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Walsh of Carrickmines
Possible Pedigrees (8)

County Dublin and Wicklow, Ireland

Possible Pedigrees #8 - David the Welshman



                 William FitzGerald de Carew [died 1173]     
            ______________|_____________________________  
            |             | 
Raymond le Gros        Daughter   (?married a le Waleys, son of Cadwalladr ap Gruffydd?)
                __________|___________________  
                          |            
                    David Walensis  (born c. 1150)
                     _____|________________________________________  
                          |                                       | 
                   (several generations)            Manus (founder of Rosbercon Abbey?)
                          | 
                    Unknown
                          | 
                    Adam Walsh  (unknown, perhaps alive circa 1380)
                          | 
                    Henry fitz Adam  (of Cairykmayn, alive in 1407)
                          | 
                    William fitz Henry  (of Symondestown, d. 1407-20)
                          | 
                    Henry fitz William  (of Carrickmayne, d. 1481)
                          | 
                    Theobald fitz Henry  (of Carrickmain, d. 1505-12)
                          | 
                    William fitz Theobald  (of Carrickmayn, d. 1569-73)
                          | 
                    Richard fitz William  (of Carrickmayn, d. 1580)
                          | 
                    Theobald Walsh (of Carrickmayne, d. 1593)
                          | 
                    Richard Walsh  (of Carrickmayne, d. 1619-32)
                          | 
                    Theobald Walsh  (Last lord of the manor at Carrickmines Castle, d. aft. 1642)

The origin of the above pedigree tree is based on the following:
  • Expugnatio Hibernica, by Giraldus Cambrensis (ca. 1187). This indicates David Walensis was a nephew of Raymond Fitz William le Gros. Later editions add a pedigree indicating David may have been a son of an unnamed daughter of William Fitz Gerald.
  • Strongbow's Conquest of Ireland, by Francis Pierrepont Barnard (1888). Suggests a daughter of William Fitz Gerald was the mother of David the Welshman.
  • Notes on the Ecclesiastical Remains at Runston, Sudbrook, Dinham, and Llan-bedr, by Octavius Morgan and Thomas Wakeman (1856). This suggests that "two of the family accompanied Strongbow to Ireland in or about 1170; these were David Le Walleys, and Phillip Le Walleys, younger sons of Ralph and brothers of William Le Walleys."
  • Other sources (e.g. Valentine Hussey Walsh) claiming David Walsh (of 1175) and Philip Walsh (of 1173) were brothers.
  • A History of the County of Dublin, by Francis Erlington Ball (1906).
  • The lament for John MacWalter Walsh: with notes on the history of the family of Walsh, 1170-1690, by Joseph C. Walsh (1925).
  • A Visitacion begone in the county of Dublin in Anno Domini 1610, by Daniell Molyneux.
  • The Foreign Branches of the Family of Walsh, by V. Hussey Walsh, 2005 edition.
  • The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, by Sir Bernard Burke (1864).
  • Various Irish historical documents, including, Calendar of Documents, related to Ireland;   Calendar of Patent Rolls;  
  • Calendar of the Close Rolls;   Christ Church Deeds;   and others cited in the article below, and in a separate article on Carrickmines.

    NOTE: The latter article on Carrickmines deals with the records for Adam Walsh of the 14th century and his apparent descendants. The remainder of this article deals with the early tradition and records up to the time of Adam, whose name is known through references to his son Henry Walsh. Henry son of Adam Walsh was among the first of the Walshes known to have helds lands at Carrickmines.

Traditional Accounts

        According to tradition, the first so called "Walsh" in Dublin was David Walensis (the Welshman). In the The Note and Synopsis of the genealogy of Walsh, prepared by William Hawkins, Ulster King at Arms, in 1769, David is said to have been created Baron of Carrickmines in 1172 by King Henry II. An elaborate genealogy had been constructed for him beginning with his marriage to a daughter of Justin McCarthy, from whom he received lands in Kerry. Mr. Valentine Hussey-Walsh, who had a right to be considered an expert, rejected the early part of the genealogy (Ref: Genealogist Vol. 17) for want of evidence in the records. Moreover, Mr. James Mills, after a thorough study of the records, does not include Carrickmines in the list of feudal tenures established in the district south of Dublin at that time (Ref: Journal R.S.A.I) in the territory reserved by the King, but as Carrickmayne was in the lands held by the Archbishops of Dublin the statement may be exact nevertheless. In 1186 the lands of Telachneepscop (or Tolach na n-Escop, now the parish of Tully where Carricklines lies) was confirmed to Holy Trinity Church [Dublin], lands which had granted to that church by Sigraghre, son of Thorkil, a Norse nobleman of Dublin, possibly before the conquest [pre-1170].

