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Walsh of Carrickmines
and The Dublin Walshs



"Where the little river Bray falls into the sea, a little higher up one sees Ould Court,
an estate of the Walshs of Carrickmain, of ancient nobility and numerous in these parts."
- Camden.




Some early reference to the Carrickmines area

Perhaps the earliest references to Carrickmines occurs circa 1178, when Lawrence O'Toole, Archbishop of Dublin, presented the benefices of the church at "Carrickmayn" to Christ Church, Dublin. Christ Church is said to have been tenant-in-chief of Carrickmayn for at least the next 200 years, if not much longer. The lands at Carickmines were leased by Christ Church to various tenants long before the name Walsh appears there at the turn of the 15th century. Unfortunately many of the earliest tenants are lost, or obscure, to history.

Among the first names associated with Carrickmines appears about the year 1295, when a Roger Fitz David 'for Karrkmayn' was listed in the roll of service of Tristledermot &c [C.D.I., 1293-1301]. He appears under the name of Roger son of David, as a juror in 1295, in an inquistion citing that John Walhope, deceased, held of the King in capite at his death 5 carucates of land in Balyhawyl, Balytire, Balyhamunde (part of these lands, near Carrickmines, later held by the Howels and the Walshes), and half a carucate at Garvath [ibid.]. In 1297-98 he is referred to as Roger David 'de Carmayn', again in the receipt of services at Tristledermot, and again in 1298 as one of the jurors who say it is to the king's advantage to grant to William le Deveneys in fee the land rent and fishery at Thorncastle [ibid.]. According to the Pipe Roll of 30 Edward I (1301-02) he appears to be the Roger Dauy, for Aunger de Lisbon, 5s. for the service of one foot serjeant from Carrickmayn. And in the Pipe Roll of 9 Edward II (ca. 1314-15) he is mentioned as Roger son of David at Carrikmayn near Senekeyl, (his lands) in the King's hand by the death of said Roger from 16 Mar. 5 Edward II to 15 May same year before the premises were delivered to John his son and heir.

By the year 1326 (if not before) the name Maurice Howel is associated with lands at Carricmayn and Balybrenan [Christ Church Deeds, #570]. Maurice was a prominent defender of the Dublin-Wicklow march during the early part of the 14th century, and a large land-holder. By 1331-32 Maurice Howel had apparenty acquired some of the the Walhope (de Wallop) lands at Balyhauly (Balally), Balyhammond and Balytyr (Ballinteer), near to Carrickmines. About the same time Maurice accounted for the lands in nearby Bray, which in the latter half of the century the Archbolds and the Lawlesses seem to have been the chief inhabitants. Later references to Carrickmines also mention the Lawlesses, and then the Walshes, while the lands at nearby Kilgobbin (a later Walsh holding) were associated with the Harolds.


Carrickmines

Writing in the early twentieth century the author Francis Erlington Ball, in his "A History of the County Dublin", describes Carrickmines Castle as "A fragment of an ancient building, now forming the end wall of a piggery, is to be found in a farmyard not far from the railway station of Carrickmines, on the right-hand side of the road leading to Golden Ball. It is of massive proportions, and contains a light or window." "This fragment is all that remains of a strongly-fortified castle, which was erected at Carrickmines, after the English Conquest, to protect the south marches of the City of Dublin. These, owing to Carrickmines being the most convenient route for the Irish tribes in making their raids, were exposed at that point to much danger, and by the aid of the castle the marauders were often successfully opposed before they descended on the cultivated lands of Kill-of-the-Grange and Monkstown."

"The castle was garrisoned by a branch of the Walsh family, to which the lands of Carrickmines, or the Little Plain of Rocks, had been given, and its occupants combined in a remarkable degree the aptitude for martial and for agricultural pursuits necessary to make them successful colonists. At first they were not able to withstand alone the attacks of the enemy from the mountains, and, in the 14th century, troops were dispatched from time to time to their assistance. But in the beginning of the 15th century, the Walshes had established a reputation for prowess in the field which kept the tribes in more awe, and allowed the Walshes to devote more attention to the cultivation of their lands."

In 1371 Carrickmines was raided in strength by the Byrnes, and the Archbishop of Dublin, as a tenant in chief, had to send armed assistance for the relief of the place. That is the only record of a call for help through five centuries, and it is not wholly certain whether the Walshs were there then or were placed there after the raid. The defence of Dublin, for perhaps two centuries, was in the hands of the Walshs in that district to the south, their castles of Carrickmines, Kilternan and Kilgobbin commanding the mountain passes in that direction.

In May 1372, Holy Trinity leased the town of Balybrenan (the tithes both great and small thereto belonging, being reserved) to Sir Thomas Walsch, a chaplain of the priory, for twenty years at a rent of 4 marks per annum. This was conditional upon Thomas building and maintaining a stone house at Ballybrenan within four years [source: Christ Church Deeds, no. 717]. Balybrenan, in the parish which Carrickmines was situated, had been formerly held by the Howels.

At an inquisition in Dublin dated August 16, 1382, John Walsh of Thorgeteston, and Henry son of Adam Walsh (later owner of Carrickmines), were jurors, and they find similarly to those of the inquisition of Christ Church Deed #220 [source: Christ Church Deeds, #253]. Christ Church Deed #220 is dated Feb. 24, 1326, and the jury finds that the Church of Holy Trinity, Dublin, was founded by various Irishmen, and its granges, lands, and tenements given by Irishmen unknown, before the Conquest, in free alms to God and the said Church, and the canons serving God there, that there has been no custodian by reason of a vacancy in the office of Prior, and that none of their lands are held of the King in capite. Among the jurors in 1326 was Thomas le Waleys, who was also a juror at a similar inquisition in November 1338 [source: Christ Church Deeds #231].

