabeth wallace the widow of William wallace Late of Peterborough Deceaced Humbly Sheweth for that whereas to me the Sd widow by my Husband william wallace afors'd Deceased I am Left the Keeping of two cows and one horse as appears by a bond which the exacutors will show Your honour which two Cows and one horse were Left upon the premises by my Sd husband but the property of them not Left to me by will and therefore Consequently can not have any Right to them but by your honours gratuity
and I would further begg Leave to Inform Your honour that in Sd will I have No part of any houshold furniture Left me whereby I can therewith Keep house or even subsist. I would therefore Pray your honour to Consider a poor widow and your petitioner as such a one and grant me Such Necassarys as your honour by the Information of the exacutors of my husbands will can think I may in any Comfortable measure subsist with and upon your Compliance your petitioner as in Duty bound will ever pray.
In the year 1693, he was approved as captain of the train band, on the east side of the river, now Groton, and the following year was chosen a deputy for New London, Groton then being a part of New London.
On the 22nd day of June, 1720, Capt. Thomas Avery and Capt. James Avery, his brother, were appointed interpreters, in a matter in which the Indians of Mohegan were interested, before the Governor and Council at New London. About the year 1721, Ceazer, the Sachem of Mohegan, conveyed to Thomas Avery 160 acres of land, in consideration of kindness shown to the Sachem by Avery and his family. This land answers the description given in the deed. About ten years previous to his death, Mr. Thomas Avery conveyed his farm to his son, Abraham, for love and good will, in consequence of the infirmities of old age.
Capt. Avery and his wife, Hannah, were among those who were first to organize the Church in North Parish, in 1772 - their names appearing first on the records, giving the original covenanters. Thomas had previously joined the First Church of Christ in New London in 1682.
From Deference to Defiance:
p.508n Nathaniel (1636-96), a woodworker, was a militia sergeant and had served in King Philip's War. He had amassed a £556 fortune by his death, £490 of it real estate. His house and adjacent grounds were valued at a substantial £120. He had served as a trial juror in 1675, 1680, and 1682, and often did fencing repairs for the town. ... [He] signed the 22 Nov 1690 opposition Address to their Dread Sovereign from the gentlemen and merchants of Boston and Charlestown.
Early in 1651, New Street, in the rear of the town plot, was opened for the accommodation of the Cape Ann company. This position was designated as 'beyond the brook and the ministry lot.' It was carved into house lots and took the name of Cape Ann Lane. The lots on this street were nine in number, of six acres each, extending both sides of the narrow street from the alder swamp in front to Cedar Swamp on the west. Beginning at the lower end, Hugh Calkins had the first lot by the Lyme road, or highway to Nahantick, as it was then called, and next to him was his son-in-law Hugh Roberts; then Coite, Lester, Avery, Allen, Meades, Hough, Isbell. These New Street home-lots were dreary and uninviting. Some of the new-comers became discouraged and went away and "even those who had the courage to settle down in this part of the plantation, soon abandoned the land to pasturage or waste and found other homesteads.
In addition to his grant of land, October 19, 1650, and of a town lot on Cape Ann Lane, early in 1651, James Avery soon received a grant of the "Little Owl Meadow," "not far from the town plot on the North side of the Mill Brook." About 1652, he was granted a farm in South Groton, where lands were expecially desirable, as they might be cultivated immediately. He, however, continued to live with his family on his town lot for several years. Early in 1653 he secured another farm in what is now the town of Ledyard and about 1656 he built "The Hive of the Averys," at the head of Poquonnock Plain, in the present town of Groton, a mile and a half from the River Thames.
In June, 1684, the old Blenman edifice at New London, "the unadorned church and watch-tower of the wilderness," was sold to Captain Avery for six pounds, with the condition that he should remove it in one month's time. According to tradition, the church was taken down and its materials carried across the river and added to the house he had already built at Poquonnock. Here James Avery lived until he died.