Giraldus Cambrensis relates the story of David Walensis at the Battle of Limerick (translated from the Latin original) as, "A young soldier, Raymond's nephew, David Welsh, taking his surname from his family, though he was also a Welshman born, a handsome youth, and tall above the rest, was so chafed at the delay, that, willing to risk his own life to win honour, he put spurs to his horse and plunged into the river, although the bottom was full of rocks and stones. By crossing obliquely, he was able to stem the current; and his noble horse landing him safely on the opposite bank, he shouted to his comrades that he had discovered a ford; but notwithstanding this , no one would cross after him but a man-at-arms whose name was Geoffrey Judas."
Giraldus continues, "Meyler (son of Henry FitzHenry, and grandson of Henry I. and Nesta), who had come with Raymond in this expedition, perceiving this, and burning to share the honour of a bold enterprise with David, who was also his near kinsman, spurred his strong horse . . ."
The latin reference that Giraldus uses for David is David Agnomine Walensis non Cognomine, Natione Kambrensis non Cognatione.

Another version suggests in the year 1175, at the bank of the flooding River Shannon opposite Limerick, in company with Raymond Fitz William Fitz Gerald "le Gros" and Meiler Fitz Henry, the Book of Howth speaks of "a young knight among them, newly dubbed, fair and manfully, Raymond's nephew, hight Dawy Walshe, through great courage that had over all the others," crossed the raging river in example for the remainder of the force to follow.

This David "Walsh" was said to not only have been created Baron of Carrickmaine in Dublin, but of John's Cross in Kerry. The Note and Synposis goes on to say he was granted lands at Huntstown near Dublin, at Old Connaught in Wicklow, and Abington in Limerick. Unfortunately, neither the title Baron of Carrickmaine, or of John's Cross, are documented, and because Carrickmines was known to be church-land in the late 12th century, historians view the titles as fictional. However, it should be noted that in order for the early English archbishops of Dublin to exploit their lands to the full, they organized them in the same way as a lay baron would, in the form of manors. Included among the principal archepiscopal manors of early English Dublin were Kill-of-the-Grange and Shankill; areas containing Walsh possessions in medieval times (e.g. Brennanstown and Shanganagh).

Further reference in The Note and Synopsis mentions David's marriage to Mary McCarthy, eldest daughter of Justin of Aglias and Sarah Sullivan, receiving with her, from her father, much land in Kerry, where he erected three castles; Castle Walsh of Alan, of Cusneen and of Murry, which castles are situated at the foot of Knockatee. Manus, son of David, founded the abbey of Rosbercon (Kilkenny) and another near Dublin, and enriched them with many lands and ornaments. From David was lineally descended Thomas John Reymund Walsh, of Carrickmaine in Dublin and John's Cross in Kerry, and dynast of Castle Walsh.

Among the ancient Welsh records collected by Nicholas Owen and included in his "British Remains" (London, 1777) there is a list of the arms attributed to members of the Royal Tribes of Wales. Owen gives the arms of "Cadogan of Ustrad Flur (Ystrad Flur or Strata Florida)," "Azure, a lion rampant argent," which replicate the arms of Walsh of Carrickmines, except that the latter, as a mark of "difference," are "debruised by a fess per pale of the second and gules." The silver lion in a blue field was also borne, according to the same authority, by "Cadrod, from who are descended the Owens of Anglesey; and by "the Baron Coedmore" [Coetmor]; and by Cadogan ap Grono, whose descendants are men of Strata Florida. Perhaps the first David 'Walsh' of Carrickmaine originated from one or more of these houses in Wales. That he was Welsh, or at least part Welsh, is given in his name, as well as the references to him in the records. That he came from Wales with the early Cambro-Normans (1169-1172) in the campaign into Ireland is apparent.

Other individuals are also known to have similar bearing of arms, included among them was Robert de Monhaut, or Robert de Mohaut, whose blazon was "Azure, a lion rampant argent".