On December 12 1395 the king confirmed a grant of the confiscated lands of Lawless and Archbold, along with Hugh Lawless's lands at Carrickmines, to Janico Dartas. King Richard's grant indicates that the crown had exercised its right to Carrickmines, depriving Holy Trinity of its ownership. In turn Dartas may have confirmed Carrickmines and other lands to John and David Walsh, who held these lands from the crown by knight service. In turn these men seem to have allowed Henry fitz Adam Walsh to occupy Carrickmines Castle and work its attached lands. Henry fitz Adam was definitely in possession of Carrickmines by 11 March 1400, for Henry IV then granted 100s. from the revenues of the royal manor of Thorncastle to 'Henry Adamesone of Cairykmayn' for his good service. [paragraph source: Carrickmines and the Dublin marches, by Emmett O'Byrne]

As time went on, and the relations with their neighbors improved, the Walshs developed other places of a different sort. They were, as Camden wrote of them, "of ancient nobility and very numerous in those parts." It is hardly conceivable that the activities of such a stock were confined to so restricted a field. They were within the area dominated by the Earls of Kildare, and as these were almost continuosly engaged in some form of warfare we may take it that there were plenty of opportunities offered for service and reward for men of this warrior breed. There are some indications that these Dublin Walshs were re-inforced by Walshs from Kilkenny, perhaps when the Ormonds were Viceroys; but in the main, and certainly for long periods, they seem to have existed independently of their Kilkenny namesakes. [source: Walsh, 1170-1690; 1925]

In the area south of Dublin, the family of Walsh was progressing. From 1400 onward their capacity was repeatedly recognized, and they were as often called upon to shoulder more of the burden of defending the Pale. In addition to the strong places which they held as keys to the mountain passes, they obtained and developed comfortable estates at Corkaigh, at Shanganagh on the sea coast, at Old Connaught, and at or near Bray. Back of this border they had been encouraged to "inhabit upon the O'Tooles," to help keep that fighting sept in order. They developed friendly relations with those potential enemies, and with the Byrnes, relations so good that when a marriage was contracted between the chief families of the two tribes, which despite four centuries of English pressure had kept their tribal lands in common under the old Irish system, Walsh of Shanganagh and Walsh of Kilgobbin were made trustees of the contract. They were closely united by marriage to the Talbots, the Eustaces and the Fitz-Williams, families which, like their own, were very busy in the mountain regions. Now and again these families, indignant at the injustice of Dublin rule, showed their resentment in arms.

On March 11, 1400 (1 Henry IV) is a grant for life to Henry Adamesone of Cairykmayn of lands and tenements in Balyhauley, Balyhamond, Balytire and Balymargy, co. Dublin, to the value of 10l. yearly, provided that he answer any surplus at the Exchequer and that they have not been granted to anyone else; and grant to him also 100s. yearly from the issues of the manor of Thorncastell, co. Dublin. [source: Calendar of the Patent Rolls, nos. 1399-1401, 1903]

On March 11, 1400 (1 Henry IV) is an order to the receivers and farmers for the time being of the manor of Thorncastelle co. Dublin in Ireland. Order of the issues and rents of that manor to pay to Henry Adamesone of Cairykmayn 100s. a year, which for good service the king has granted him. [Calendar of the Close Rolls, v. 1, 1971]

In 1401 the O'Byrnes settled a large force of O'Meagher mercenaries along the Dodder river just north of Bray. along the Dodder river just north of Bray. In August 1401, the Dubliners and the Walshes, led by Lord Mayor John Drake, slaughtered the O'Meagher mercenaries in battle at Bloody Bank near Bray (now known as Sunny Bank).

On Dec 20, 7 Henry IV (ca. 1405, since Henry IV became King in September 1399), is a conveyance whereby John Walsche and David Walssh, of Carrickemayne, grant to Henry Fitz-Adam Walssh the lands of Carrickemayne, Ballyroe, and Annodan, in the county of Dublin; To hold for life, with remainder to William Walsch, and his heirs male; remainder to Maurice Walsch, and his heirs male; with divers other remainders. [source: Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland; #55]

In 1407 the crown granted land at Balally to Henry fitz Adam's son, William fitz Henry Walsh. This grant though was subject to the building by William fitz Henry of a castle there. William fitz Henry himself resided at Symondeston in Kiltiernan parish, holding it from St Mary's abbey at Dublin. Upon the death of William fitz Henry sometime in 1407, a panel of jurors including John Archbold and John Lawless took part in an inquisition to determine the extent of Walsh holdings at Symondeston. Henry fitz Adam Walsh of Carrickmines then seems to have become the guardian of his son's recorded offspring, Henry and Esmond. Naturally, the eldest of these boys, Henry, became the heir to the lands occupied by both his father and grandfather. In December 1407, the young Henry's rights to Carrickmines were confirmed. Then John and David Walsh on December 20 confirmed Carrickmines to Henry fitz Adam before granting the rest to Maurice Walsh and John fitz Maurice Walsh. The terms of the grant were stated as "all the lands of Carrickmayne, Ballyroe, and Annody, remainder to Maurice Walsh and his heirs male, remainder to the right heirsan, in tail male, to be held of the chief lords of fee for services due and customar of the said Henry Walsh." [source: Carrickmines and the Dublin marches, by Emmett O'Byrne, Medieval Dublin IV, 2002]

In 1407 (8 Henry IV) William Walsh was residing on a portion of the lands called Symondston (Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, vol. 1, Dublin, #256), a place-name now extinct, and on the death of the latter in 1420 the custody of part of his lands called Ballycarryk and Adonan were given, during the minority of his son and heir, Henry, to an ecclesiastic, Richard Northrop, by name... [source: The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Francis E Ball, 1902]

In 9 Henry IV (1407-08), William Walsh of Carrykmayn is mentioned in conjunction with tenements in Baulyhaule, Balyhamond and Balytyr. [source: Rotuli Selecti ad res Anglicas et Hibernicas Spectantes, 1834, page 45]

In 1412 the King appointed John Walsh, Thomas Waleys and others to prevent the export of grain "from Bray head to the Nanny water."
In 1417 Maurice Walsh and William Walsh were among those from Dublin County who joined in memorial to the King in praise of the vigor with which Talbot, Lord Furnival, repelled the incursions of the O'Byrnes and O'Tooles (amongst others) upon the borders of the Pale.