James Avery seems to have taken, at once, an active part in private business and public affairs. He soon became active in military affairs and is generally spoken of by the title of Ensign, Lieutenant or Captain. The region in which he had made his home was formerly the chief seat of the formidable Pequot tribe that had been almost exterminated by the English a few years before. After the Pequot War, a few survivors of that once dreaded tribe still lived in the haunts of their fathers, with the Narragansetts on the east, and the Mohegans, under their sachem, Uncas, near by on the west.
In 1657, the Narragansetts made a wild foray and Uncas fled from the blood and fire that marked their course. He took refuge in a fort and was besieged by his unrelenting foes. But just in time, "Lieutenant James Avery, Mr. Brewster, Richard Haughton, Samuel Lothrop, and others well armed, succeeded in throwing themselves into the fort; and the Narragansetts, fearing to engage in a conflict with the English, broke up the siege and returned home."
In 1665, Great Britain and the Dutch were at war. In June, America received tidings that the Dutch admiral, DeRuyter, had orders to visit New York with a large force. The northern colonies were alarmed at the approach of so formidable an enemy and began preparations for defence. A committee was appointed by the Court to be in charge from Southerton to Guilford CT; the committee included Major Mason, Ens: Avery, Thomas Minor, and Robt Chapman In the same year the general court confirmed Ensign James Avery as "lieutenant to ye Trainband at New London."
In 1667, the Pequot remnant was transferred to a reservation, although, Mr. Winthrop, Captain Denison, Captain James Avery and some other men of influence, dissented from these views and labored for the accommodation of the Pequots. For several years, before and after this, the commissioners of the United Colonies referred almost everything relating to the Pequots to Messrs. Denison, Stanton and Avery for adjustment. In 1668, he and Cary Latham were chosen by the town to settle the boundary line with the sachem Uncas. Captain Avery's services seem to have been often called for by the town and by individuals in the settling of such controversies.
In 1673, danger was apprehended from the Dutch, and each county was ordered to prepare for defence. New London County was to add a hundred "dragoones" to her train-bands, and for "such forces as shall be called out of that county, James Avery [was] appoynted Captain." Two years later, the horror of King Philip's War began and at a meeting of the council of the colony,"there was order to Capt. Avery, Capt. Denison and Lnt. Minor to rayse some forces to surpriz or destroy the enemie." They were to gather as many men as possible from New London, Norwich and Stonington and "taking with them the Mohegan and Pequot Indians, march against the enemy."
A great battle in this war was fought on Sunday 19 Dec 1675. The Narragansett fort was in what, in 1893, was South Kingston RI. It included five or six acres of dry ground, was surrounded by a swamp and defended by palisades and felled trees.' The only entrance was by a bridge made by a felled tree and commanded by a block house. Within were not fewer that 3,500 warriors. It is said that 700 Indians were killed that day and that of their wounded, 300 died. The power of the Narragansett tribe was broken. In this fight, the Pequot allies were commanded by Captain James Avery.
Captain Avery was equally prominent in the civil matters of the town and colony. He was chosen townsman, (i.e., selectman) in 1660 and held that office twenty years. For the next few years, the records contain frequent references to James Avery in connection with such matters as the collection of tax-rates, arbitrations like that between "Goodman Packer and the Indians,", the killing of wolves, for which he claimed the bounty of twenty shillings each, the laying out of the king's highways, etc.
In 1663 he was appointed by the Connecticut general court as a commissioner. His office was much like that of a justice of the peace. In 1666, the county of New London was constituted with its county court, and he was for many years one of the commissioners.
Frances Caulkins writes (Caulkins History of New London) that: "The children being young, the estate (of their father, George Sharswood), was left unsettled and in a few years, only William and Mary were living. June 24th, 1700, William sharswood 'sometime of Cape May and now of New London,' has the house and land of his father made over to him by a quitclaim deed from Sergt. George Darrow."