Among the 12th century records of Ireland, there are other references to a David the Welshman (Walens, Walensi, Walensis, le Waleys, le Waleis), however there is no way of knowing if he was the same David of 1175. These records include:
- In 1186, a David le Waleis was a witness in a Charter of John Lord of Ireland to William Fitz Maurice, regarding the villa of Naas (co. Kildare). Among the other witnesses included Philip de Wigorn, John de Clahall, Robert de St. Michael, Roger Tyrel and Thoms de Taunton. [source: The Sessional Papers Printed by Order of the House of Lords, 1855]
- On May 15, 3 Richard I (ca. 1192), a David Walens (Walensi) witnessed of a charter by John Lord of Ireland, to the Citizens of Dublin within and without the walls as far as the metes of the city. Among the witnesses included Stephen Ridell my chancellor, Walter de Dunstanville, Willam de Kahaigne my seneschal, Theobald Walter the Butler, Hamund de Valonia, Ingelram de Pratellis, David Walens, Richard de Rivier, Fulco de Cauntelou, William son of Richard, Gilbert de Angulo, Roger Tyrel,... [source: An inquiry into the ancient corporate system of Ireland [etc.]', by Peter Gale]
- On Jan, 25, 1193, a David Walensis witnessed a grant by Prince John to Peter Pippard of three cantreds of the land of Ohegeni near the land of Uriel, by the service of twelve knights fees. Other witnesses were Stephen Ridell, chancellor, William de Wennevill, Reginald de Vassenvill, Hamon de Valoniis [de Valoignes], Engelram de Pratell', Fulc de Kantel, etc. [source: Ormond Deeds, i. #13]
- A David Walensis was also a witness, in the time of King Richard I, with De Courcy, de Angulo and de Ridelsford, to a grant of lands to the abbey of "Santa Maria de Santa Cruce." [Walsh 1170-1690, p. 71, 1925]
- David of Wales (Walun or Walen) was a witness with Milo le Bret, Richard & John Tyrell and others of an undated grant made from Elicia, wife of Stephen de Meisintun, and daughter of Adelelm. The grant concerned St. Marys Abbey, Dublin, and confirmed the original grant that Elicia's father made in 1171-72. (Source: Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, vol. 1)



Who was David Walensis?

This article explores the tradition that a David Walensis 'the Welshman' was progenitor of the later Walshes at Carrickmines in county Dublin. There are no records available to suggest this association, so this portion of the article speculates on who David may have been.

Let's assume that Giraldus Cambrensis was accurate in his statement that David the Welshman, noted for his bravery at the siege of Limerick in 1175, was a nephew of Raymond le Gros. If his mother was a sister of Raymond, this would make David a first cousin [once removed] of Giraldus and closely related to the Geraldines and the Carews. It also makes David a (half) grand-nephew of Robert FizStephen.

Let's further assume that commentary from the "Ecclesiastical Remains" is also correct, that is " two of the family accompanied Strongbow to Ireland in or about 1170; these were David Le Walleys, and Phillip Le Walleys, younger sons of Ralph and brothers of William Le Walleys". This commentary refers to a le Walleys family connected with Llanwern and Dinham in Monmouthshire, south Wales, on lands that were mesne fees of Strongbow's father. There are references to the family at Llanwern up to the early part of the 17th century, including a 12th century reference of a William Wallensis (apparently with lands in the Monmouthshire area) who, along with Raymond le Gros, witnessed a Welsh charter of Richard Strongbow de Clare.

If we assume that David le Walleys's father was called Ralph le Walleys, there is an interesting possibility for who Ralph may have been. There was a Ralph, son of Cadwalladr ap Gruffydd a Welsh chieftain of North Wales. About 1135/1136 Cadwalladr and his brother, Owain Gwynedd, gained a great victory over the Normans, English and Flemish at Cardigan, defeating Robert FitzStephen's father in the event. In "A Topographical Dictionary of Wales", by Samuel Lewis (1833), Lewis describes "Cadwalader, afterwards marrying Alice, daughter of Richard, Earl of Clare and Lord of Cardigan, rebuilt the castle [Aberystwith], and made it his chief place of residence. As Cadwalladr had married into an Anglo-Norman family of influence in Wales, it would have been advantageous for his son Ralph to do the same.

Following the translation of The Note and Synopsis of the genealogy of Walsh, Joseph C. Walsh, in his book Walsh 1170-1690, speculates that if David and Philip were nephews of Strongbow, the relationship may have been through his cousin, Alicia, daughter of Richard of Clare, who married Cadwalader, brother of Owen Gwynned, and therefore uncle of David of North Wales (menionted in the Synposis). He also cites in his book this Cadwalader had sons named Ralph and Richard.