In a record under a sub-heading of 7 Henry V (1419-20), William Fitz Henry Walsh, deceased, is mentioned along with Richard Northorp, the latter granted wardship of William's son and heir Henry Walsh. The lands of Ballycarryk and Adonan are also cited. [source: Rotuli Selecti ad res Anglicas et Hibernicas Spectantes, 1834, page 67]

In 1420 the custody of part of his (William Walsh) lands called Ballycarryk and Adonan were given, during the minority if his son and heir, Henry, to an ecclesiastic, Richard Northorp, by name, who was not required to render any account during his tenure of them. Henry Walsh was of age in 1431, and in that year petitioned the King for a continuation of a grant of lands at Balally and Balinteer, near Dundrum, which had been given to his father (Calendar of Irish Patents and Close Rolls, p. 216b). [source: The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Francis E Ball, 1902]

In 1420, Henry fitz William, still a minor, succeeded to the lands granted in 1407. [source: Francis Erlington Ball]
In 1421 the King committed to Thomas Walsh the custody of the manor of Ward while "in the King's hand." (One half went to a Birmingham and the other to St. Lawrence of Howth.)

The Walshes also occupied the Howel lands at Balyhauly, Balyhammond and Balytyr. In 1430 Henry Walsh referred to a patent dated 29 Oct. 1408 which recognized him as William Walshe's heir and thus owner of the Howel lands (Rot. pat. Hib., p. 249, no. 1). William Walshe was also known as William FitzHenry Adamson (memoranda roll, 7 & 8 Hen. IV), or Willelmum filium Henrici Adamesson (Analecta Hibernica; nos. 22-23, 1960, p. 64). [source: Irish Historical Studies, v. 34, nos. 133-134, 2004]

In 1431 Henry, son and heir of William Walsh deceased, petitioned the King, setting forth that his father, said William, had, some years previously, a grant of the lands of Ballyhawley, &c., in tail male, and he prayed a confirmation of such inheritance. In 1441 Henry Walsh had a Treasury 'liberate' for his service and great expenses, in resisting the enemy on the marches of County Dublin (source: Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, by John D'Alton - Ireland - 1861)

Memorandum that here followeth the names of [those] that were tryyng the meyres of Kylternanem (Kiltiernan, co. Dublin) then beyng alyve Abbot Whyte, Harry Walshe, Captytayne of the Walsche men, James Came of Kylgobbeine, Connor Came of Kylternane; then beyng present: .... [source: Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, #288, no date]
A footnote for this entry in the Chartularies mentions that John Whyte was abbot of St. Marys' from 1438 to 1463.

In the Dublin area, about 1406(?), appears Harry Walshe, "Captayne of the Walshe men" and with him "James Came of Kylgobbene and Connor Came of Kylternane," places the Walshs afterwards owned and defended in the border wars [source: Walsh 1170-1690].
It should be noted this Harry Walshe was possibly Henry fitz William Walsh and the date of the reference here may be actually be between 1438-1463, as suggested in the Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, #288.

On September 6, 1440, Thomas fitzMaurice Fitzgerald and Braen O'Byrne were outlawed for burning the Kilgobbin lands of James Adamesson (fitz Adam) Walsh, Henry's granduncle.

Henry fitz William Walsh, who was captain at Carrickmines in 1441, allowed by the Crown ten marks -a large sum in those days- for protecting the liegemen, and probably it was by him that the Castle of Carrickmines was erected in the form in which it stood for the next two centuries. The lands of Carrickmines, which were held direct from the Crown by military service, had been conveyed to his grandfather, Henry, son of Adam Walsh, by John and David Walsh, and had come subsequently into the possession of his father, William Walsh, who, in 1407, was residing on part of them called Symondstown.

In his 1456 parliament Thomas fitzMaurice Fitzgerald (now Earl of Kildare) outlawed Henry Walsh of Carrickmines and his son William. Among others to suffer the same fate were Thomas Carrach (Walsh?) of Shanganagh, Maurice Walsh, Patrick Archbold, Geoffrey Harold, Esmond Harold and a number of Lawlesses. They were pardoned in 1458 and being coerced to attack the Irish, who by now they had made friends with.

In 1460, Henry Walsh of Carrickmines, aided Archbishop Michael Tregury of Dublin to erect fortifications at Rathdown and Newcastle Lyons. About 1462, the O'Byrnes captureed some of Henry Walsh of Carrickmines sons.

In 1465 Henry Walsh of Carrickmines successfully petitioned Desmond for a pardon and those of his kinsmen as well as for the restoration of his property.

In 1476, the O'Byrnes and O'Toole destroyed Kilgobbin Castle, leaving Maurice Walsh destitute.

On October 16 1481, Henry Walsh bequeathed Carrickmines to his son John fitz Henry. Henry died shortly after.

John fitz Henry Walsh received a grant of Carrickmayne, Balliroe, Anodan, Ballyhauley, Balhamond, and Ballityre from his father Henry in 1481. He apparently died within a few years, since his brother Theobald appears to have succeeded a short time after.


The 16th century found the Walshes in occupation, either as tenants or owners, of a very wide extent of country, and they had become one of the most important families on the southern side of Dublin. The owners of the lands of Carrickmines, on which there was near the castle a hamlet called Ballinrow, and a water mill (whose site is marked on the Ordnance map), held also the lands of Kilpool and Old Court, in the County Wicklow, and were generally named amongst the officers responsible for the muster of the militia.

- Theobald fitz Henry Walsh, succeeded his brother John perhaps as early as 1485, certainly by 1495. He was still living in 1505, playing an active role in the defense of the Dublin marches. Amongst his successors in the occupation of the castle we find:

- James fitz Theobald Walsh, who inherited from his father perhaps in the early 16th century. An Inquisition dated in April 1529 suggests James, son and heir of Theobald, died Dec. 15, 1512, and that his brother Robert, intruded himself and held the manor from James' death.