Ralph, and his brother Richard were called 'le Walleys' indicating their possible affiliation with Wales, as Joseph Cyrillus Walsh cites in his history on the family of Walsh [Walsh 1170-1690, publ. 1925]. He goes on to say the descendants of Ralph's brother, Richard, are readily traced to several families of Waleys (Walsh, Welsh, Wales, Wallis, etc,) in Britain down to the time of King Richard II. It would seem natural for some of Ralphs' descendants to adopt a similar surname.

If we make the assumptions that Ralph was a son of Cadwalladr, that he married a daughter of William Fizgerald, and that he was a parent of David Walensis (of 1175 Limerick), this would help to explain the varied statements about David's suggested relatives in Wales. David's royal Welsh relatives would include his first cousin (once removed), Lord Rhys ap Gruffydd, his grand-uncle Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd, and his 2nd great-grandfather, Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr. In addition, David would [possibly] have been a first cousin (twice removed) to Strongbow since Cadwalladr married into the de Clare family. If these family connections could be verified, David's presence, and his rewards, during the early events of the Cambro-Norman invasion begin to make some sense. For the time being this is all speculation.

As far as David's immediate descendants there is little information to share. A son named Manus is mentioned (in the Synopsis) in connection with the abbey at Rosbercon, near the Kilkenny and Wexford border, as well as one near Dublin. The family's later affiliation with Carrickmines in south county Dublin comes from genealogical statements prepared in later times, and the family of Walsh is noted there at least by the 14th century. What can be derived of the earliest Walshs at Carrickmines are covered in the Calendar of Christ Church [Dublin] Deeds, the Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, Francis Ball's History of County Dublin, and various documents of Ireland covering the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The information provided by the genealogical statements, Ball's History, and other sources, is covered in more detail at Walsh of Carrickmines.

The following notes come from Francis Ball's commentary (History of Dublin) on the parish of Tully, co. Dublin, referring to Henry fitz William Walsh, who died in 1481. "The lands of Carrickmines, which were held direct from the Crown by military service, had been conveyed to his [Henry's] grandfather, Henry, son of Adam Walsh, by John and David Walsh, and had come subsequently into the possession of his father, William fitz Henry Walsh, who, in 1407, was residing on part of them called Symondstown. Henry fitz William Walsh had succeeded to the lands in 1420, and, as he was then a minor, portion of his property was committed to an ecclesiastic, Richard Northorp, by name, who was exempted from rendering any account with respect to it during the minority."
"Henry fitz William Walsh had died in October 1481, and amongst his successors in the occupation of the castle we find Edmund fitz Henry Walsh, who, in 1519, was involved in litigation with the Priory of the Holy Trinity as to adjacent lands; William, son of Theobald Walsh, who married a daughter of the house of Fitzwilliam, and died in 1572; Richard, son of William Walsh, who married one of the Eustaces, and died in 1580; Theobald, son of Richard Walsh, who died in 1593; and Richard, son, of Theobald Walsh. Richard Walsh was a minor at the time of his father's death, and while his property was in the custody of Peter Barnewall, his guardian, the lands of Carrickmines were completely devastated by Irish marauders, who carried off "the prey of the town," notwithstanding the presence of a troop of horse, which was then stationed there."



Welsh Settlement and Reference

County Dublin is known to have been an area of Welsh settlement based on records of the 12th and 13th century. As demonstrated by Edmund Curtis, SeŠn Duffy and Marie Therese Flanagan, there can be no doubt to the strength of the connection between Ostman city state of Dublin and the Welsh kingdoms, even before 1169. Early Dublin reference to names like Walensis, Howel, de Pembrok, FitzRhys, le Waleys, de Kardigan, FitzRery, and many others attest to this settlement. There were various places referred to as Villa Walensis and Tech na mBretnach in the early records of Dublin and surrounding counties.

On Nov. 5, 1222, Righerid le Walleys (aka, Richerid Machanan, the Welshman) has offered homage and relief to the King for 6 carucates of land in Clogheran and Balibren, which Kenewreth Makanan, his brother, deceased, who heir Righerid is, held, as he says, of the King in capite. An inquisition is requested to verify these claim [Calendar of documents, relating to Ireland, v. 1, 1875]
Notes: historians cite the above as one of various records which suggest that possible descendants of Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd (ap Cynan), e.g. Rhirid and Cynwrig, had settled upon lands north of Dublin at an early date. In 1169 we read that Ryrd Gwyneth, son of a Welsh prince, in right of his wife, was Lord of Cloghran. About the year 1222 we find Roderick Makanan, the Welshman, holding Cloghran. The 'surname' Makanan may suggest descent from Cynan. Cloghran is located in the barony of Balrothery, 'rothery' perhaps indicative of a Welsh forename, e.g. Rhodri or Rhirid, known sons of Owain. [sources: Edmund Curtis, SeŠn Duffy, Marie Therese Flanagan, Brendan Smith]

Circa 1238 is a grant by Howel, son of John, to William Walensis and his heirs in free socage of all his part of the water and watercourse which descends from Kedi between the grantor's land of Monmeche and the said William's land in Culeneri. Among the witnesses was Philip son of Ris. [source: Ormond Deeds, i. #90]
Notes: The land of William Walensis (in Culeneri or Coulenary) would appear to have been in or near the parish of Kilranelagh in western county Wicklow. The grant was witnessed by Philip, a member of the Fitz Rhys family who were among the most powerful Welsh lineages in west county Wicklow at the time. By about 1190 it was Philip's father, Rhys (Res or Ris) son of Philip, who was granted half of the territory Imaal in Ui Muiredaig for the service of a knight. It was Philip's apparent son, Geoffrey son of Philip Rys, who quitted claim of his lands in Omail [Imaal] and the lordship of Coulenary to Sir Theobald Bulter in 1294. [source: Peritia, v. 4, pp. 194-95, 1985]

On 10 March 1276 (5 Edward I), Philip Howel and a Geoffrey Harold - perhaps of the Kilgobbin (near Carrickmines) family - sat on a jury at an inquisition to determine the lands at Villa Walensis held from the archbishop of Dublin by Elias le Waleys (the Welshman). The Calendar of Inquisition Post Mortem describes the lands of Elias as a manor place (mansio) in which is a ruined house and garden, and 99 acres arable now wasted by war, 8a. pasture and two parts of a mill. In addition, David Walensis holds one acre and yearly renders to the Castle of Balimor one pair of iron spurs at the value of 2 1/2 d. The wife of Elias holds 55 acres with a park. John, son and heir of said Elias will be nine years of age before the feast of the Assumption. John's marriage is worth 100 shillings [source: Crede Mihi, No. CLVII]. In the same year an extent of the of the manors of the Archbishopric of Dublin, by Thomas de Chaddisworth, escheator, cites the wardship of the heir of Ely Walensis (the Welshmen), listed under the manor of Balymor, along with the rents of Tobyr and Holywood, &c. The manors of Balymore, Clondalkin, Shankill, and others formed, afterwards, the barony of Uppercross in southwestern county Dublin [source: JRSAI, v. 5, 1853].

The 1326 rental of the manor of Clonkeen indicates Maurice Howel leasing Carrickmines and Balybrenan from Holy Trinity Church, Dublin [Christ Church Deeds, #570]. In the same records his kinsmen Peter Howel was occupying nearby Ballymorthan. Maurice was a prominent defender of the Dublin-Wicklow march, an apparent farmer and large land-holder. The 'Howel' patronymic clearly indicates descent from an ancestor who bore the Welsh forename Hywel, a traditional forename of the royal house of Gywnedd in Wales, and there are at least two known Hywels of that dynasty who had Irish mothers. The first was Hywel, son of Owain, king of Gwynned (1137-70). According to Meredith Hamner, Hywel's brother Rhirid (d. 1215), lord of Cloghran in north county Dublin, was the father of the second Hywel, an obscure figure.

The are various references in historical journals suggesting that 'Howel' may have been a variant of the same family which (later) included Walsh. In an article about Carrickmines, Emmett O'Byrne (Medieval Dublin IV, 2003), states : "What is clear though is that the Walshes and Howels of Carrickmines were certainly very near kinsmen, if not forming part of the same extended lineage that dominated the Welsh community living on these lands." He goes on to cite the eleventh century Ostman kings of Dublin appear to have settled an exiled Welsh dynast from Gwynedd and some of his followers at Cloghran in north Dublin (Rhirid ab Owen Gwynedd is mentioned in a 1218 record related to these Irish lands). And that perhaps about the same time the Ostmen also appear to have planted some of the men of Gwynned at Carrickmines in the Vale of Dublin. These Welshmen were most probably the ancestors of the later Howels and the Walshes of Carrickmines.

The reference of an exiled dynast from Gwynned in county Dublin is an interesting parallel to the speculation (earlier in this article) that David Walensis (of 1175 Limerick) may have been a grandson of Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd (ap Cynan). Cadwaladr was a brother of Owain Gwynedd, and it was the latter's son Rhirid ap Owain Gwynedd whose descendants seem to have later become the Fitz Rerys of north Dublin. Owain Gwynedd was also the father of a David (Dafydd), Prince of North Wales, a name which seems to be mentioned in the Note and Synopsis of the Genealogy of Walsh.