- Robert fitz Theobald Walsh, who intruded himself and held the manor (of Carrickmines) from the death of his brother James in 1512. His uncle Edmund fitz Henry, who in 1519 is cited as Edmund Walshe of Carrikmayn, seems to have had a hand in securing rights to the manor.

- Edmund fitz Henry Walsh, who, in 1519, was involved in litigation with the Priory of the Holy Trinity as to the adjacent lands of Keatingsland and Priorsland. Edmund fitz Henry of Carrickmines died at an uncertain date before 20 June 1537, when Carrickmines then passed to his nephew, William fitz Theobald Walsh.

- William, son and heir of Theobald Walsh, who was aged 16 at Theobald's death (date not given) and who was married to Margaret Fitzwilliam at the time of an inquisition dated 20 June 1537. According to another inquisition post mortem dated in 1570, William fitz Theobald Walshe of Caryckmayne, co. Dublin, gent., died September 29, 1569, seised of the manor of Caryckmayne. Some suggest William he may have lived until 1572-73.

- Richard, son of William Walsh, who married Eleanor Eustace, and died in July 10, 1580;

- Theobald, son of Richard Walsh, who married Eleanor Fitz Williams, and who died in November 17, 1593;

- Richard fitz Theobald Walsh, who was a minor at the time of his father's death, and while his property was in the custody of Peter Barnewall, his guardian, the lands of Carrickmines were completely devastated by Irish marauders, who carried off "the prey of the town," notwithstanding the presence of a troop of horse, which was then stationed there.


At the beginning of the 17th century, the Walshes were described as a large and ancient stock, and as men of note in the metropolitan county, which was then "rich and plenteous in corn and cattle, and inhabited by a people of stately port and garb." The Castle of Carrickmines was surrounded by an orchard and garden, and, so far as was possible, its lands had been subjected to the plough.

Richard, son and heir of Theobald Walsh, was then lord of Carrickmines, having received livery of his father's lands in 1608. The Walsh armorial bearings were registered in Ulster's Office, Dublin, by the said Richard Walsh, husband of Joan, daughter of John Eustace, of Confey, Co. Kildare, in 1610, at the time of the Herald's Visitation of the County of Dublin, together with a pedigree of the preceding four generations of his line. His Arms were registered as, Azure, a lion rampant, argent, debruised by a fesse per pale argent and gules. His Crest is cited as Out of a ducal coronet or a demi lion rampant argent, with a Motto of Noli irritare leonem. (JRSAI, Vol. LXXV, Part I, page 36, 1945)

Richard Walsh is stated in an Inquisition post mortem taken at Bray on 20 May 1620, to have died on 5 January 1619. Funeral entries at the Dublin Colleg of Arms also suggest this death date. His eldest son and heir, Theobald junior, was aged 16 years at the time. However, according to the pedigree of a noble Austrian family, the Counts von Wallis, who claim descent from his second son, Oliver, Richard did not die until some years later (in 1632 at Magdeburg, from wounds he received at the Battle of Lützen).

The will of Richard Walshe of Olde Courte, gent., was dated 27 Dec. 1619. It reads: To be buried "among my ancestors in the parish church of Tully," Leaves 10 pounds sterling "to prieses & other religious person to pray for my soul," & to his wife Jane Eustace the town, mills & lands of Oldcourte as jointure, as laid down in a deed of 9 June 1619. Lands in Carrickmayne, Glanemucke & Prompston charged with 160 pounds sterling, marriage portion for his sister Elizabeth & 150 pounds for his brother John. Residue of lands charged with 140 poinds sterling p.a. for son and heir Tabbott Walsh after his coming of age, until the other children's portions have been paid, viz. 100 pounds for a son, Michael, 20 pounds each for daughters Ellenor, Mary, Kate, Margaret and Anne. If Ellenor or Mary marry with the consent of testator's uncle, John Fagan of Feltrym, his brother, Nicholas Eustace of Confie, his brother, John Allen of Busshopscourte, his uncle, Edward Walsh of Clonmane, and his brother William Walsh of Ballinadroght, gent., or any 3 of them, they are also to have 180 pounds each, charged on Carrickmayne, Glanemucke & Prompston, and the 3 younger shall have 80 pounds each. Testator's trustees, John Fagan of Feltrim, Nicholas Eustace of Confie, John Allen of Bishop's Courte and Richard Barnewall of Lespopple, are to be seise of Carrickmayne etc., after discharge, to the use of Tabbott Walshe in tail male, remainder in tail male to son Michael, to brothers William & John, seccessviely, to uncles Oliver, Henry, Morish & Garrett Walshe, successively, to .... Walsh, and finally to uncle William Walshe and his heirs for ever. (note: The final disposal of the residue of the lands is not made clear; it may be governed by a settlement not abstracted). "My will is that my surgeon, Donnogh oge O Cullone, shall be well rewarded for his pains taken with me. [source: Calendar of inquisitions formerly in the office of the Chief Remembrancer of the Exchequer, pp. 446-47, Griffith, 1991]

Richard's eldest son, Theobald, was, in 1630, living in Carrickmines Castle. A payment was then made to him, on the order of a foreigner, by the Earl of Cork, and, in a report on the diocese of Dublin it is mentioned that he was maintaining at that time in the castle a priest and a friar, "to celebrate Mass and execute their functions." But he cannot have been in it when its overthrow came, as he survived the Rebellion of 1641, and acted as a captain in the Confederates’ army.

The part taken by the owner of Carrickmines, in the Rebellion of 1641, is not clear, but as a family the Walshes threw themselves with ardour on the Irish side, and proved that they had become at least as Irish as the Irish themselves. Whether with or without the consent of the owner, Carrickmines became the centre of disaffection in the southern part of the County Dublin, and the Walshes figure prominently in the depositions made by those who suffered losses during that dreadful winter.

During the whole winter after the Rebellion the County Dublin, south of the city, was in the hands of the rebels. Their defeat, in February, 1642, at Dean's Grange, gave them, no doubt, a check, and they fell back upon Carrickmines Castle, which they had prepared to stand a siege.