Francis E. Ball (History of Dublin) refers to a later Walsh-Howell connection in his history. He states, "William Walshe, who had a grant of Killiney [Dalkey, Co. Dublin] from Holy Trinity in 1530, was known as 'McHowell'. He may be the William, who got a grant of lands and tithes in the area in 1555, when he was described as William, son of Tybbote (Theobald) Walche, of Carricmaynes."

There is also an interesting parallel to early 'Howels' in relation to Walsh of the Mountain in co. Kilkenny. The lands at Carrickbyrne, across the Kilkenny border in co. Wexford, make note of a family using the patronymic Howel or Howell. The 13th/14th century records for Carrickbyrne make a number of references to 'Howell' and 'son of Howel' prior to land ownership later changing over to the Walshes. This family relationship is mentioned in the book Knights' Fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny (Brooks, 1950). For further details, see Hoel of Carrickbyrne.


Select Reference in Early County Dublin   (Walensis, le Waleys, Howel)

It should be stressed that these early references to Walensis and le Waleys were apparently common references to those of Welsh descent, and not necessarily a reference to the later Walsh surname.

About 1192, a David Walens' (Walensi or Walensis) witnessed of a charter by John Lord of Ireland, dated 3 Richard I, to the Citizens of Dublin. [Source: The Sessional Papers Printed by Order of the House of Lords, 1855 ; also An inquiry into the ancient corporate system of Ireland, 1834; and also Elenchus fontium historiae urbanae, v. 2 - 1988]

On Jan, 25, 1193, a David Walensis was a witness by Prince John to Peter Pippard of three cantreds of the land of Ohegeni near the land of Uriel (north of co. Dublin), by the service of twelve knights fees. [source: Ormond Deeds, i. #13]

In the Dublin Guild Merchant, A.D. 1226, are references to Gilbertus Walensis (followed by Radulfus, frater Gilberti, sacerdotis), and Thomas Walensis. [source: Historic and municipal documents of Ireland, A.D. 1172-1320]

In 1246 R. Walens' (Roger Walensis) was preceptor of the Knights Templar of Ireland. [source; Christ Church Deeds, #54]

About the year 1250, is a grant from John de Coventry to Gilbert le Waleys de Howde in villa Ostmannorum (Oxmantown). [source: Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, vol. I]

In the Dublin Guild Merchant, A.D. 1256-57, are references to Robertus Walensis de Arclo, Radulfus Walensis, Nicholas Walensis de Kildare, and Rogerus Walensis de Hauerford. [source: Historic and municipal documents of Ireland, A.D. 1172-1320]

Philip Howel had, sometime between 1257 and 1263, served as a juror at an inquisition of lands at Ballyrothegane. Price has noted that Ballyrothegane was on the boundary between Dunlavin and Donaghmore parishes in the Wicklow barony of Talbotstown. [Irish Historical Studies; v.34: no.133-134; 2004]

In the inquisition at Tristledermot in 1264, inluding various Dublin manors, the names Phillipus Howelle and Waleranus de Walensi appear under the manor of Balimor. The names Adam Walens and Johannes Wallens, and Hugonis Walensis and his brothers Madoc and David, and also Meilerum Walensem apear under 'Inquisicio apud Swerdes'. [source: Historic and municipal documents of Ireland, A.D. 1172-1320]

The Walshes (of co. Dublin) were a family of Welsh origin with other branches in Kilkenny and Mayo. They appear as considerable landholders in the country west of Dalkey, as we find in an extent made by the king's orders in 1276. By this Elias le Waleys, deceased, was found to have possessed Villa Walensis, or Walshestown, with 99 acres in capite of the archbishop. [source: The English Historical Review, v. 25, 1910]

As mentioned above, on 10 March 1276, an inquisition wa taken to determine the lands at Villa Walensis held from the archbishop of Dublin by Elias le Waleys (the Welshman). [source: Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, publ. 1906]
- Joseph C. Walsh (Walsh 1170-1690, publ. 1925) suggests Villa Walensis is now Brannockstown, on the eastern border of Kildare. His suggestion may derive from a record in the Pipe Rolls citing the lands of Elyas le Waleys in the tenement of Balymor. [source: Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, v. 31-39, 1899]. And the wardship of the heir of Ely le Waleys appears under the manor of Balymor, along with the rents of Tobyr and Holywood, an extent taken in 5 Edward I (1276-77) of the manors held by the Archbishopric of Dublin [source: JRSAI, v. 5, 1853].
- According to Crede Mihi (by Archbishop Alen), there were two churches in the Deanery of Ballymore, one called Capella de Villa Brethennoch, now called Brannockstown, in co. Kildare; the other called Capella de Villa Walensis, now Walshtown in co. Wicklow. According to Monasticon Hibernicum, v. 2, 1876, Walsh's Town, in the deanery of Ballimore, is now called Brannockstown, and the church there was styled Technabretnas in the Bull of Alexander III.
- A place called Technabretnach (Theachabreatan, etc) was one of the oldest posessions of Holy Trinity, Dublin, given to it 'by the Ostmen.' Archbishop Alen identified it with Kilgobban, Co Dublin, but this was not a possession of Holy Trinity, and I suspect that it must be sought among those possessions in the south Co. Dublin area whose later names do not appear in the earliest documentation: Brennanstown, Tipperstown or even Kilmashogue. [source: Peritia, v. 3, 1984].
- Emmet O'Byrne suggests villa Walensis would seem to be Balibren (Baile na mBretnach, meaning town of the Welsh), now the modern townland of Walshestown located within the parish of Lusk in the barony of Balrothery East (in north Dublin). This Balibren was undoubtedly the land of Righerid le Walleys (the Welshman) (d.1228), the lord of Cloghran who offered his homage to Henry III on 5 November 1222. There was also a Ballybrenan just to the north of Carrickmines, i.e. Baile na mBretnach, the town of the Welsh, now Brennanstown. The (families of the) Howels and Walshes seem to have sprung from the Welsh community living in the Carrickmines/Kilgobbin area during the pre 1169 era. ...It is significant that Kilgobbin (later held by the Walshes of southern county Dublin) was formerly known as Tech na mBretnach 'the house of the Welshmen'. [source: A much disputed land: Carrickmines and the Dublin marches; publ. 2003)

In 1287-89, there were a David le Waleys and Madok le Waleys in co. Dublin. [source: The Cambrian Journal, v. 4 - 1861]

In 1292 is a David le Waleys in co. Dublin, 'for pledge of Nichs. de Saundforf, (neither he or Maurice le Someter appeared)' and a William le Waleys, 'because he did not come when summoned.' About the same, time a Robert le Waleys, senior is mentioned. And a Thomas le Waleis and his associates, 'for contempt.' [source: Calendar of Documents, relating to Ireland: 1285-1292]

Henry le Waleys was keeper of the castle of Dublin from Feb 9, 1294-5 (23 Edward I) until the same day (24 Edward I). His fee was 12d. a day.
Henry le Waleys was keeper of the castle of Dublin from Feb 15, 1295-6 (24 Edward I) until the same day (25 Edward I).His fee was 12d. a day.
Henry le Waleys was keeper of the castle of Dublin from Feb 20, 1297 (25 Edward I) until the same day (26 Edward I). His fee was 12d. a day.
Henry le Waleys was constable of the castle of Dublin from Feb 14, 1298-99 (27 Edward I) until the same day 1299-1300 (28 Edward I).
[source: Calendar of Documents, relating to Ireland: 1293-1301]

About 1300, there were at Adgo (evidently Athgoe, near the Wicklow border), Ricardus Walensis and Thomas le Waleys listed as tenants of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin. A Yerward (or Yevan) the Welshman, is described as of Athgoe about the close of the 13th century. [source: Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey]

At an inquisition at Dublin, dated April 28, 1304 (regarding the river Anna Liffey, and having the by-ways paved), John Walensis, John son of Ryrych, and Adam de Houthe were among the jurors named. [source: Calendar of Documents, relating to Ireland, v. 5, 1886]

In late April 1309, Maurice Howel, Richard le Waleys, and Henry O'Toole were noted on Lord Lieutenant Piers Gaveston's campaign against the O'Byrnes (of the Wicklow mountains). [source: The Dublin government and Gaelic Ireland, 1270-1361; Robin Frame]

Jurors mentioned, in regard to damages at Moydereth, included Thomas and John the Welshman, and John son of Elias. [source: Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls: I to VII years of Edward II. [1308-1314]