Although the cannon, which had been brought from Bullock, appears to have been soon sent back, the castle was not left without arms, and, as events proved, was capable of affording very effective resistance. In it the main body of the rebels were assembled on a Saturday morning, at the end of March, when scouts came running in to tell them that troops were approaching, and before long they saw some horse drawing near.

The horse were few in number and the rebels treated them with scorn and contempt. But the rebels did not take into account that the troops were commanded by one of the best officers in the English army, Sir Simon Harcourt, an ancestor of the well-known statesman of the present day, Sir William Vernon Harcourt, who had just returned from Munster, where he had displayed extraordinary energy in reducing the country to obedience.

Harcourt's high spirit could ill bear the insolent demeanour of the defenders, but he was a prudent officer, and saw from the great strength of the castle that he could not successfully assail it with his small force. He, therefore, restrained himself until reinforcements arrived, to the number of 800 foot and sufficient horse to complete a troop of 250, and as it was then too late to commence operations, he placed a cordon round the castle, and guarded it all night.

During the darkness the defenders lighted a fire on the roof of the castle, which was answered by others from the hills, and Harcourt becoming alarmed, sent in to the authorities for further assistance. Meantime, the defenders made a vigorous attempt to break through the cordon, and kept up a brisk musket fire from the castle. By means of it they inflicted loss on the besiegers and terminated the gallant Harcourt's career.

Harcourt had sought cover behind a small cottage, but stood up for a moment to issue some command to the soldiers, and, on being perceived by one of the defenders, who had already done great execution amongst the besiegers, was shot through the breast. He was carried off the field alive, but died next day at Lord Fitzwilliam's Castle, at Merrion.

An additional 400 men had arrived, with two cannon, and Lieutenant-Colonel Gibson, who now took command, ordered a vigorous bombardment of the castle. The troops were roused to redoubled vigour by the loss of Harcourt, who was much beloved, and when an entry into the castle was secured, they rushed in, headed by Lieutenant Robert Hammond, afterwards famous as Governor of Carisbrooke Castle during the detention of Charles I in the Isle of Wight, and fell upon the defenders with great fury.

Fearful slaughter ensued on that Sunday evening in the peaceful valley of Carrickmines. All who were in the castle, men, women, and children, estimated to be 300 persons, were put to the sword, and the castle was blown up and levelled with the ground. The loss of the besiegers is said to have been only seven killed and nine wounded, but it included, besides Harcourt, one officer, Lieutenant Richard Cooke, killed, and another, Sergeant-Major Berry, mortally wounded. The resistance offered by the defenders to what was the flower of the English army in Ireland is very remarkable; but a statement made in the Aphorismical Discovery, that the castle was surrendered and not taken, does not appear to be well founded.

In a survey of the half-barony of Rathdown, taken by order of Charles Fleetwood, Lord Deputy, October 4, 1654, the lands in the parish of Tully, called Carrickmaine, were by estimate four plowlands, or about 465 acres; 234 of which were arable, 200 in pasture and 32 in meadow, the inheritance of Theobald Walsh described as an Irish Papist [and Rebel], "the proprietor acted in the Irish army as a captain of a foot company, and was possesed of the premisses as his inheritance anno 1641. There is on the premises the wall of a castle, an orchard and garden-plot, a bawme; the buildings are valued by the jury at ten pounds. The premises were a manor, and keep court-leet. The tythes belong to Christ-church. The premises are bounded on the East with Breynanstown, on the South with Kilternan, on the West with Killgobbin, and on the North with Cornett's-court." The value of the whole and each of the said lands as it was in 1640: by the jury (valued at) one hundred pounds; by us two hundred pounds.
In the same survey Theobald Walsh of Carrickmaine also held 100 acres in Glanmuck, East of Kilternan, as well as 36 acres in Prompstown. [sources: Desiderata Curiosa Hibernica, volume 2, 1772; and The history of the county of Dublin, by John D'Alton, 1838]

After the Restoration, the property of the Walshes, at Carrickmines, was awarded by the Commissioners of Settlement to the Earl of Meath, and was subsequently assigned by him to Sir Joshua Allen, of Stillorgan, whose representative, the Earl of Carysfort, is now lord of the soil."

Mr. Valentine Hussey Walsh contributed, from papers in his possession, records of the descents and marriages in the family of Carrickmines (Ref: Genealogist Vol. 17). From these it appears that circa 1500 William Walsh of Carrickmayne married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Fitz William of Merrion; their son Richard married Eleanor Fitz Eustace; their son Theobald married Eleanor Fitz William, and their son Richard, Joan Eustace. This Richard died in 1632. His son Theobald, who married Maria Hore, was lord of the manor of Carrickmayne when it was taken in 1642, and Theobald's son Richard died without children. In this family between 1550 and 1640, there were two marriages with Fitz Williams, two with Talbots and four with Eustaces.

V. Hussey Walsh cites, the only consecutive pedigree on which any faith can be placed is that set out in the Visitation of Dublin (1610), according to which, William Walsh (who flourished in 1500) married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Fitzwilliam of Merrion, and had issue:
(1) Richard Walsh, of Carrickmines, married Elinor, daughter of William Eustace, of Clongowestown (she died 13th March 1613)
(2) Howell Walsh, of Brennanstown, married Ismay Talbot, of the house of Belgrade, and had many daughters
(3) Robert, married Margaret, daughter of Hugh McShane O'Birne, of the Ranelagh
(4) Edmund, married Isobel, daughter of Richard Talbot, of Cromeline, and died s.p.
Children of Richard Walsh and Elinor Eustace:
(1) Theobald Walsh, of Carrickmayne, married Elinor, dau. of Michael Fitzwilliams, of Donamore and d. 17th November 1593
(2) Oliver, married Anne Eustace, of the house of Raheny.
(3) Henry, married Dorothy, daughter of McOnane, of co. Wexford
(4) Maurice, married Dorothy, dau. of William Fitzgerald, of Newlyn
(5) Edward, of Clonmaine, married Elizabeth Booth, of Dunham, Cheshire
(6) Gerrott, married Thomasine, daughter of Richard Roundell, Mayor of Dublin
(7) William, married Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Harrington, Kt.
(1) Joan, m. 1st Hon, Edmund Eustace, brother to Lord Baltinglass; 2nd Dermont Fitzmaurice; 3rd ___Kavanagh, of Knockangan.
(2) Anne, married Robert Barnewall, of Shankill
Children of Theobald Walsh and Elinor Fitzwilliams:
(1) Richard, of Caricksmayne, born 1583, married Joan, daughter of John Eustace of Confey
(2) William
(3) Thomas, in the German Service in 1610
(4) Robert (Hussey adds, who by the dau. of Robert Seigneur de Carras, was ancestor of a younger German branch)
(1) Mary, married John Allen, of Bishopscourt
(2) Elizabeth, unmarried in 1610
[source: The Foreign Branches of the Family of Walsh, V. Hussey Walsh, 2005 edition]