In 1314 the government pardoned the offences of Maurice Howel, Archebaud (Archbold) Howel, Richard le Waleys, Richard Roth le Waleys, Robert Lawless, and others, due to their service in Offaly and the Leinster mountains. [source: Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls, 1308-1314]
From November 1316 to January 1317, Maurice Howel is noted serving as part of the garrison of Newcastle McKynegan in east Wicklow. Howel again served as guardian of the Leinster marches during 1324-25, earning £26 13s. 4d. [source: Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, publ. 1998]

1314-15 - In the Pipe roll of 9 Edward II is a citation for Carrickmayn, co. Dublin. He accounts for 13s. 3d. rent of 40 acres, 6 cotttars and issues from pasturage of the demesne which belonged to Roger son of David at Carrikmayn near Senekeyl, in the King's hand by the death of said Roger from 16 Mar. V Edward II to 15 May same year before the premises were delivered to John his son and heir.

The 1326 rental of the manor of Clonkeen shows Maurice Howel leasing Carrickmines and Balybrenan from Holy Trinity, while his kinsman Peter Howel was allowed to occupy nearby Ballymorthan. [source: Account roll of the priory of the Holy Trinity, Dublin, 1337-1346; 1891]

In August 1329 Maurice Howel, Thomas Harold, and Thomas Archbold, served against the O'Byrnes. [source: The Dublin government and Gaelic Ireland, 1270-1361; Robin Frame]
In 1334, Maurice Howel delivered some of the O'Tooles into custody. [source: Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446]

Among the witnesses at a 1342 inquisition taken before Robert Darcy, escheator of Ireland, at Dublin, included David Walys and Robert Howell. [source: List & Index Society, Volume 320, 1965]

On April 23, 1350, Peter Howel, Richard fitz Michael Howel, Elias fitz Robert Walsh and Hugh fitz Robert Lawless were part of the assembly to elect Walter Harold as head of his sept. (E.H.R., xxv (1910), pp. 116-17; and Edmund Curtis' "The Clan System among English Settlers in Ireland." [source: Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369; Robin Frame]
(note: the preceding appears to be the earliest reference to the name Walsh in connection with the marches of southern county Dublin)

In 1350 we again find mention of the Dublin Walshs. They, with the Harolds, Archbolds, Lawlesses and Hackets were posted along the rampart of the Pale, their charge to keep the Byrnes and O'Tooles away from Dublin. But something had offended the Harolds, who, perhaps with some of the others, were themselves making war on Dublin. The Viceroy made peace with them, and caused an election to be held at which the captain of the Harolds was named. One of the Walshs was there (see Elias fitz Robert Walsh above), doubtless as a relative of the Harolds. In the course of the next century the Walshs seem to have taken over a number of border castles formerly held by other families, the defence of the Pale coming more and more under their charge. We are entitled to believe that they had been at Carrickmines from the beginning, although there is some evidence that the Archbolds were there for a time. [source: Walsh, 1170-1690; 1925]

In 1360 Robert Walsh was bailiff (sheriff) of Dublin. He was probably one of the signers (Robert Waleys) of a protest to send representatives from Ireland to the Parliament or Council of the King in England as required by writ. It is probably the original Sinn Fein declaration emanating from the Anglo-Irish. [source: Walsh, 1170-1690; 1925]

Dated circa 1360 - Adam White, the seneschal of the Archbishop of Dublin, orders to Richard Walsh that the lands of William, son of John Fitz-Adams, be delivered to him, he now being of full age (Calendar of the Liber Niger Alani). [source: The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland; ser.5: v.7 (1897)]

In 1372 Thomas Walsch, chaplain, was granted a lease and the tithes of the town of Balybrenan [Brennanstown] in the parish which Carrickmines is situated. (source: Christ Church Deeds, #570)

At an inquisition in Dublin dated August 16, 1382 [Christ Church Deeds, #253], John Walsh of Thorgeteston, and Henry son of Adam Walsh (perhaps the same Henry fitz Adam who later held at Carrickmines), were among the jurors who find similarly to that of an earlier inquisition taken Feb. 24, 1326 [Christ Church Deeds, #220]. At the 1326 inquisition Thomas le Waleys as among the jurors who find that the Church of Holy Trinity, Dublin, was founded by various Irishmen, and its granges, lands, and tenements given by Irishmen unknown, before the Conquest, in free alms to God and the said Church, and the canons serving God there, that there has been no custodian by reason of a vacancy in the office of Prior, and that none of their lands are held of the King in capite. Thomas le Waleys was present at a similar inquisition in 1338.

The preceding article was compiled by Dennis J. Walsh, © 2006




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