Also see Carrickmines Pedigree


Balally

After having been, about 1334, in the possession of Maurice Howell and Gregory Taunton, mentioned as tenants to the Priory of the Holy Trinity for the lands of Cabinteely and Brenanstown, the lands of Balally, came into the possession of the Walshes of Carrickmines. Like other lands bordering on the mountains, those of Balally suffered much from "wars and casualties of fortune," and in a grant from the Crown in 1407 to William Walsh it was conditioned that he should build a small castle upon them. Although a considerable time elapsed before its completion, this castle was ultimately erected, and became the residence of a branch of the Walsh family. In 1546 Thomas Walsh, who was then in possession of three houses and eighty-one acres in Balally, besides the castle, died there, and was succeeded by his son, John, then a minor; in 1597 William Walsh was in possession, and in 1641 James Walsh was seized of the castle and lands, as well as of those of Edmondstown, near Rathfarnham.

The Walshes of Balally, as adherents of the Roman Catholic Church, had its services regularly performed, possibly in the ancient church, and in 1630 the Rev. John Cahill, mentioned as parish priest of Donnybrook, was commonly the celebrant. After James Walsh's death in 1646 his son, Henry, disposed of Balally for £700 to Mr. John Borr, of Dublin, but during the Commonwealth, when there was a population of seven persons of English and eleven of Irish descent inhabiting eight houses, the Parliament seized upon the lands and leased them to Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac Dobson, of Dundrum.


Kilgobbin

Kilgobbin, first held by the Harolds or the Hackets, it is not clear which, was a post of most importance. The Parliamentary Gazetteer, published in 1840, says of the castle there that its building was popularly attributed to the Gobban Saer, the legendary genius of Irish architecture, but that it was really built by the Walshs of Carrickmines. "It evidently served as one of a chain of forts or fortified residences expressly constructed to restrain the incursions of the O'Tooles. It consists of an oblong tower without turrets or outside defences, but planted nearly centre of the level plain extending from the base of Three Rock Mountain to the scarp of Killiney Hill, and effectively commanding all ingress and egress through the remarkable pass of the Scalp, it formed, though not remarkable for strength or solidity, a very effectual fortress when occupied by a vigilant garrison." It was the Walshs' business to hold this and its related strong points, and they held them.

A branch of the Walsh family of Carrickmines, the Harolds' comrades in the protection of the Pale, later on settled on the lands of Kilgobbin. To that family was doubtless due the erection of the castle. Amongst its successive occupants were, in 1482 Morris Walsh, in 1509 Pierce, son of Morris Walsh; in 1578 John Walsh, in 1599 Edmond Walsh, in 1615 Christopher Walsh, and in 1620 Patrick, alias Pierce Walsh, a son of John Walsh, in whose time a court was held by order of the Exchequer at Kilgobbin, and certain persons were found guilty of non-attendance by a jury composed of the Walshes and their neighbours. Before the rebellion of 1641 Sir Adam Loftus, of Rathfarnham, had become possessed of the Walsh's interest in Kilgobbin, and under him it was then occupied by one Matthew Talbot.

In 1578 a John Walsh died siesed of 300 acres at Kilgoban and Jamestown, formerly Harold property. In 1599 Pierce Walsh of Kilgobbin was caught in the toils, for, knowing his Irish neighbors, and perhaps not fully sensible of the ruthless purpose of the English officials, he was condemned to death after a defeat of the English by Phelim O'Byrne, an accusation of cowardice against him serving as mitigation of the incapacity of the English commander.


Shanganagh

A branch of the family of Walsh of Carrickmines had settled in the parish of Rathmichael, and by degrees the Walshes supplanted the Lawless family. They appear first in 1447 at Shanganagh in the person of Edmund Walsh, to whom the seigniory of that place, was leased in that year, by the Vicars Choral of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Some twenty-five years later, in 1473, legal proceedings were instituted against Edmund Walsh for refusing to pay rent and continuing to hold the lands after the expiration of his lease, but the dispute was settled, and we find amongst the subsequent owners of Shanganagh, in 1482 Charles Walsh, in 1509 Richard Walsh, and in 1521 Charles, son of Richard Walsh.

Shanganagh Castle stood close to Loughlinstown river, in the valley near Ballybrack, with some portion of it possibly dated from 1408, when Thomas Lawless undertook to build a castle on the lands. Under the Walshes it was doubtless enlarged, and it became a residence of importance. Charles Walsh, who died in 1521, was succeeded successively by his son, Walter Walsh, who died in 1551, and by his grandson, John Walsh. The latter, who is included amongst the men of name in the County Dublin, and acted as a commissioner for the muster of the militia, owned at the time of his death in 1600, lands in the country of the O'Tooles and O'Byrnes, as well as the lands of Shanganagh and lands in the adjoining parish of Old Connaught. By 1609 James Walsh had increased the holding to a castle, a water mill, and 203 acres, held of Peter Talbot. In 1654 John Walsh had 400 acres. He died six months before the troubles of the time (Cromwell), and was praised in one of the letters to England; but shortly afterwards was denounced as a rebel, as a necessary preliminary to the appropriation of his land.

The lands of Shanganagh, which had been occupied under the Commonwealth by John and Henry Baxter, were restored by the Commissioners of Settlement to John Walsh. He was a direct descendant of the last-mentioned owner (the John Walsh who died in 1600), who had been succeeded in turn by his son James Walsh, by his grandson John Walsh, who married a daughter of Sir Robert Kennedy, Bart., of Newtownmountkennedy, and by his great-grandson Edmond Walsh, the father of the claimant at the Restoration.

The claimant [another John] was only a youth, but his cause had influential supporters in his grandfather, Sir Robert Kennedy, and his uncle, Sir Richard Kennedy, who was one of the Barons of the Exchequer. John died in 1671, and was succeeded successively by his son, Edward Walsh, and another, John Walsh, who in 1705 was licensed as a loyal Roman Catholic to keep a sword, a case of pistols, and a gun. The Walshes' occupation of Shanganagh did not cease until the middle of the eighteenth century. The lands of Shanganagh, together with the Walshes' property in Old Connaught parish, passed then into the possession of the family of Roberts, now represented by Captain Lewis Riall, and in 1763 the castle of Shanganagh was destroyed by a disastrous fire.

Walsh of Shanganagh had another property at Corkaigh, marsh land of the Lawlesses which was developed into a good estate. It was in 1481 when Henry Walsh "of the marshes" (Corkaigh) granted all his lands in Carrickmayne to John Walsh.


Old Connaught

In the sixteenth century all the lands in the parish of Old Connaught came into the possession of the Walshes, excepting those of Ballyman. These, after the dissolution of the religious houses, were granted to Peter Talbot, the defender of the Pale mentioned under Rathmichael. The Walshes of Shanganagh were in possession of the lands of Old Connaught and Cork (Corkaigh), while the Walshes of Carrickmines occupied those of Phrompstown.

Members of these families resided upon the various lands, and we find on Cork in 1566, William M'Shane Walsh and Edward Walsh, in 1590 Walter Walsh, and in 1599 Edmund Walsh, who died in that year, desiring to be buried at Rathmichael; and on Phrompstown, in 1609 Edmund Walsh, who died in that year, desiring to be buried at Tully.

On the lands of Old Connaught the Walshes of Shanganagh erected in the seventeenth century a dwelling which is shown by the fact that it had five chimneys, to have been a large house, although the roof was only of thatch, and which was surrounded by an orchard, garden, and grove of ash trees. In it James Walsh, mentioned as one of the owners of Shanganagh, was residing in 1630, when Archbishop Bulkeley made his report on the Dublin diocese, and in it he maintained, the Archbishop states, several priests and friars.

Records show the Shanganagh proprietors at Old Connaught included James Walsh in 1609 and John Walsh in 1671. James Walsh, the "Irish papist" who owned it in 1654, had 500 acres and on the premises were "a castle thatched, a grove of ash trees and the walls of the parish church.
" After the seige of Limerick the old owners withdrew to France. In 1671 James Walsh died seised in tail male of the premises in Little Bray " of the property of his ancestors and which he held of the crown by Knight's service." (Ref: Dalton's History of Dublin County pp. 900 to 915).

Old Connaught, referred to as the cantred of Oconagh, circa 1246, in deed inspected by, among others, the bishops of Kildare and Ossoary, and R. Walens', preceptor of the Knights Templar in Ireland.


Dalkey

An inquisition post mortem taken in 1594 showed that Henry Walshe of Killincarrig, who had died in 1570, had two castles and 75.5 acres in Dalkey, which he held of the archbishop. The Walshes had taken of Dalkey in the fifteenth century or came close to doing so. There were several families of the name in the area but the ones most closely associated with Dalkey were the Walshes of Carrickmines, county Dublin and Killincarrig, county Wicklow. They were perceived as an unruly clan, who seem to have adopted Irish ways. William Walshe, who had a grant of Killiney from Holy Trinity in 1530, was known as McHowell. He may be the William, who got a grant of lands and tithes in the area in 1555, when he was described as son Tybbot Walshe of Carrickmines. The dean eventually had to take legal proceedings to recover the lands. When Henry Walshe of Killincarrig died in 1570 he held extensive possessions in Dalkey of the archbishop and Christ Church, including two castles and several houses. But the inquisition was not taken until 1594, when the jury reported that "tenure of lands had long been concealed from the Queen and her predecessors". His son, Theobold, had taken over. In 1566 William McShane Walshe of Corke (near Bray) was pardoned for having robbed a widow, Gormla `O'Clondowil, in Glencullen. Several of William's kinsmen, including John Walsh of Shanganagh and Edmund Walsh of Cork, as well as members of other local families, Irish and Old English, were pardoned at the same time for having rescued him from the custody of the sub-sheriff of county Dublin. In 1602 Henry Walsh of Dalkey was pardoned for rebellion.

After the dissolution of the Priory of the Holy Trinity the lands, which probably had remained in the occupation of the Walsh family from the 14th century, were held under the Chapter of the Cathedral, in 1555, by the owner of Carrickmines, William Walsh, and, in 1571, by Owen Walsh. It was then obligatory on the tenants to bring the tithe corn to a place called "the holy stood," to mow a meadow belonging to the Cathedral, and to plant twenty oak or ash trees each year. At the beginning of the 17th century, William Rochfort - doubtless, one of the Rochforts, of Kilbogget - through his marriage to a daughter of the house of Walsh, became tenant, as did subsequently Thomas Wolverston, a younger son of the owner of Stillorgan, on his marriage to Rochfort's second wife.


Other accounts of the siege of Carrickmines

By the arrival of Cromwell in 1642 in Dublin, Carrickmines Castle was stormed and blown up (in March), its garrison massacred, and Theobald, a "captain of the Irish," attainted. Along with Walshs in other parts of Ireland they lost everything. An account of the engagement as described in Joyce's "Neighborhood of Dublin" goes,

"Saturday the 26th of this month (March) Sir Simon Harcourt with a party of horse marched toward the Castle of Carrickmines within six miles of this city, and taking observation of the place and finding that there were a number of rebels lodged there, he sent hither for some more horse and some sompanies of foot and for two pieces of battery he caused to be placed, and herwith began to batter the castle. The rebels played upon our men from the castle with their shot, and it fotuned that Sir Simon Harcourt was ther shot in the body and thereof died the next day."

"Our men, enraged at the loss of their commander, fell on with exceeding great fierceness to the castle, and with admirable courage adventuring upon all danger without the least fear with axes broke open the gate and entered it with their swords, the rebels still continuing to shoot and slay our men even after part of them had entered the castle; but in the end our men took the castle, and were so highly provoked as they put all they found therein to the sword, to the number of at least three hundred persons, and blew up the castle with powder as a mark of terror to the rebels and indignation on that place where a person of that woth was lost."

"And now considering that Sir Simon Harcourt hath left a widow and children behind him, we crave leave to recommend his widow and children to His Majesty, that by His Majesty's gracious favor that town where he gave up his life for the honour and service of His Majesty, and the rest of that rebel's estate to whom that town belonged (Theobald Walsh) being worth between three and four hundred pounds per annum when this rebellion began, may be bestowed in perpetuity for the behoof of his wife and children."


Another English account of the siege says that after the first ineffectual attempt to take the castle a parley was called for, and that when a messenger from the castle arrived he was put to death. After this act of bad faith the English broke into the outer court yard, but the defenders, issued from the citadel, attacked them "like a bolt of lightning," and drove them out. Edward Walsh of Wicklow was in command in Theobald's absence. Women and children were included in the massacre when the castle was finally taken.

In the survey of 1648, Carrickmines, of the inheritance of Theobald Walsh, Irish Papist, who had acted in the Irish army as captain of a foot company, was found to be a manor with court leet, the tithes payable to Christ Church, Dublin.

After the establishment of the Commonwealth the Walsh's property in Old Connaught parish, including the lands of Old Connaught, Cork, and part of Little Bray, was leased to Major Henry Jones.

After the restoration of their property to the Walshes more members of the family appear in the district. In 1665 we find Mrs. Mary Walsh at Cork, and in 1698 Edward Walsh, a brother of John Walsh of Shanganagh, died at Old Connaught House. But about the year 1684 the Walshes' interest in Little Bray was purchased from them by Jeremy Donovan, a prominent member of the Irish parliament of James II., and owner of a house in Dublin called "Donovan's Arms" in Back Lane.


Counts von Wallis

The genealogy of the Counts von Wallis (v. Karighmain) -- The last Richard and the last Theobald of Carrickmines were in Germany long before their castle was blown up. Following the Cromwell defeat, it was natural enough for Walsh of Carrickmines to go to Austria. In this sphere their ability and fighting qualities won for them places of distinction and profit. Their descendants carried on the tradition.
The last Theobald of Carrickmines, son of Richard, had a brother named Oliver or Olivier. Olivier entered, seemingly when very young, the Austrian Imperial Service in which he was created the first Baron von Wallis [aka Walsh] in 1642 (the year in which his brother Theobald forfeited Carrickmines). From Olivier descended the Counts von Wallis branches of Koleschowitz and of Büdwitz.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Valentine Hussey Walsh published various articles and a book on the genealogy of the foreign branches of the family of Walsh. He describes the father of Olivier Baron von Wallis, as Richard Walsh of Carricksmayne, born 1583, (1st) married to Joan Eustace. According to the funeral entries at the Dublin College of Arms and the Inquisition post mortem, taken at Bray, 20th May 1620, Richard died on 5th January 1619. Hussey Walsh goes on to say this (death date) is hardly reconcilable either with the pedigrees made out by William Hakwins in 1721 or Sir William Betham in 1838, or with the evidence furnished by Olivier Baron von Wallis when he had to prove his sixteen quarterings on his appointment as Chamerlain the Emperor Leopold I in 1665. The Austrian records have always been most accurate. These were established at a time whenn all the necessary evidence was accessible, as so many Irish exiles entered the Imperial Army. Richard married secondly Barbara, daughter of Carl Maximilian Count Schlick von Bassano und Weisskichen, she died s.p.


The preceding article was compiled by Dennis J. Walsh, © October 2005
Major Sources:
  • The History of Dublin, by Francis E Ball (1906).
  • Notes on the History of the Family of Walsh from 1170-1690, by Joseph C. Walsh (1925).
  • The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, vol. 31, Francis E Ball (1902).
  • Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland, various editions.
  • Christ Church Deeds, McEnery and Refausse (2001).
  • Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, vol. 1&2, (1884).
  • Calendar of inquisitions formerly in the office of the Chief Remembrancer of the Exchequer, Margaret Griffith (1991).
  • Irish Historical Studies, v. 34, nos. 133-134 (2004).
  • A much disputed land: Carrickmines and the Dublin marches, by Emmett O'Byrne, Medieval Dublin IV (2003).
  • Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, vol. 1-10 (1869).
  • Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, by John D'Alton (1861)
  • Irish Family Records, by Burke (1912).
  • The Foreign Branches of the Family of Walsh, by V. Hussey Walsh (1901; 2005 edition)
  • Calendar of Documents, related to Ireland, various editions.
  • Additional sources, as quoted in the text of the article




  • Possible Pedigrees - of Walsh of Carrickmines.
  • Walshs in the Early Irish Counties
  • Walsh Surname - Origins of the Walsh Surname.
  • Walsh Arms - Variations on Walsh Coats of Arms.
  • Wales - Exploring Walsh Connections in Wales.
  • England - Early Walshs in England.
  • France - The French Connection.
  • Possible Pedigrees - of Walsh of the Mountain.
  • Biographies - Short Bio's on notable Walshs, plus links to online Bios.
  • Place Names - Historical place-names of the family of Walsh.
  • Walsh of Kilkenny - Historical Perspective
  • Confiscations - of Walsh land holdings in Ireland at the time of Cromwell.
  • Lament of John MacWalter - Irish caoine about Walsh of the Mountain.


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    Walsh of Dublin by Dennis Walsh

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